A Topographical Dictionary of England. Originally published by S Lewis, London, 1848.
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Burrough, or Burrow-on-the-Hill (St. Mary)
BURROUGH, or Burrow-on-the-Hill (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Melton-Mowbray, hundred of Gartree, N. division of the county of Leicester, 6 miles (S.) from Melton-Mowbray; containing 149 inhabitants. This place has been identified by Camden with the Roman station Vernometum, and he also infers, from the meaning of the word, that here was a temple to a heathen deity: the summit of Burrough Hill exbibits traces of an encampment, the lines of which inclose an area of eighteen acres, now under cultivation. The parish comprises by measurement 1500 acres; the hilly parts contain red sandstone, which is quarried for building and the repair of roads, and in which numerous fossil shells are found. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £12, and in the patronage of Mrs. M. Burnaby: the tithes have been commuted for £249 payable to the rector, and £48 payable to the vicar of Somerby; the glebe consists of about 75 acres, with a glebe-house. The church is supposed to have been erected about the fourteenth century, and contains a very ancient circular font. Cheselden, the surgeon and anatomist, was born here.
Burrough-Green (St. Augustine)
BURROUGH-GREEN (St. Augustine), a parish, in the union of Newmarket, hundred of Radfield, county of Cambridge, 5½ miles (S.) from Newmarket; containing 452 inhabitants. It comprises by measurement 2216 acres, of which 1747 are arable, 266 pasture, and 175 wood. The surface is diversified with gentle elevations terminating in a high ridge in the centre of the parish, which commands very extensive views: the soil is in general clayey and wet, except in the vicinity of Newmarket Heath, where it is dry and chalky, and of very inferior quality. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £18. 10., and in the patronage of Charles Porcher, Esq.: the tithes have been commuted for £527. 14. 10., and the glebe comprises 62 acres, with a good glebe-house. Schools are supported by an endowment. Editha, consort of Edward the Confessor, had a palace here.
Burrow with Burrow
BURROW with BURROW, a township, in the parish of Tunstall, hundred of Lonsdale south of the Sands, N. division of the county of Lancaster, 2½ miles (S. by E.) from Kirkby-Lonsdale; containing 177 inhabitants. These hamlets are also called Nether Burrow and Over Burrow; and when held by the Tunstalls, in the reign of Elizabeth, both places were styled manors. The estates passed to the Girlingtons, Tathams, and Fenwicks, successively; and more recently came to the Lamberts, who took the name of Fenwick. The township is situated on the east side of the river Lune, and on the road from Tunstall to Kirkby-Lonsdale; the villages are distant from each other about a mile. The long fertile bank on which is Burrow or Over Burrow Hall, is the site of the Roman station Bremetonacæ. A Roman military way connects Over Burrow and Ribchester; and various monuments of ancient date, such as stones with inscriptions, tessellated pavements, and Roman coins, have been discovered here, tending to remove the doubts that had existed as to this place being the Bremetonacum of the Itineraries.
BURSCOUGH, an ecclesiastical district, including portions of Lathom and Scarisbrick, in the parish and union of Ormskirk, hundred of West Derby, S. division of the county of Lancaster, 3 miles (N. E. by N.) from Ormskirk, on the road to Preston; the township of Burscough containing 2228 inhabitants. The area of the township is 2309 acres, whereof 1353 are arable, 936 pasture, and 20 wood; the surface is generally level, and the soil good. The Liverpool canal and the Liverpool, Ormskirk, and Preston railway, pass through. The living is a perpetual curacy, in the patronage of the Vicar of Ormskirk; income, £100. The church (St. John's) was built in 1833, at a cost of £3500, and is in the early English style, with good schools attached. At Burscough Hall is a place of worship for Roman Catholics; it is dedicated to St. John, and is in the Grecian style, with a neat altar, above which are four paintings, one by Murillo, and the others by Italian artists: the farm adjacent forms an endowment for the priest, the Rev. John Anderton. There is also a small meeting-house. A priory of Black canons was founded here in the time of Richard I., by Robert Fitz Henry, lord of Lathom, and dedicated to St. Nicholas: at the Dissolution there were a prior, five brethren, and forty servants, and the revenue was estimated at £129. 1. 10. Previously to that period, it was the burial-place of the noble family of Stanley; and subsequently the cemetery, in which stands the mutilated central arch of the church, the only relic of the conventual buildings, became a place of interment for Roman Catholic families. The eight bells of the priory were removed to Ormskirk. A school is endowed with £18. 15. per annum.
BURSLEDON, a chapelry, in the parish of Hound, union of South Stoneham, hundred of Bishop'sWaltham, Southampton and S. divisions of the county of Southampton, 4¾ miles (E. S. E.) from Southampton; containing 548 inhabitants. It comprises 519 acres, whereof 98 are common or waste; and lies at the head of the estuary of the river Hamble, which is crossed by a bridge on the road from Southampton to Portsmouth. Several large vessels have been built for the navy, the creek being very commodious for that purpose, and the water deep enough for eighty-gun ships. The village is irregularly built, on the bank of the river. The chapel, dedicated to St. Leonard, has been enlarged.
Burslem (St. John the Baptist)
BURSLEM (St. John the Baptist), a market-town and parish, forming, with Wolstanton, a poor law union, in the hundred of North Pirehill, N. division of the county of Stafford, 2½ miles (N. E.) from Newcastle, 19 (N.) from Stafford, and 151 (N. E.) from London; containing, with the lordship of Hulton-Abbey, the hamlet of Sneyd, and the vill of Rushton-Grange or Cobridge, 16,091 inhabitants, of whom 12,631 are in the township of Burslem, which includes Longport. In Domesday book this place is named Barcardeslim, but in subsequent records Burewardeslyme, signifying, according to the best opinion, "a bower or dwelling near the Lyme," in allusion to the Lyme woodlands which formerly separated Staffordshire from Cheshire. It has long been celebrated as the seat of the earthenware manufacture. Dr. Plot, in his Natural History of Staffordshire, published in 1686, first noticed it as such; but it is supposed, with great probability, to have been entitled to this distinction from the Saxon era, if not from the time of the Roman dominion in Britain. The abundance of coal which the parish and neighbourhood yield, was, no doubt, a primary cause of the establishment of the business here, as it still continues to be the mainstay and support of it. The manufactures, however, did not acquire any celebrity, and were wrought altogether from the native clays, till after the commencement of the eighteenth century, when the finer clays of Dorsetshire and Devonshire were introduced. Josiah Wedgwood, who was born here in 1730, and commenced business about the year 1756, advanced the pottery wares to a higher degree of perfection and importance; and since his time the manufacture of porcelain has been established, which now occupies at least one-fourth of the industry and capital of the district. The Grand Trunk canal, which passes through the parish, and has a branch up to the town, has tended greatly to advance its prosperity: that work was commenced near Burslem in July, 1766, and completed in 1777.
The town is for the most part situated on a gentle eminence, and contains several large manufactories of imposing appearance, and some handsome villas and residences within its immediate vicinity. An act of parliament was obtained in 1835 for regulating the market, establishing a police, and lighting the streets. The town-hall, which stands in the centre of the spacious market-place, was erected by subscription in 1761, and is a handsome building, lately improved. The trustees of the market erected near it, in 1836, at an expense of about £5000, a large covered market for butchers and other traders, which, standing isolated in the middle of the town, and being faced with stone, and adorned with an elegant Doric portico, has a very ornamental appearance. Markets are held on Monday and Saturday, and four fairs annually. A stipendiary magistrate and a general system of police for the parliamentary borough of Stoke-upon-Trent, in which Burslem is comprised, were introduced in 1839.
The parish was formerly one of the chapelries within the large parish of Stoke, from which it was separated by an act passed in 1807, and made a distinct parish, comprising about 3000 acres, of which nearly one-half are tithe-free. The living is a rectory not in charge; patrons, the Representatives of the late William Adams, Esq. The tithes have been commuted for £400, and a payment is made to the incumbent of £68 from the rectory of Stoke; a handsome parsonage-house was built in 1827. The church is a small brick building erected in 1717, with an ancient tower of stone. An additional church in the later English style, dedicated to St. Paul, and capable of holding 2000 persons, was erected by the Parliamentary Commissioners, in 1831, at an expense of £10,000, towards which £2000 were contributed by the parishioners and others: it stands near Longport, and has a cemetery of three acres. The living is a district perpetual curacy; net income, £109, with a house; patron, the Rector of Burslem. A district church has been erected at Cobridge; and an ecclesiastical district has been formed of the hamlet of Sneyd and part of the township of Burslem, under the act 6th and 7th Victoria, cap. 37. There are places of worship belonging to Baptists, Independents, Kilhamites, and Primitive and Wesleyan Methodists. A free school was founded by John Bourne, Esq., in 1748, and endowed with a house and a small farm; a national school, near the parish church, was erected in 1817, at an expense of nearly £2000, and one contiguous to St. Paul's, in 1835, at a cost exceeding £500. The poor law union of Wolstanton and Burslem is under the care of 16 guardians, eight for Burslem and eight for Wolstanton, and contains a population of 32,669: the union workhouse is at Chall, about two miles from Burslem, and is a very capacious structure.
Burstall (St. Mary)
Burstead, Great (St. Mary Magdalene)
BURSTEAD, GREAT (St. Mary Magdalene), a parish, in the union of Billericay, hundred of Barstable, S. division of Essex; comprising the markettown of Billericay, and containing 2168 inhabitants. This parish, which at the time of the Norman survey belonged to Odo, Bishop of Bayeux, is pleasantly situated on elevated ground, commanding a distant view of the river Thames, and comprises by measurement 3052 acres. The village had formerly a weekly market and an annual fair, granted by Henry III. to the abbot and brethren of Stratford Abbey. The living is a vicarage, valued in the king's books at £17. 6. 8.; patron, the Rev. Edward Evans; impropriator, Lord Petre. The great tithes have been commuted for £268. 10., and the vicarial for £177. 10. The church is an ancient and spacious structure, and a prominent feature in the landscape; it contains some very handsome monuments to members of the Tyrell family and others. There is an episcopal chapel at Billericay, which was once a chapel of ease, and endowed with a chantry for a priest. A school for boys is endowed with land, producing £60 per annum.
Burstead, Little (St. Mary)
BURSTEAD, LITTLE (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Billericay, hundred of Barstable, S. division of Essex, 2 miles (S. by W.) from Billericay; containing 170 inhabitants. This parish, at the time of the Norman survey, belonged to the Bishop of London; and its chief manor, with the advowson of the rectory, is still the property of his successors. It comprises 1569 acres, of which 20 are common or waste. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £12: the tithes have been commuted for £350, and the glebe comprises 26 acres of land. The church is a small neat edifice.
Burstock (St. Andrew)
BURSTOCK (St. Andrew), a parish, in the union of Beaminster, hundred of Whitchurch-Canonicorum, Bridport division of Dorset, 4¼ miles (W. N. W.) from Beaminster; containing 307 inhabitants. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £5. 19. 4½., and in the patronage of John Bragge, Esq.: the tithes have been commuted for £170 per annum, and the glebe consists of about an acre and a half.
Burston (St. Mary)
BURSTON (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Depwade, hundred of Diss, E. division of Norfolk, 2¾ miles (N. E. by N.) from Diss; containing 468 inhabitants, and comprising 1449a. 13p. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £16, and in the patronage of the Crown: the tithes have been commuted for £470, and the glebe comprises 76 acres, with a parsonage-house erected in 1840, by the Rev. T. Frere. The church is a handsome edifice in the decorated English style, with an embattled tower.
Burston, with Aston and Stoke.—See Aston.
Burstow (St. Bartholomew)
BURSTOW (St. Bartholomew), a parish, in the union, and Second division of the hundred, of Reigate, E. division of Surrey, 8 miles (S. E. by S.) from Reigate; containing 863 inhabitants. There are four manors, or reputed manors. That of Burstow-Court Lodge became, in the 15th century, the property of the Gages, of whom was Sir John Gage, K. G., a distinguished military officer in the reigns of Henry VIII. and Edward VI.; the family sold the property in 1613. The parish comprises 4717 acres, of which 731 are common or waste. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £15. 13. 4., and in the patronage of the Crown: the tithes have been commuted for £600, and there is a glebe of 43 acres. The church is chiefly in the early style, with a wooden tower and spire. The Independents have a place of worship at Outwoods. Sir Edward Byshe, Garter king at arms and Clarencieux in the time of Cromwell and at the Restoration, was born at Smallfield Place; John Flamsteed, astronomerroyal, was rector of Burstow, and was buried here in the year 1719.
Burstwick (All Saints)
BURSTWICK (All Saints), a parish, in the union of Patrington, S. division of the wapentake of Holderness, E. riding of York; containing 726 inhabitants, of whom 440 are in the township of Burstwick, 3 miles (E. by S.) from Hedon. The parish comprises the townships of Burstwick, or Burstwick-cum-Skeckling, and Ryhill-cum-Camerton, the former township having 3340 acres, chiefly set out in large farms. The northern part of the village is the ancient hamlet of Skeckling, and the manor of Burstwick, with its members, parks, and free warren, was anciently called the "Dominion of Holderness." The wife of Robert Bruce, King of Scotland, was confined here for some time, by order of Edward I. The living is a vicarage, valued in the king's books at £7; net income, £219; patron and impropriator, Sir T. A. Clifford Constable, Bart. The tithes were commuted in 1773, for land and a money payment. The church, principally in the later style, is a small ancient edifice, with an embattled tower at the west end. There is a place of worship for Primitive Methodists.
BURTHOLME, a township, in the parish of Lanercost-Abbey, union of Brampton, Eskdale ward, E. division of Cumberland, 3¼ miles (N. E. by E.) from Brampton; containing 330 inhabitants. In this township are situated the ruins of Lanercost Abbey.
BURTON, a township, in the parish of Tarvin, union of Great Boughton, Second division of the hundred of Eddisbury, S. division of the county of Chester, 3¾ miles (W. N. W.) from Tarporley; containing 79 inhabitants. This township comprises 399 acres; the soil is sandy. The tithes have been commuted for £49. 11., payable to the Dean and Chapter of Lichfield, and £22. 13. to the vicar of the parish.
Burton (St. Nicholas)
BURTON (St. Nicholas), a parish, and formerly a market-town, in the union, and Higher division of the hundred, of Wirrall, S. division of the county of Chester; containing, with the township of Puddington, 428 inhabitants, of whom 282 are in the township of Burton, 2½ miles (S. E. by S.) from Great Neston. The parish is situated on the river Dee. The manor for many generations belonged to the Bishops of Lichfield and Coventry, of whom Bishop Alexander de Savensby, in 1238, appropriated the tithes to the hospital of Denwall, in the parish, which, with all its revenues, Henry VII. about the year 1494 gave to the hospital of St. John the Baptist, Lichfield, to which establishment the property still belongs. The township of Burton comprises 1340 acres; the soil is a light sandy clay. At Denwall is a colliery, opened about the year 1750, and still in operation; the mine extends for nearly a mile and three-quarters under the river: the produce is sent chiefly to Ireland. There are also some quarries of excellent freestone; and facilities of communication with Chester and Liverpool are obtained by railway. The market, granted in 1298 to Bishop Langton, and a fair for three days on the festival of St. James, have both been discontinued. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £54; patron, Richard Congreve, Esq. The church, with the exception of the chancel, was rebuilt in 1721. There is a Roman Catholic chapel at Puddington. A free school was founded in 1724, by Dr. Wilson, the pious and benevolent Bishop of Sodor and Man, who was born here in 1663, and who gave £200, and his son, Dr. Thomas Wilson, rector of St. Stephen's, Walbrook, £200 more, towards the endowment.
BURTON, a township, in the parish of Bambrough, union of Belford, N. division of Bambrough ward and of Northumberland, 5½ miles (E. by S.) from Belford; containing 111 inhabitants. It lies about a mile and a half south-by-west from Bambrough, and consists of a farm and some cottages. The North Sea is on the east.
BURTON, a chapelry, in the parish and liberties of Wenlock, union of Madeley, Southern division of Salop, 3 miles (S. W. by S.) from Wenlock; containing 181 inhabitants. The chapelry is situated on the road from Wenlock to Ludlow, and comprises by computation 1800 acres. The soil is various, but fertile; the surface is boldly undulated, and the lower grounds are watered by a small stream called the Corse. There are quarries of stone for building; and the rocks abound with fossil remains. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £50; patron, the Vicar of Wenlock. Here is a Roman camp in excellent preservation.
Burton, Stafford.—See Rickerscote.
Burton or Bodekton
BURTON, or Bodekton, in the union of Sutton, hundred of Rotherbridge, rape of Arundel, county of Sussex, 3½ miles (S. by W.) from Petworth; containing 7 inhabitants. It comprises by measurement 776 acres, and is bounded on the north-east by the river Rother, over which is a bridge at Stopham. The living is a rectory, with that of Coates consolidated, discharged from the payment of first-fruits, but paying tenths to the bishop, and valued in the king's books at £7. 3. 11½.; net income, £113; patron, Colonel Wyndham. The tithes of Burton have been commuted for £88. The church, which is beautifully situated in the Park, is a handsome structure in the later English style, and contains several ancient brasses, under enriched canopies, to the memory of the Gorings, and other families: divine service has not been performed for many years. Attached to the mansion is a Roman Catholic chapel.
Burton, with Walden
BURTON, with Walden, a township, in the parish of Aysgarth, wapentake of Hang-West, N. riding of York, 7¼ miles (W. by S.) from Middleham; containing 523 inhabitants, and comprising 6790 acres, whereof about 1800 are common or waste. The village is situated in a district abounding with fine scenery, on a small stream which falls into the river Ure, and contains a great quantity of salmon: the Bishop's-dale and Walden rivulets unite below the village. The hamlet of Walden has some scattered houses in its romantic dale, extending up the Walden stream to the distance of five miles south of Burton, between lofty moors and fells. Wool-combing is carried on. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans.
Burton-Agnes (St. Martin)
BURTON-AGNES (St. Martin), a parish, in the union of Bridlington, wapentake of Dickering, E. riding of York; comprising the townships of BurtonAgnes, Gransmoor, Haisthorpe, and Thornholm; and containing 603 inhabitants, of whom 322 are in the township of Burton-Agnes, 6½ miles (N. E. by E.) from Great Driffield. The parish comprises 7167 acres, of which 3323 are common or waste. The Hall, a noble brick mansion, and the seat of the ancient family of Boynton, was built about the year 1703. The living is a vicarage, with the living of Harpham annexed, valued in the king's books at £20. 6. 3.; patron, Thomas Raikes, Esq.; appropriator, the Archbishop of York. The tithes have been commuted for £865. 16. payable to the archbishop, and £735. 10. to the vicar, who has 130 acres of glebe. The church, an ancient structure with a square embattled tower crowned with pinnacles, presents every variety of style from Norman to later English, and contains a beautiful monument in alabaster, with the effigies of a knight and his lady; and also a fine old Norman font, which was lately restored, after having been used for many years as a flower-bed in the vicarage garden. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans; and a national school is partly supported by a portion of the produce of land bequeathed by Richard Green, a former vicar, in 1563, and yielding £50 per annum, the residue of which is appropriated to the relief of the poor and the repair of the church. An hospital for four widows was founded, and endowed with an annuity of £20. 10., by the widow of the late William Boynton, Esq.