A Topographical Dictionary of England. Originally published by S Lewis, London, 1848.
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Haversham (St. Mary)
HAVERSHAM (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Newport-Pagnell, hundred of Newport, county of Buckingham, 2½ miles (N. E.) from Stony-Stratford; containing 283 inhabitants. The parish is situated on the north side of the river Ouse. In 1697, John Thompson, Esq., lord of the manor, was raised to the peerage by the title of Baron Haversham. His son, in 1728, sold the demesne to Lucy Knightley, of Fawsley, in the county of Northampton, Esq., to whose maternal ancestors it had previously belonged: it afterwards passed into the family of Alexander Small, Esq. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £15; income, £195, with a small portion of glebe; patron and incumbent, the Rev. H. A. Small: the tithes were commuted for land and a money payment in 1764. The church exhibits portions in the decorated style, and is supposed to have been built about the year 1360; the chancel is of somewhat later date. The building contains a beautiful altar-tomb, with a recumbent effigy under a rich canopy, thought to be of Elizabeth, heiress of the De la Planches, and whose fourth husband was Sir John Clinton.
Haverstock-Hill, county of Middlesex.—See Camden-Town, and Hampstead.
HAVERTHWAITE, a district chapelry, in the parish of Coulton, union of Ulverston, hundred of Lonsdale north of the Sands, N. division of the county of Lancaster, 5 miles (N. E.) from Ulverston. The village is situated a short distance north of the river Leven, and on the road from Ulverston to Kendal. At Backbarrow, in the chapelry, are cotton-works employing about 340 persons, and at Low-Wood are powderworks in which upwards of 60 are engaged; there are also small iron-works, and works for the preparation of acids, and stone-quarries are numerous, the material of which is used principally for building. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £52; patron, the Incumbent of Coulton. The chapel is a neat and commodious building, erected in 1826. The grammar school at Brow-Edge has an income of about £80.
HAWCOAT, a division, in the parish of Dalton-inFurness, union of Ulverston, hundred of Lonsdale north of the Sands, N. division of Lancashire, 2½ miles (S. W. by W.) from Dalton; containing 921 inhabitants. This is an extensive division of the parish, for, exclusive of Hawcoat proper, which is seated on the main land, it includes the several islands of Walney, the Pile or Peel of Fouldrey, Foulney, Roe, Sheep, Old Barrow, Old Barrow Ramsey, and Dova-Haw. Hawcoat is one of the principal points of view within Low Furness: on a fine day the prospect to the west takes in the whole extent of the Isle of Man, the Isle of Anglesey, and the Welsh mountains. To the south, the east, and north, the view includes Ashurst beacon and Rivington Pike, Longridge, Bolland, and Ingleborough, with the hills which divide Lancashire from Yorkshire, and Westmorland from Cumberland. A rich corn country intervenes between the village of Hawcoat and the Isle of Walney. Romney, the celebrated artist, who died in November, 1802, was born at Cocken, in the division.—See Barrow and Walney.
Hawerby (St. Margaret)
HAWERBY (St. Margaret), a parish, in the union of Caistor, wapentake of Bradley-Haverstoe, parts of Lindsey, county of Lincoln, 9 miles (N. N. W.) from Louth; containing, with the merged parish of Beesby, 87 inhabitants. Hawerby comprises about 500 acres, of which three-fourths are arable, and the remainder, with the exception of 4 acres of plantation, meadow and pasture; the surface is undulated, and the higher grounds present beautiful views of the Humber and German Ocean, the Yorkshire Wolds, and Holderness. There are some quarries of limestone. Hawerby House, a neat mansion, surrounded with wood, and 50 acres of park, has been the residence of the Harneis family since the reign of Charles I. The living is a discharged rectory, with that of Beesby consolidated, valued in the king's books at £5. 7. 11., and in the patronage of the Chapter of the Collegiate Church of Southwell: the tithes of Hawerby have been commuted for £249, and the glebe comprises 20 acres.
HAWES, a chapelry, in the parish of Bassenthwaite, union of Cockermouth, Allerdale ward below Derwent, W. division of Cumberland, 6¼ miles (N. N. W.) from Keswick. The chapel was founded and endowed by the inhabitants, in 1471.
HAWES, a market-town and chapelry, in the parish of Aysgarth, wapentake of Hang-West, N. riding of York, 17¼ miles (W.) from Middleham and 251½ (N W. by N.) from London; containing 1611 inhabitants. This chapelry is pleasantly situated near a branch of the river Ure, and comprises by measurement 16,159 acres, the greater portion of which is good pasture and meadow, and a small quantity wood: there are some lofty ranges of wild moor, but in the dells and on the lower acclivities the land is inclosed and generally fertile. Limestone, and thin beds of coal, are found; and in the neighbourhood are some lead-mines, which are worked, but are not very productive. The town is extensive, and the houses, which are mostly built of stone, wear an appearance of neatness and respectability: a handsome stone bridge was erected in 1839, on the site of an ancient foot-bridge of wood. The principal articles of manufacture are knit hosiery, caps, &c., with some other kinds of woollen goods. A market is held on Tuesday, and is well attended by dealers in butter, cheese, and bacon; there are fairs on Whit-Tuesday and September 28th, and cattle-fairs every alternate Tuesday from the last Tuesday in February until Whitsuntide. At a short distance from the town is Hardraw Scarr or Force, a magnificent cascade, falling perpendicularly from a height of 102 feet; also Aisgill Force, Cotter Force, and other waterfalls, which, although not so magnificent as Hardraw Scarr, are yet well worthy of notice. The living is a perpetual curacy, in the patronage of the Landowners, with a net income of £130: the tithes have been commuted for £186, payable to Trinity College, Cambridge, and there is a college glebe of upwards of 52 acres. The chapel is a low plain edifice. There are places of worship for Independents, Wesleyans, Sandemanians, and the Society of Friends; and a school, founded in 1764, is endowed with £18 per annum. About a quarter of a mile from the town, are evident vestiges of a small encampment, supposed to have been Roman.
HAWICK, a township, in the parish of KirkHarle, union of Bellingham, N. E. division of Tindale ward, S. division of Northumberland, 9½ miles (E.) from Bellingham; containing 8 inhabitants. This place was a manor in the barony of Bolbeck, and holden of it by the barons of Bolam; part was afterwards the property of the family of Raymes, and at a later date possessions have been held here by the Strothers, Fenwicks, and Blacketts. The township comprises 1198 acres, whereof about 670 are uninclosed moor; the soil of the inclosed portion, which rests chiefly on limestone and basalt, is dry and well adapted for pasture. There was formerly a chapel, on an eminence still called Chapel Hill: about fifty years ago, the floors and foundations of the edifice were dug up, together with the stoup used for holy water, and a number of human bones. Several earthworks remain in the district, one of which consists of three compartments, each inclosed by regular lines.
Hawkchurch (St. John the Baptist)
HAWKCHURCH (St. John the Baptist), a parish, in the union of Axminster, partly in the hundred of Cerne, Totcombe, and Modbury, and partly in that of Uggscombe, Dorchester division of Dorset, 3¼ miles (E. N. E.) from Axminster; containing, with the tything of Phillyholme, 820 inhabitants. The parish is pleasantly situated on the river Axe, by which it is bounded on the north-west, and comprises 3929 acres, whereof 332 are waste land or common. The soil on the higher grounds is a light sandy mould, resting on a tenacious clay, and in the lower grounds a rich loamy clay; limestone is found, and burned for manure: the surface is finely diversified with hill and dale. From the summit of an eminence called Lambert's Castle, which has an elevation of more than 900 feet, is an extensive view of the sea and of the adjacent country. Wylde Court, the seat of Lord Bridport, was the residence of Colonel Wyndham, who entertained Charles II. the night previous to his attempted embarkation at Charmouth. Nearly 200 of the labouring class are employed in spinning twine: flax and hemp were formerly cultivated to a great extent. A fair for stock is held in June on Lambert's Castle Hill, and lasts for two days. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £23. 2. 11.; net income, £430; patrons, Messrs. Newnham: the glebe comprises 60 acres. The church is a small edifice, containing some Norman portions, and several insertions in the early and later English styles, with various modern alterations; among the early details are two fine Norman arches with zig-zag mouldings. In the church is a monument to Admiral Sir William Domett, G.C.B., the intimate friend of Nelson, and captain of the fleet in the expedition to Copenhagen. On the hill are some remains of an ancient fortification, and vestiges of a Roman encampment.
HAWKEDON, a parish, in the union of Sudbury, hundred of Risbridge, W. division of Suffolk, 9 miles (S. W. by S.) from Bury St. Edmund's; containing 339 inhabitants, and comprising by measurement 1461 acres. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £7. 10., and in the gift of H. J. Oakes, Esq.: the tithes have been commuted for £360, and the glebe contains 41½ acres.
Hawkesbury (St. Mary)
HAWKESBURY (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Chipping-Sodbury, Upper division of the hundred of Grumbald's-Ash, W. division of the county of Gloucester; containing, with the tythings of Little Badminton, Hillesley, Kilcott with Saddlewood and Tresham, and Upton, 2231 inhabitants, of whom 484 are in the tything of Hawkesbury, 3¾ miles (E. S. E.) from Wickwar. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £20. 14. 2., and in the gift of the Earl of Liverpool: the vicarial tithes have been commuted for £350, and the impropriate, which belong to the Duke of Beaufort and others, for £231. 17.; the glebe contains 5 acres. The church has portions in the early and later English styles, and contains the remains of the late Earl of Liverpool, who died in 1828, and of his father, the first earl. There are chapels of ease at Badminton and Tresham; and a school with an endowment of £6 per annum, bequeathed by Daniel Walker in 1734. Hawkesbury confers the title of Baron on the family of Jenkinson, Earls of Liverpool.
Hawkeswell (St. Mary)
HAWKESWELL (St. Mary), a parish, in the union and hundred of Rochford, S. division of Essex, 1¾ mile (N. W.) from Rochford; containing 366 inhabitants. It comprises 1353 acres, of which 95 are waste land or common. The village is situated on a plain, and consists chiefly of a few straggling houses. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £13. 6. 8., and in the gift of R. Bristow, Esq.: the tithes have been commuted for £290, and the glebe comprises 89 acres. The church is ancient.
HAWKHILL, a township, in the parish of Lesbury, S. division of Bambrough ward, N. division of Northumberland, 3 miles (E. by S.) from Alnwick; containing 75 inhabitants. It comprises 693 acres of land mostly in tillage, exclusively of about 20 acres of plantations and roads; and, with the exception of a few acres, is bounded on the south and west sides by the river Aln. The township is intersected from east to west by the Alnmouth and Hexham road, which divides it into two parts, the southern being of a dry soil, and the northern in nearly equal portions dry and wet; the surface of both divisions is undulated. The corn tithes have been commuted for £114. 4. 3., and the small tithes for £56. 17.
Hawkhurst (St. Lawrence)
HAWKHURST (St. Lawrence), a parish, in the union of Cranbrooke, partly in the hundred of Henhurst, rape of Hastings, E. division of Sussex, but chiefly in the hundred of East Barnfield, Lower division of the lathe of Scray, W. division of Kent, 8 miles (S. E.) from Lamberhurst; containing 2656 inhabitants. The parish is situated on the road from London to Rye, and comprises by admeasurement 6490 acres, of which 2200 are arable, 1800 pasture, 366 in hop-grounds, and 2056 wood and rough land. Though deficient in ornamental water, it abounds in interesting and picturesque scenery; the surface is diversified with undulations, and is richly wooded, the prevailing timber being oak: the soil is a transition from the clay of the Weald to Hastings sand, and is well cultivated. A part of the parish, called Highgate, has within the last few years become a considerable village, and several shops have been built, which present a neat appearance. The manufacture of cloth was formerly carried on, and there was a market on Tuesday, which has fallen into disuse. A fair for cattle and pedlery is held on the 10th of August. The living, formerly a vicarage valued in the king's books at £12. 10., is now a perpetual curacy; patrons, the Dean and Canons of Christ-Church, Oxford; net income, £260, with a glebe of six acres, and a house. The tithes have been commuted for £645, exclusive of hops. The church is a spacious and beautiful edifice, founded by an abbot of Battle, in the reign of Edward III.: it is in the decorated style, and has the tower, south porch, and aisles embattled; the east window is a fine specimen of the transition from the decorated to the later English style, the former prevailing. Here is a place of worship for Wesleyans. In 1718, Sir Thomas Dunk, who lived on the estate called Tong'sWood, bequeathed a site and £2000 for the erection and endowment of a school, and almshouses for 3 poor men and 3 women; the net income of the charity is £139 per annum. There are two strong chalybeate springs. An estate named Fowlers was the residence of Richard Kilburne, an eminent lawyer and magistrate, and author of the Survey of Kent in 1659; he was buried under the church vestry-room. Dr. Lardner, author of The Credibility of the Gospel History, was a native and resident of the place, and was buried in the church; and Sir J. F. W. Herschell, Bart., the astronomer, possesses an estate in the parish, upon which he resides.
Hawkinge, or Hackynge (St. Michael)
HAWKINGE, or Hackynge (St. Michael), a parish, in the union of Elham, hundred of Folkestone, lathe of Shepway, E. division of Kent, 2 miles (N.) from Folkestone; containing 146 inhabitants. It is situated near the Dovor railway, about a mile from the road between Canterbury and Folkestone, and comprises 521 acres. The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at £7. 7. 10.; net income, £140; patron, the Archbishop of Canterbury. It has been for many years held with the perpetual curacy of Folkestone. The church, a very small picturesque building, occupies a bleak and exposed situation; the chancel only is ceiled, the other part of the edifice being open to the tiles.
Hawkley (St. Peter and St. Paul)
HAWKLEY (St. Peter and St. Paul), a parish, in the union of Petersfield, hundred of Selborne, Alton and N. divisions of the county of Southampton, 5 miles (N.) from Petersfield; containing 323 inhabitants. It comprises by computation 1340 acres, chiefly arable, with a small portion of woodland. The living is annexed to the vicarage of Newton-Valence. There is a place of worship for Independents.
Hawkridge (St. Giles)
HAWKRIDGE (St. Giles), a parish, in the union of Dulverton, hundred of Williton and Freemanners, W. division of Somerset, 4 miles (W. N. W.) from Dulverton; containing 79 inhabitants. It is intersected by the river Barle, and is in some parts mountainous, and diversified with moors well stocked with black game: the wood consists principally of oak copses which abound with red deer; the hills are grazed by sheep, and the grain raised is chiefly oats. The living is a rectory, with that of Withypoole annexed, valued in the king's books at £13. 8. 4., and in the gift of the Rev. George Jekyll: the tithes of Hawkridge have been commuted for £84. 5., and the glebe contains 316 acres. Near Castle Bridge, so designated from its vicinity to an ancient fortress called Monceaux Castle, is an encampment named Hawkridge Castle.
Hawkshead (St. Michael)
HAWKSHEAD (St. Michael), a market-town and parish, in the union of Ulverston, hundred of Lonsdale north of the Sands, N. division of the county of Lancaster, 28 miles (N. N. W.) from Lancaster, and 268 (N. N. W.) from London; comprising the townships of Claife, Hawkshead, and Monk-Coniston with Skelwith, and the chapelry of Satterthwaite; the whole containing 2323 inhabitants, of whom 892 are in the township of Hawkshead. This place probably owes its origin to the Saxons, as the language of that people strongly pervades the dialect of its inhabitants at the present day. The earliest mention of it occurs in some transactions of the abbey of Furness, in the 12th century, at which period it was a chapelry under Dalton-in-Furness: it remained dependent on the abbey till the Dissolution. Hawkshead was constituted a parish in the reign of Elizabeth, by Archbishop Sandys, a native of the place, and was then of much greater extent than it is now, including the present parish of Coulton, which was separated in 1680. In respect of importance it is the fourth town in the district of Furness, and during the existence of the abbey it was governed by a bailiff appointed by the abbots, who dispensed justice for the district, in a court-room over the gateway of a house occupied by some of the monks who officiated in the church, and performed other parochial duties: of this house, which was a quadrangular building, there are still some remains in tolerable preservation. In the reign of Elizabeth the tenants of Hawkshead, in conjunction with those of Coulton, petitioned for the suppression of certain ironworks in High Furness, in order to preserve for the protection of their cattle during the winter, those woods and coppices in the neighbourhood that would otherwise be cut down to supply the furnaces with fuel; and charged themselves with the payment to the queen of £20 per annum, for which the works had been let.
The Town is pleasantly situated near the head of Esthwaite-water, a small lake beautifully indented with richly-wooded promontories, and nearly in the centre of a vale of luxuriant meadows and corn-fields, almost surrounded by the fells of Furness. The borders of the lake are enlivened by villas and farmhouses. The parish is bounded on the north by the river Brathey, which separates the counties of Lancaster and Westmorland; on the east by Windermere lake; on the south by Coulton parish; and on the west by part of Coniston water, and by Yewdale and Tilberthwaite becks. On Priest's Pot, a circular pool at the head of Esthwaite-water, is a floating islet containing trees and shrubs. The hills afford large quantities of excellent slate, and stone for building; and a considerable portion of the former is exported. Many females were employed in spinning yarn; but since the application of machinery to that purpose, the trade has declined, and the wool produced from the numerous flocks which are fed on the neighbouring hills is sold in the fleece, to be used by distant manufacturers. The market is on Monday; the privilege of holding it was obtained in the reign of James I., by A. Sandys and other inhabitants. The fairs are on Easter-Monday, the Monday before Ascension-day, Whit-Monday, and October 2nd, chiefly for cattle and pedlery.
The living is a vicarage, in the patronage of the Crown, in right of the duchy of Lancaster; net income, £164; impropriators, the landowners. The church, a neat structure, advantageously seated on a small knoll rising above the town, was repaired and modernised in the reign of Elizabeth, and contains a monument to the memory of the parents of Archbishop Sandys. The short massy columns, their arches, and some other parts of the original building, yet remain, indicating the Norman style, and countenancing the supposition that the church was founded about the period of the Conquest. The parsonage-house is pleasantly situated at a short distance from the church, on land that retains the name of Walker-ground from its supposed donor, Dr. George Walker, a celebrated Puritan divine of the 17th century, who was born at Hawkshead. A chapel has been erected and endowed at Brathey, and there is another chapel at Satterthwaite; at the hamlet of HawksheadHill is a small place of worship for Baptists. The grammar school was founded in 1585, by Archbishop Sandys, who endowed it with lands now producing about £180 per annum. A sum of about £60, arising from benefactions, is yearly appropriated to boarding and clothing a number of boys, selected by the trustees of the grammar school. The Rev. Thomas Sandys, in 1717, bequeathed a collection of books for the use of the school; and in 1816 the Rev. William Wilson left £100, the interest to be distributed in prizes to the scholars. The late Rev. Dr. Wordsworth, master of Trinity College, Cambridge; his relative, the poet; and other distinguished men, received the rudiments of their education in the school.
HAWKSWICK, a township, in the parish of Arncliffe, union of Settle, wapentake of Staincliffe West, W. riding of York, 2 miles (S. W.) from Kettlewell; containing 68 inhabitants. The township comprises 2694 acres, of which 40 are waste or common; the soil is generally fertile. The tithes have been commuted for £44. 8. 8.—See Hubberholme.
Hawksworth (St. Mary and All Saints)
HAWKSWORTH (St. Mary and All Saints), a parish, in the union and N. division of the wapentake of Bingham, S. division of the county of Nottingham, 8 miles (S. W. by S.) from Newark; containing 203 inhabitants. This parish, which occupies a retired situation about four miles from the river Trent, comprises 750 acres; the manor belongs to the Rev. John Storer, who is the incumbent and patron. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £8. 13. 9.: an allotment of land was made in lieu of tithes, under the act for inclosing the parish, and, together with the old glebe, comprises 148 acres, valued at £300 per annum. The church is an ancient structure in the transitional style of the later Norman into the early English, but a considerable portion of it has been rebuilt within the present century; in the porch is a dedication-stone of very early character. There is a national school.
HAWKSWORTH, a township, in the parish of Otley, Upper division of the wapentake of Skyrack, W. riding of York, 3½ miles (S. W.) from Otley; containing 339 inhabitants. This township, which is situated on the northern acclivity of the valley of the Aire, comprises by computation 2000 acres, chiefly the property of F. Hawkesworth Fawkes, Esq., who is lord of the manor; about 600 are uninclosed. Very good buildingstone is quarried; and there are a corn-mill and two worsted-mills. The Wesleyans have a place of worship. On the summit of Hollins Hill is a large block named Hawk Stone, supposed to be Druidical.
HAWKWELL, a township, in the parish of Stamfordham, union of Castle ward, N. E. division of Tindale ward, S. division of Northumberland, 12 miles (N. W. by W.) from Newcastle-upon-Tyne; containing 176 inhabitants. This township comprises 567a. 3r. of land; it is separated from Stamfordham by the river Pont, and not very far on the south runs the Roman wall. A limestone-quarry is worked for agricultural purposes. The tithes have been commuted for £41 payable to the vicar, and £78 to the Bishop of Durham.
HAWLEY, an ecclesiastical district, in the parishes of Yately and Ashe, hundred of Crondall, Odiham and N. divisions of the county of Southampton, 5½ miles (S. W.) from Bagshot; containing, with Minley, 847 inhabitants. The church, a very neat edifice in the later English style, was erected in 1838, by subscription, aided by £500 from the Winchester Diocesan Society, and £200 from John Norris, Esq., of Hughendon; it was endowed with £1000 in the three per cents., by the Rev. John Randell, patron of the living, who also presented an organ. There are schools connected with the National Society. A fair for cattle is held on the 8th of November.