A Topographical Dictionary of England. Originally published by S Lewis, London, 1848.
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DEVONPORT, a celebrated naval arsenal, and a borough, in the parish of Stoke-Damerall, or Stoke, S. division of the hundred of Roborough, S. division of Devon, 1½ mile (W.) from Plymouth, and 218 (W. by S.) from London, containing, with Morice-Town and Stoke, 33,820 inhabitants, and, including the parish of East Stonehouse, 43,532. In the reign of William III. a naval arsenal was established here, under the name of Plymouth Dock, and to this event the town is indebted for its importance and present magnitude: in 1824, the appellation of Devonport was conferred upon it by royal permission. It was first fortified in the reign of George II., but the works have been much improved under an act of parliament passed in the 21st of George III. In the early part of the American war, Colonel Dixon, then commanding engineer at Plymouth, applied on behalf of the troops in garrison at Dock, to the corporation of Plymouth, for supplies of water from a leat, a stream which had been conveyed to that borough by Sir Francis Drake; but the application was refused, for the alleged reason that the stream was insufficient to supply both places. Various other plans were devised and proposed without success, till 1792, when Mr. Bryer, Messrs. Jones and Grey, and others, submitted a plan to the government, and also to the inhabitants, for supplying the houses with water on the same terms as those of Plymouth, and the government departments at a stipulated price. This plan, under an act of parliament obtained in the same year, though not without strenuous opposition, was carried into effect by means of a stream brought from Dartmoor, in a circuitous line of 30 miles, to a reservoir on the north side of the town.
Devonport is situated on an eminence, bounded on the south and west by the mouth of the Tamar, which, expanding into an irregular estuary, forms the capacious harbour of Hamoaze, and on the east by Stonehouse creek. The town is of an oblong figure, and the streets, which are regular and well built, nearly intersecting each other at right angles, are paved and lighted; for the latter purpose, a new gas company was established in 1845. The foot-paths, when washed by a shower, have a remarkably beautiful appearance, being paved with marble obtained in the neighbourhood, which receives a considerable polish from the action of the weather and the feet of passengers. The Fore-street, which crosses the upper part of the town in a direct line, is approached through a gateway on the east, where there is a fosse with a drawbridge; the houses are in general respectable, and some are of a superior order, the thoroughfare forming a good approach to the dockyard. The town is protected on the north-east and south sides by a wall about twelve feet in height, called "The King's interior boundary wall;" is skirted on the west by the dockyard and gun-wharf; and fortified on the sea-side entrance by heavy batteries on Mount Wise: immediately to the south of it are the houses of the port-admiral and governor, the telegraph, and grand parade. Without the wall is a line, or breastwork, with a fosse excavated in the solid rock, from twelve to twenty feet in depth, the whole planned by a Mr. Smelt, of the engineer department, about the year 1756. In the lines are three barrier gates; the North Barrier, which leads to the passage across the Tamar; the Stoke Barrier, leading towards Tavistock; and the Stonehouse Barrier, conducting towards Stonehouse, Plymouth, &c. On the south side of the town, immediately above the sea-shore, is Richmond-walk, raised under the direction of the Duke of Richmond, when master-general of the ordnance, for the accommodation of the inhabitants; it commands a fine view of Mount-Edgcumbe, and forms a healthy and pleasant promenade. A small theatre in the town is well conducted, and frequently patronized by the visits of the heads of departments: there is a public subscription library, ornamented with an Egyptian façade; and at the Royal Hotel is an elegant assemblyroom. Southward from the town are hot, cold, shower, vapour, and swimming baths, with several convenient lodging-houses handsomely furnished. The principal quays are at Mutton-Cove, North Corner, and Morice-Town; on the south is a ferry to Mount-Edgcumbe, and on the north-west another to Torpoint. The privilege of having bonding warehouses was granted in 1846, for the convenience of the trade of the port. The terminus of the South Devon railway will be at Stoke, between the orphan asylum and St. Michael's church; and the Cornwall railway will commence at the same point. The market days are Tuesday, Thursday, and Saturday: the market-place is of recent erection, and for extent and accommodation is inferior to none in the western part of England; it is well supplied with all kinds of provisions, particularly fish.
By the act of the 2nd of William IV., cap. 45, Devonport was constituted a borough, with the privilege of returning two members to parliament, the right of election being in the £10 householders of the parish of Stoke-Damerall, and the township of stonehouse; and in the first year of Queen Victoria, an act of incorporation was obtained, by which Devonport was constituted a municipal borough, comprehending the parish of Stoke-Damerall. The borough is portioned into six wards, and the corporation consists of 12 aldermen and 36 councillors, from whom a mayor is elected, who is also returning officer on the occasion of choosing members of parliament. The government of the town is partly vested in 120 commissioners; since the act of incorporation, their powers are restricted to matters relating to the poor, the paving and lighting of the town, and some minor affairs. The lord of the manor holds courts leet and baron at Michaelmas, at which a jury is selected by the steward, to present any nuisances or annoyances; and at this court the constables of the parish, about 22 in number, are sworn in. The county magistrates hold petty-sessions every Wednesday at the town-hall; and there are 16 borough magistrates, who sit almost every day. The town-hall includes, in addition to its principal room, which is 75 feet by 40, a watch-house, temporary prison, engine-house, &c.; the front is decorated with a noble Doric portico, finished with a horizontal blocking course and tablet, instead of the usually adopted pediment. Near this edifice is a column erected to commemorate the naming of the town anew; it is a fluted column of the Doric order, and from its summit, which is accessible by a spiral flight of 140 steps, is a most splendid view. The port-admiral's house is a very convenient structure; the semaphore near it communicates with the flag-ship in the harbour, and is the first of 32 telegraphic stations connecting this place with the Admiralty in London. It is said that a communication has been conveyed to and from the metropolis in the short space of fifteen minutes.
The dockyard, one of the finest in the world, is bounded on the east by the town, from which it is separated by a wall, in some places 30 feet high, extending from north to south; its water boundary forms a curve bending outwards in a western direction. Exclusively of the recent additions, it occupies, with the projections of the jetties, an area of 72 acres, to which dimensions it was extended in 1768. The land entrance is from Fore-street, having a carriage-gate and a gate for foot-passengers; and near this entrance is a chapel, built by government on the site of one erected in 1700, "by the generous and pious contributions of officers and seamen belonging to a squadron of men-of-war," under the superintendence of George St. Leo, Esq., at that time commissioner of the yard. Opposite to this edifice are the military guard and navy pay-offices. To the southwest is a range of excellent houses occupied by the commissioners and other officers of the establishment, and fronted by a double row of lime-trees, from which is a descent by a number of steps to two handsome buildings, one of which, the "Joiner's Shop," is surmounted by a cupola. Facing these are the basin and dock, constructed in the reign of William III., and the latter sufficiently capacious for a 74-gun ship, being in length 197 feet 3 inches, in width 65 feet 10 inches, and in depth 23 feet 1 inch: the basin is bounded on each side by jetty heads; that on the south is named "the Master-Attendant's stairs." Adjoining this jetty is an edifice of limestone with quoins and cornices of Portland stone, 480 feet in length, and three stories high, forming one side of a quadrangle, and called the "Rigging-House:" over it is the sail-loft; and different storehouses complete the quadrangle, in the area of which is the "Combustible Storehouse," entirely composed of iron and stone, and the geometrical staircase of which is greatly admired. To the south is a slip for cleaning the bottoms of vessels, and beyond it the Camber, a canal 70 feet wide, terminating in a basin, which is bounded on the north by the boat-house: this was the boundary of the yard previously to 1768; all beyond, in a southerly direction, is the New Ground, where are several very large building slips or docks roofed over, in which ships of the greatest magnitude may always be seen either in frame or in various stages of progress. These building-slips, as they are termed, are not excavated so deep as the repairing-docks; they are inclined planes, and on one of them the Kent, a large two-decked vessel of the computed weight of 1882 tons, was hauled up to be repaired, principally by mechanical power. Here are, also, the "Blacksmiths' Shop," a building about 210 feet square, containing 48 forges, the fires of which annually consume 1300 chaldrons of coal; the anchor-wharf, where anchors are made weighing five tons; a boiling-house, for heating planks which are to receive a particular curve, and in this state are worked to the side of the vessel; a mast-house; and a pond, inclosed from the sea by a strong wall 10 feet thick and 380 long, and supplied with water through two openings, of about 40 feet wide, crossed by light wooden bridges.
Near the mast-house, in a southerly direction, is a small mount, called Bunker's Hill, with a battery of five guns (nine-pounders), one of which is a beautiful brass piece, made at Paris: from this elevation the prospect is very fine and extensive. In the dockyard are two limestone buildings, parallel with each other, two stories high, and 1200 feet long, called Rope-houses; the largest cables made here are 25 inches in circumference, and 100 fathoms long, weighing 116 cwt., and worth £404. Behind these buildings, in addition to dwellings and storchouses, is the Mould, or Model loft. On the north are the jetty, north stairs, and doubledock, the last so called from being sufficiently large to contain two ships at a time; the gates form the segment of a circle, with their convex sides to the sea. The second dock, built in 1762, and called the Union or North dock, is 239 feet 4 inches by 86 feet 7, and 26 feet in depth; it is constructed of blocks of granite, faced with Portland stone. The New North dock, 259 feet 9 inches by 85 feet 3, and 27 feet 8 inches deep, is said to be the largest of the kind in the kingdom; it was finished in 1789. The immense roofs over the docks, being on the principle of an arch without a buttress, are extraordinary specimens of architectural skill; the square contents of one of them amount to 1 acre, 39 poles, and 200 feet. The buildings on the gun-wharf, which is separated from the northern part of the dockyard by a branch of the town, were erected after designs by Sir John Vanbrugh; the armouries, and the immense piles of ordnance in the yard, each marked with the name of the ship in Hamoaze to which it belongs, are worthy of especial notice. Important works have been completed within the last few years, chiefly with a view to place the port in a more efficient state of defence. A steam-dock has been formed, and the original dockyard enlarged by the addition of Mutton-Cove and its neighbourhood: the steam machinery is very extensive, and suitable buildings for its increase are in course of erection. On the 28th of September, 1840, a destructive fire, attended with the loss of a line-of-battle ship, a frigate, and an immense amount of property, occurred in the dockyard. The barracks are calculated to accommodate 3000 troops. The harbour of Hamoaze is about four miles long, and half a mile broad; its greatest depth at high water is between eighteen and twenty fathoms, at low water about fifteen; it is a grand repository for ships of war of all classes, and is capable of floating the entire British navy at once. About half a mile from the dockyard are the powder magazines, capacious enough for the supply of the whole of the navy.
There are two episcopal chapels; St. Aubyn's, a neat edifice with a portico and octagonal spire at the west end, erected by subscription, in 1771; and St. John's chapel, also erected by subscription, in 1809: the right of presentation to both is vested in the Rector of Stoke-Damerall; net income of St. Aubyn's, £117, and of St. John's, £200. The inhabitants have free access likewise to the dockyard chapel. Four church districts, named respectively St. James', St. Paul's, St. Mary's, and St. Stephen's, were endowed in 1846 by the Ecclesiastical Commission: the livings are all in the gift of the Crown and the Bishop of Exeter, alternately. Two or three rooms have been licensed by the bishop for divine service; and there are places of worship for Baptists, Independents, Wesleyans, Moravians, Unitarians, and other sects. A classical school was built by subscription, and opened in the year 1821. The Royal British Female-Orphan Asylum affords protection to 100 children of sailors and soldiers, who are boarded and clothed, and trained for domestic service: a new building for this asylum was erected at Stoke, and opened in June, 1846. The Royal Military and Naval Free Schools, situated in King-street, are also appropriated to soldiers' and sailors' children. The parish of Stoke-Damerall forms a poor law union of itself, under a local act.
DEVONSHIRE, a maritime county, bounded on the north-west and north by the Bristol Channel, on the north-east and east by the counties of Somerset and Dorset, on the south-east and south by the English Channel, and on the west by Cornwall. It extends from 50° 12' to 51° 15' (N. Lat.), and from 2° 50' to 4° 32' (W. Lon.), and contains 2579 square miles, or 1,650,500 statute acres: the Isle of Lundy, in the mouth of the Bristol Channel, is considered as forming a part of it. The county contains 94,704 inhabited houses, 6129 uninhabited, and 901 in the course of erection; and the population amounts to 533,460, of whom 252,760 are males, and 280,700 females.
This portion of the island was called by the Cornish Britons Deunan, apparently from the inequality of its surface; of which name the [Danmonion] and Danmonii of Ptolemy seem to be only modifications. The Welsh termed it Deuffneynt, signifying "deep valleys," and, like the former, descriptive of the surface of the county; and a softening of this name with the addition of the word scyre, a share or portion, appears to have produced the Anglo-Saxon Devenascyre, Devnascyre, and Devenschire, in modern English Devonshire. It was inhabited at a very remote period, and its population, the ancient Cimbri or Cymry, had commercial transactions with the Phœnicians, the Greeks, and other nations; but many of the aboriginal inhabitants, on the settlement of a portion of the Belgic invaders in the south-eastern part of Devon, were compelled to emigrate to Ireland, and the remainder were confined within the north-western part of their ancient territory. Under the Roman dominion the present county formed an important part of Britannia Prima; and in the early period of the Saxon era it became part of the kingdom of the West Saxons, or Wessex.
The county is in the diocese of Exeter, and province of Canterbury, and is divided into the archdeaconries of Barnstaple, Exeter, and Totnes; the first containing the deaneries of Barnstaple, Chulmleigh, Hertland, Shirwell, South Molton, and Torrington; the second those of Aylesbeare, Cadbury, Exeter, Dunkeswell, Dunsford, Honiton, Kenne, Plymtree, and Tiverton; and the third, those of Holsworthy, Ipplepen, Moreton, Oakhampton, Plympton, Tamerton, Tavistock, Totnes, and Woodleigh. In this diocese the office of rural dean is an efficient office, the deans being elected annually at the visitations. The number of parishes is 466. The county contains the city of Exeter; the ancient borough and market towns of Ashburton, Barnstaple, Dartmouth, Honiton, Plymouth, Tavistock, Tiverton, and Totnes; the modern naval arsenal of Devonport, created a parliamentary borough by the act passed in the 2nd of William IV.; the market-towns of Oakhampton and Plympton, heretofore enjoying the right of representation, but (with the borough of Beer-Alston, which has no market,) disfranchised by the above-named statute; and the markettowns of Axminster, Bampton, Bideford, Brixham, Chagford, Chudleigh, Chulmleigh, Colyton, Crediton, Cullompton, Hatherleigh, Holsworthy, Ilfracombe, Kingsbridge, Modbury, South Molton, Moreton-Hampstead, Newton-Abbott, Ottery St. Mary, Sidmouth, Stonehouse, East Teignmouth, Topsham, and Torrington. For electoral purposes Devonshire is divided into the Northern and Southern divisions, each sending two representatives to parliament; the city of Exeter, and the boroughs of Barnstaple, Devonport, Honiton, Plymouth, Tavistock, Tiverton, and Totnes, each send two members, and those of Ashburton and Dartmouth one each. The county is included in the Western circuit, and the assizes and quarter-sessions are held at Exeter, where stand the county gaol and house of correction. The stannary laws, which have been in force from an early period in the mining district, in the south-western part of the county, constitute the only peculiarity in the civil jurisdiction; the stannary towns are Ashburton, Chagford, Plympton, and Tavistock. The stannary parliaments, which have long fallen into disuse, met in the open air, on an elevated spot called Crockern Tor, in Dartmoor; the prison was Lidford Castle, now in ruins.
In form this county, though irregular, is compact: its circumference is about 280 miles, of which 130 are sea-coast, 50 being on the Bristol Channel, and 80 on the English Channel. Its general surface is hilly, the most elevated ground being the Forest of Dartmoor, whose mean height is estimated at 1782 feet, and its extreme height, at Cawsand Bog, at 2090. Mildness and humidity are the general characteristics of the Climate, which in the southern part of the county, forming the district called the South Hams, is supposed to be milder and more salubrious than in any other part of England; and both here and on the northern coast the broad-leafed double-flowering myrtle, and even the more delicate aromatic and narrow-leafed sorts, constantly flourish in the open air, and not unfrequently form a part of the garden hedges. The Soil is extremely various, but may in general be characterised according to the subjacent strata, such as aganitical, slaty, calcareous, arenacious, argillaceous, gravelly, and loamy. Of the land in cultivation, the greater portion is Pasture: in the northern part of the county the grazing-land predominates, in the proportion of about three to one; but in the South Hams the Arable prevails, in at least the same proportion. The corn and pulse crops commonly cultivated are wheat, barley, oats, beans, and peas: a great quantity of corn is raised in the neighbourhoods of Hartland, Bideford, and Ilfracombe, much of which is exported. Flax is grown somewhat extensively at Haberton, and in the adjacent parishes towards Somersetshire. The common artificial grasses are red and white clover, trefoil, and rye-grass. A considerable portion of the grass-land is appropriated to the dairy, the produce of which in butter is chiefly sent to London, more especially from the neighbourhoods of Honiton, Axminster, &c. In no part of England are the Gardens on a more extensive scale than throughout this county. The cultivation of apples for making cider was first an object of general care about the commencement of the seventeenth century, and orchards are now to be seen in every part of the county; every valley, indeed, throughout the South Hams is more or less occupied by them, and this district is the most celebrated for the excellence of the cider which it produces. To the eye of a stranger there appears at first to be a deficiency of Woodland; but most of the hollows and the declivities bounding the larger valleys, particularly where sheltered from the violence of the westerly winds, are interspersed and adorned with a healthy, though not a large or towering, growth of oak and other timber. Much of the surface, also, is occupied by the remains of large and more ancient woodlands, now transformed into coppices of oak and other underwood, apparently the vestiges of a chain of forests which extended along the margins of all the rivers descending from Dartmoor and Exmoor; and some of the old red forest-deer still ramble unmolested through the glades and woodlands with which these rich and pleasant valleys are so highly decorated. The Waste lands occupy by estimation nearly one-fifth of the entire surface: the principal are Dartmoor and Exmoor, with the adjacent commons; there are also very extensive commons near Bridestowe, besides Roborough-down, Black-down near Tavistock, Black-down on the border of Somersetshire, Haldon, &c. The royal forest of Exmoor, of which part is included in this county, was divided under an act passed in 1815. Near the seacoast are various salt-marshes.
The grand geological divisions of Devonshire are, the district of granite and primitive argillaceous slate; that of transition slate, or greywackè; that of red sandstone; and that of green sand. The granite composes the greater portion of Dartmoor, in the south-western part of the county, and is closely surrounded by a district of argillaceous slate. The transition slate occupies the northern part of the county, including Exmoor. The red sandstone constitutes the less elevated portions, and skirts the base of the last-mentioned district, extending north-eastward into Somersetshire, and westward as far as Hatherleigh. The green sand formation comprises the larger portion of the hills in the south-eastern part, and its surface is generally marked by extensive tracts of common; the intermediate valleys being extremely fertile, as they are composed principally of red marl. History informs us that the Phœnicians, and afterwards successively the Greeks and Romans, traded for Tin with the inhabitants of South-western Britain, and it is believed that this continued an article of commerce even in the middle ages. In the reign of Richard I., it constituted one of the principal sources of revenue of the earldom of Cornwall; and in 1250, Henry III. granted a charter of protection to the tinners of Devon. The tin was formerly smelted and coined in the county, but on account of the great diminution in the produce of the mines, it is now conveyed to Cornwall. Some Copper mines were worked early in the last century, and they were greatly extended at the commencement of the present, the augmented value of the metal then stimulating the miners to increased exertions. The Lead ores of Devonshire and Cornwall contain a greater proportion of silver than those in any other part of the kingdom; the veins range from north to south, crossing the usual direction of the copper and tin mines: the greater part of the ore dug near Tavistock is shipped at Plymouth. Manganese was discovered here in 1770, since which period great quantities have been procured, and it has formed a considerable article of commerce. A very rich Ironstone is found near Combe-Martin, and another species on Black-down. Several attempts to procure Coal have been made, but they were ineffectual, and the most scientific geologists are of opinion that it does not exist to any profitable extent, although a very thin vein has been found at Chittlehampton, in the northern part of the county. The deposit of coaly matter found near Bovey-Tracey, and hence called "Bovey coal," is a species of wood coal: including the beds of clay with which the coal is interstratified, it is about seventy feet thick. Granite of the best quality may be obtained to any extent from the Dartmoor rocks, and since the construction of the two under-mentioned railways, to convey it to Plymouth and the estuary of the Teign, it has become an article of considerable commerce: the Heytor granite is said to be equal in quality to that of Aberdeen. Valuable beds of Limestone exist in almost every part of the county, and vast quantities of lime are obtained from them, in addition to which there are numerous kilns on the northern coast used for burning limestone imported from Wales, so extensively is this article applied as manure: in some places the limestone strata comprise beds of beautiful marble. Freestone and other kinds of stone useful for building, and slates of a good quality for roofing, are quarried in various places; and the soft sandstone on the side of Black-down is worked while wet into hones, which are sent to Bristol and other parts of the kingdom: another species of sandstone is converted into an inferior kind of millstones. There are also deep beds of pipe and potters' clay.
The principal branch of Manufacture is that of woollencloth, which was carried on here so early as the reign of Edward I., though only frieze and plain coarse cloths were made until that of Edward IV., when the manufacture of kerseys was introduced. Devonshire kerseys were an important article of commerce with the Levant, in the early part of the 16th century, and the trade experienced a further increase in the 17th, towards the close of which it was at its greatest height; but during the late continental war the demand from foreign countries very much declined, and the trade has not since recovered its former extent. The manufacture of bonelace at Honiton and Bradninch, introduced probably in the reign of Elizabeth, is now on the decline; but an extensive manufacture of machine lace has been established at Tiverton: the glove-trade is carried on to a considerable extent at Torrington. Large quantities of shoes, made at Ashburton, Dartmouth, and Kingsbridge, are sent to Newfoundland. Ship-building is an important feature in the trade of the county, at Plymouth, Teignmouth, Dartmouth, Devonport, and Bideford; and there are extensive potteries, from which great quantities of coarse earthenware are exported. The Fisheries afford employment to a considerable number of persons; but the herring-fishery on the northern coast has been of late years much less productive than formerly. The pilchard-fishery, on the southern coast, is carried on chiefly in Bigbury bay, at Dartmouth, and at Brixham. At Plymouth, fifty decked trawlers, besides a much greater number of yawls, are constantly engaged in procuring turbot, soles, whiting, &c., and more than 1000 men and boys are thus employed. At Star-Cross are oyster-beds; the oysters are brought from the Teign, and from Weymouth, Poole, Saltash, &c., and, having been fed here for some time, are sold in the Exeter market. Young oysters from the Teign are also sent to be fed in the Thames, for the London market. In connexion with these various branches of industry, the commerce is extensive: the principal exports are woollen goods, fish, corn, malt, cider, timber, and bark; silver, copper, tin, and lead ores; antimony (from Cornwall), manganese, marble, granite, lime, and pipe and potters' clay: the chief imports are coal, culm, dried fish from Newfoundland, hemp, tallow, deals, iron, wine, and groceries.
The rivers, owing to the extent and unevenness of the surface, and the humidity of the climate, are very numerous; the principal are the Axe, the Otter, the Exe, the Teign, the Dart, the Avon, the Erme, the Yealme, the Plym, the Tamar, the Tavy, the Torridge, the Taw, and the Okement. The Exe, from Topsham to Exmouth, where it falls into the sea, is, on an average, nearly a mile broad, and is here navigable for ships of large burthen: vessels formerly ascended it to Exeter, but the navigation having received successive injuries, only sloops and barges now reach that city by a canal, five miles in length, originally constructed in the reign of Henry VIII., but recently extended and improved. The Dart falls into the sea at Dartmouth, and is navigable up to Totnes, forming in its lower reaches a deep and romantic estuary. The Teign, in its course to the sea between Shaldon and Teignmouth, becomes a wide estuary near King's-Teignton; it is navigable to Newton-Bushell. The Yealme falls into the sea at Yealmemouth, and is navigable for small brigs up to Kitley quay, and for barges and small boats half a mile higher. The Plym, in its course to the sea below Plymouth, forms a wide estuary near Saltram, and is navigable for vessels of war up to Catwater, and for ships of about fifty tons' burthen up to Crabtree. The Tamar becomes a wide estuary near Beer-Alston, and a little below Saltash forms the magnificent harbour of Hamoaze, which, sweeping past Devonport, opens into Cawsand bay, between Stonehouse and Mount-Edgcumbe; it is navigable for vessels of 130 tons up to New Quay, about twenty-four miles above Plymouth. The Torridge spreads into a wide estuary at Bideford, and near Appledore unites with that of the Taw, about two miles below which it falls into Barnstaple bay; it is navigable for ships of large burthen up to Bideford, and for boats up to Wear-Gifford. The Taw expands into a broad estuary at Barnstaple, and about six miles lower joins the Torridge: it is not usually navigated up to Barnstaple by vessels of more than eighty tons' burthen, though vessels of 140 tons sometimes sail to that port; for boats and barges it is navigable as high as Newbridge. Salmon are caught in all the principal rivers, those of the Exe and Dart being most esteemed; but here, as in other parts of the kingdom, the salmon-fishery has much declined, in consequence of the fish being destroyed in the spawning season: salmon-peel is found in the Tavy, the Tamar, the Otter, the Dart, the Erme, and the Mole; trout abound in nearly all the larger streams, and the lamprey is found in the Exe and the Mole.
The Stover or Teigngrace canal, from Bovey-Tracey to the river Teign at Newton-Abbott, was completed about the year 1794, at the expense of James Templer, Esq. Under an act obtained in 1803, a canal was completed in 1817, from the tideway of the Tamar, at Morwelham Quay, near Calstock, to the town of Tavistock, a distance of about four miles, in a north-eastern course, in which it passes under Morwelham Down, by a tunnel about 2640 yards long, and 460 feet beneath the highest point of the down. A branch, three furlongs in length, extends from Crebar to the slate-quarries at Mill-Hill bridge; and near the point at which this diverges, the main line is carried across the Lambourn stream, by an aqueduct 200 yards long and 60 feet high. In 1819, an act was obtained for the construction of the Bude canal, which reaches from Bude, in Cornwall, to Thornbury, in Devonshire, and affords facilities for the importation of sea-sand and Welsh coal. The Grand Western canal, the intended line of which was to connect the Exe, at Topsham, with the Parret, at Bishop's-Hull, was undertaken pursuant to an act passed in 1796, and slowly carried on under others obtained in 1811 and 1812, but is still only partially completed: entering from Somersetshire, a branch from Burlescombe extends as far as Tiverton. The Plymouth and Dartmoor Railway, chiefly for the conveyance of granite from Dartmoor to the port of Plymouth, was constructed under an act passed in 1819, and was extended, by a branch from Crabtree to the lime-works at Catdown and Sutton Pool, under another obtained in 1820, and still further improved under a third procured in 1821. A similar railroad extends from Heytor, in the eastern part of Dartmoor, to the Stover canal. The Bristol and Exeter railway enters the county from Somerset, and, passing by Cullompton, has its terminus at Exeter; a short branch leads to Tiverton, from a point a few miles north of Cullompton. The South Devon line, between Exeter and Plymouth, commences at Exeter, and proceeds along the west side of the river Exe and along the coast to Dawlish and Teignmouth: it then takes a western course north of the Teign, to Newton-Abbott, and passes inland by Totnes to Plymouth. A railway has also been opened from Exeter to Crediton; and the Taw Vale line has been partly opened, at Barnstaple.
The most remarkable remains of the ancient Britons are, a circular inclosure of loose stones, called Grimspound, in the parish of Manaton, and smaller circles found, often in groups, on many parts of Dartmoor, also near Widdecombe-on-the-Moor, and at Nightacott, in the parish of Bratton-Fleming; a large cromlech at Drews-Teignton; some sepulchral stones; and numerous tumuli, or barrows, on various parts of the downs, especially the northern. Many of these last are composed of stones, and called cairns; and urns, coins, celts, &c., have been found in the barrows. Of the numerous encampments, not a few are believed to be British; and it is the opinion of some writers that the chain of strong posts on the eastern side of the county was constructed by the Danmonii, to defend their frontier against the Morini: several of these camps, however, were occupied, if not formed, by the Romans, as is evident from the discovery of Roman coins. Notwithstanding the existence of the stations Isca Danmoniorum, Moridunum, Durium, Tamara, Termolus (perhaps at Molland-Bottreaux), and Artavia, the remains of Roman antiquity that have been discovered are comparatively few and unimportant; and the site of only one of the stations has been fixed with certainty, viz., Isca Danmoniorum, now Exeter. The principal ancient roads still traceable in parts of their course are, the Ikeneld, or Iknield way, which crossed the county from Dorsetshire into Cornwall, passing through Exeter, and was originally of British construction; the Fosse-way, which fell into or crossed the former, near the eastern border of the county; and the Port-way, which led from the centre of Somersetshire towards Exeter, in the line of the present turnpike-road from Taunton. British roads are supposed to have extended from the mouth of the Exe to the great camp at Woodbury; from Exeter respectively to Cleeve House, to the north-western part of the county, and to Molland-Bottreaux; and from Seaton, by the camp at Hembury, to Molland: these were subsequently used by the Romans, and various remains of them are yet visible. A considerable Roman road may be traced nearly across the north-eastern part of the county, from Taunton to Stratton, passing by several camps of undoubted Roman construction, and designated, in some places, the Rumansleigh ridge.
The Camps of acknowledged Roman antiquity are, Countisbury, on the northern channel; the camp in Sir Thomas Acland's park at Killerton, where coins have been found; Bradbury, between Exeter and Stratton; and Bury Castle, in Witheridge, between Exeter and Molland. Shorsbury, in the parish of High Bray, is, perhaps, of the same origin; and Hembury, if not constructed by the Romans, was at least occupied by them. In the extreme eastern part of the county are the camps of Membury, Musbury, and Oxendown Hill near Axmouth: there are two in the parish of Widworthy; and proceeding westward, are found the Dumpton and Hembury forts; Belbury Castle, commanding the vale of the Otter; Blackbury, near Southleigh; Honeyditches, near Seaton; and a fortification on the hill above Sidbury. To the west of the Otter are, Woodbury Castle; the camps on Haldon, and at Ugbrook on Melbourne down: a small camp near Newton; that at Denbury; the fort called Hembury, in the parish of Buckfastleigh; a camp at Berry-head, commanding Tor bay; Stanborough Castle, in the parish of Morleigh; and a large camp at Blackadon, in the parish of Loddiswell. The most remarkable Fortress on the northwestern coast is that of Dickenhills, or Clovelly dykes; and there are others at or near Appledore, Barnstaple, Braunton, Berry-Narber, Bratton-Fleming, Paracombe, Linton, and Charles. Among the principal inland fortresses are, Cadbury; Broadbury, between Ashbury and Bratton-Clovelly; and Ramsdon, near Kelly. There is also a line of strong posts from Exeter to Dartmoor, and several camps and posts extended nearly in a line from Exeter, through Crediton, to Molton and Molland. Various other fortified posts are scattered over the surface; and on Black-down are some singular excavations, said to mark the site of a British town.
Before the Reformation there were 33 religious houses within the limits of the county, including one preceptory of the Knights Templars, and thirteen collegiate establishments, of which only that of the church of St. Peter at Exeter remains; there were likewise sixteen hospitals, of which seven are still in existence. The remains of monastic buildings consist only of some vestiges of those at Frithelstock, Ford, Tavistock, Hartland, Polsloe, Exeter, Slapton, Tor-abbey, Plymouth, Buckfastleigh, and Buckland. Of the ruins of ancient castles and fortified mansions the most remarkable are those at Oakhampton, Plympton, Lydford, Dartmouth, Berry - Pomeroy, Compton, Hemyock, and Tiverton. The most perfect ancient mansion is Bradfield Hall, in the parish of Uffculme; and Buckland Abbey, Bradley near Newton-Bushell, Collacombe, Colyton vicaragehouse, Dartington Hall (erected in the reign of Richard II.), the episcopal palace at Exeter, Ford House near Newton-Abbott, Fulford House, Morwell House, Sydenham House in Maristow parish, and Whiddon in that of Chagford, are also worthy of notice. The most distinguished modern seats are Mount - Edgcumbe, Castle Hill, Powderham, Saltram, Mamhead, Killerton, Kitley, Haldon House, Tavistock, Bicton, Watermouth, Endsleigh, Heanton, &c. Chalybeate springs abound, and many of them have enjoyed a temporary celebrity: at Ashburton, and near the Dart, are springs saturated with ochre; Lay Well, at Brixham, ebbs and flows. Among the sports and pastimes of the county may be noticed the practice of wrestling, which prevails mostly in the north of Devon, and in the neighbourhood of Plymouth, and elsewhere on the border of Cornwall. Devonshire gives the title of Duke to the family of Cavendish, and that of Earl to the family of Courtenay, who are styled Earls of Devon, and whose claim to the earldom was established by a decision of the House of Lords, in 1831.
Dewchurch, Little (St. David)
DEWCHURCH, LITTLE (St. David), a parish, in the Upper division of the hundred of Wormelow, union and county of Hereford, 6 miles (S. by E.) from Hereford; containing 330 inhabitants. The road from Hereford to Ross crosses the parish, which consists of 1652 acres of a highly rich and productive soil. The living is annexed, with the livings of Hentland, Llangarran, and St. Weonard's, to the vicarage of Lugwardine: the tithes have been commuted for £286, of which the Dean and Chapter of Hereford are entitled to £117, the vicar to £90, the rector of Lanwarne to £24, and another impropriator to £55.
Dewchurch, Much (St. Thomas the Martyr)
DEWCHURCH, MUCH (St. Thomas the Martyr), a parish, in the Upper division of the hundred of Wormelow, union and county of Hereford, 6½ miles (S. W. by S.) from Hereford; containing 579 inhabitants. A great portion of the northern extremity of Saddlebow hill is embraced within the parish, which contains 4251 acres, and is crossed by the road from Ross to Thruxton. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £9. 13. 4.; net income, £474; patron, G. Symons, Esq. This benefice and the benefice of Much Birch have been lately united.
Dewlish (All Saints)
DEWLISH (All Saints), a parish, in the union of Dorchester, liberty of Dewlish, Dorchester division of Dorset, 7 miles (N. E.) from Dorchester; containing 389 inhabitants. The living is a vicarage, annexed to that of Milbourne St. Andrew: the vicarial tithes of Dewlish have been commuted for £100. The church is an ancient structure.
Dewsall (St. Michael)
DEWSALL (St. Michael), a parish, in the Upper division of the hundred of Wormelow, union and county of Hereford, 5½ miles (S. W. by S.) from Hereford; containing 40 inhabitants. It comprises by measurement 667 acres of fertile land; the surface is pleasingly varied, and from the higher grounds are some fine views of the surrounding country, embracing the Welsh mountains. The living is a discharged vicarage, endowed with the rectorial tithes, with the living of Callow annexed, and in the patronage of Guy's Hospital, London: the tithes of the parish have been commuted for £114. 4. 6., and the glebe contains 2 acres.
Dewsbury (All Saints)
DEWSBURY (All Saints), a market-town and parish, and the head of a union, partly in the wapentake of Morley, but chiefly in the Lower division of that of Agbrigg, W. riding of York; comprising the townships of Dewsbury, Ossett with Gawthorpe, and Soothill, and the chapelry of Hartshead with Clifton; the whole containing 23,806 inhabitants, of whom 10,600 are in the township of Dewsbury, 34 miles (S. W.) from York, and 188 (N. N. W.) from London. This town is supposed to have derived its name, originally Duisburgh, from Dui, the tutelar deity of the Brigantes, to whom a votive altar, dedicated by Aurelianus, was found in the vicinity, and is still preserved at Bradley. In the infancy of Christianity, it was a place of great importance, being the earliest in this part of Britain in which the Christian religion was received, and the spot from which it spread into other portions of the kingdom. In the former part of the seventh century, Edwin, King of Northumbria, had a palace here, where his Queen Ethelburga, who had subscribed to the Christian faith, was attended by Paulinus, first Archbishop of York; and Edwin himself, and his whole court, were subsequently converted, in 627, in memory of which event, a cross was erected on the spot, with the inscription, "Paulinus hic prædicavit et celebravit." Several Saxon and Norman antiquities found near the church have been collected, and are preserved in the gardens of the vicarage-house.
The town is pleasantly situated at the base of a hill rising from the banks of the river Calder, and has been greatly improved by new lines of approach, on which numerous handsome houses have been erected; it is lighted with gas. A public library is supported by subscription; and there is also a parochial library, established by the vicar in 1842, and which at its commencement contained 600 volumes. The trade and consequent prosperity of the town have been promoted by the extension of the Calder and Hebble navigation, and within the last ten years the place has been rapidly advancing. The inhabitants are chiefly occupied in the manufacture of blankets, druggets, carpets, flushings, and coverlets; and the finer descriptions of woollencloths, recently introduced, and for the fulling of which the water of the Calder is peculiarly favourable, are now manufactured to a very great extent, giving employment to more than 5000 persons in the town and neighbourhood. The river Calder, and the canals connected with it, afford direct communication with Liverpool, Manchester, Rochdale, Halifax, and Wakefield, and also with the river Humber; and the Leeds, Dewsbury, Huddersfield, and Manchester railway, and the old Leeds and Manchester railway, pass close to the town. The market is on Wednesday, and there is also a market for provisions on Saturday, which is numerously attended by persons from the surrounding district. Fairs take place on the Wednesday before Old May-day, and the Wednesday preceding the 8th of October; and pettysessions are held every alternate Saturday. The powers of the county debt-court of Dewsbury, established in 1847, extend over the registration-district of Dewsbury. A court-house was built in 1845.
The parish, which is of great antiquity, and during the heptarchy extended over an area of 400 square miles, including the present parishes of Thornhill, Burton, Almondbury, Kirk-Heaton, Huddersfield, Bradford, Halifax, and Mirfield, now comprises 9551 acres, of which 1335 are in the township of Dewsbury: the soil is fertile, the scenery greatly diversified, and the substratum abounds with coal, which is extensively wrought. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £22. 13. 9., and in the patronage of the Crown, with a net income of £233; impropriators, J. F. and Robert Carr, Esqrs. The vicarial tithes were commuted for land, under an act of inclosure, in 1803. The church, a structure of great antiquity, was, with the exception of the chancel and the columns that support the roof of the nave, rebuilt in 1767, with due regard to the preservation of its original character; it contains a tablet to Henry Tilson, Bishop of Elphin, and some remains of stained glass. At West Town is a church, the first stone of which was laid in May 1847. There are churches also at Hartshead, Hanging-Heaton, Earls-Heaton, Ossett, Dewsbury-Moor, and Batley-Carr, all of which are noticed under their respective heads; they are perpetual curacies, in the patronage of the Vicar. In the town are places of worship for the Society of Friends, Independents, Primitive Methodists, Methodists of the New Connexion, and Wesleyans. The parochial school was founded about 1750, by Mrs. Bedford, Mr. Thomas Bedford, and Mr. William Walker, who endowed it with property now producing £108 per annum; a house for the master, and a spacious schoolroom, were built in 1810, at a cost of £1300, arising from the sale of coal under the estate. Among the other schools is one, now on the national plan, founded by Mr. John Wheelwright, and endowed with £100 per annum, paid by his trustees, of which £50 are received by the master, and £40 by the mistress, for the instruction of 100 boys and 100 girls. The poor law union comprises 11 townships, containing a population of 60,713 persons.
DEWSBURY-MOOR, an ecclesiastical district, in the parish and union of Dewsbury, partly in the wapentake of Morley, but chiefly in the Lower division of that of Agbrigg, W. riding of York, 1 mile (W.) from Dewsbury. This district, which was formed in 1837, partakes largely of the character of the surrounding parts, the population being chiefly employed in the manufacture of blankets and woollen-cloths, and in collieries. The church, dedicated to St. John, was erected at an expense of £5502, chiefly by parliamentary grant, and was consecrated on the 4th Sept. 1827; it is a neat structure in the later English style, with a square embattled tower crowned by pinnacles, and contains 600 sittings, of which 300 are free. The living is a perpetual curacy, in the patronage of the Vicar of Dewsbury, with a net income of £150, and an excellent glebehouse.
DEXTHORPE, a hamlet, in the union of Spilsby, Wold division of the wapentake of Candleshoe, parts of Lindsey, county of Lincoln; containing 52 inhabitants. It is in the parish of Dalby as regards the maintenance of the poor and the repair of the roads, but is ecclesiastically united to the parish of Well.
DIBDEN, a parish and liberty, in the union of New-Forest, Southampton and S. divisions of the county of Southampton, 3 miles (S. W.) from Southampton by water, and 9 by land; containing 490 inhabitants. This place, the name of which, anciently Depedene, was descriptive of its situation in a thicklywooded dell, was of some importance at the time of the Conquest. The parish is bounded on the east by the Southampton Water, and comprises 2205 acres, whereof 341 are common or waste. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £5. 12. 11., and in the patronage of Lord Ashburton: the tithes have been commuted for £415, and the glebe consists of 6 acres. The church, a very ancient structure, has been thoroughly repaired and repewed, at a cost of £500, and some windows of painted glass have been inserted; it contains monuments to the Lisle family, who were lords of the manor, and of whom Lady Lisle was condemned to death by Judge Jeffries.
Dickleburgh (All Saints)
DICKLEBURGH (All Saints), a parish, in the union of Depwade, hundred of Diss, E. division of Norfolk, 2 miles (N. N. E.) from Scole; containing, with the hamlet of Langmere, 856 inhabitants. At the time of the Conquest, the parish comprised a large town called Semere, now an inconsiderable hamlet; and the parish was anciently divided into four portions, each of which had a rector of its own. The area is 2356a. 2r. 4p., whereof about 1623 acres are arable, 679 pasture, and 11 woodland: the village is pleasantly situated on the road to Norwich. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £28, and in the patronage of Trinity College, Cambridge: the tithes have been commuted for £725, and there is a manor belonging to the living worth £100 per annum, with 94 acres of glebe. A handsome parsonage has been built. The church is in the decorated English style, with a square embattled tower, and contains a finely sculptured font of Caen stone; the nave is lighted by a range of clerestory windows, and there are some remains of stained glass.
Didbrook (St. George)
DIDBROOK (St. George), a parish, in the union of Winchcomb, Lower division of the hundred of Kiftsgate, E. division of the county of Gloucester, 2¾ miles (N. E.) from Winchcomb; containing, with the township of Pinnock with Hyde, and the hamlets of Coscomb and Wormington-Grange, 353 inhabitants. The parish comprises about 1460 acres, the greater part in pasture; the soil is clayey, and of great fertility; the surface is generally flat, and watered by a rivulet called the Isbourn. The living is a discharged vicarage, with the rectory of Pinnock annexed, valued in the king's books at £7. 9. 10.; net income, £257; patron and impropriator, Lord Sudeley. The church appears, from an inscription, to have been built about 1470; it is in the later English style, with an embattled tower, and has some stained glass. There is a chapel at Hayles, in the parish.
Didcote, Berks.—See Dudcote.
Diddington (St. Lawrence)
DIDDINGTON (St. Lawrence), a parish, in the union of St. Neot's, hundred of Tozeland, county of Huntingdon, 1 mile (S.) from Buckden; containing 212 inhabitants. This parish, which is situated on the great north road, and divided from the parish of Offord by the river Ouse, comprises by measurement 1290 acres. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £7. 4. 7½.; net income, £134; patrons and impropriators, the Warden and Fellows of Merton College, Oxford. The tithes were commuted for land and a corn-rent in 1797.
Diddlebury (St. Peter)
DIDDLEBURY (St. Peter), a parish, in the union of Ludlow, hundred of Munslow, S. division of Salop, 8 miles (N.) from Ludlow, on the road to Wenlock; containing 896 inhabitants. Limestone and an inferior stone for building are quarried. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £12. 1. 3.; patrons and appropriators, the Dean and Chapter of Hereford. The tithes have been commuted for £340, and there are 50 acres of glebe given in lieu of right to a common now inclosed; also a glebe-house. At Westhope, in the parish, is a chapel of ease. A school is partly supported by subscription, and a Sunday school by an endowment. Mary Valentine, in 1822, gave £1000 four per cent. consols, reduced, of which the dividend is distributed in bread to the poor; and in 1840, Mrs. Radnor left £100, the interest to be distributed to poor widows on the Saturday before Christmas-day. Here was an alien priory, which, with the patronage of the church, belonged to the convent of Sagium, or Seez, in Normandy, and was afterwards appropriated to the abbey of Shrewsbury. At Corfton, on a bank above the rectory, stood a small Norman keep, and at Broncroft another; and extensive moats remain at Peeton, where stood Corsham Castle, one of the strongholds of the Earl of Clifford, and, it is said, the occasional residence of Fair Rosamond. At Little Sutton is a petrifying spring.
DIDLING, a parish, in the union and parliamentary borough of Midhurst, hundred of Dumpford, rape of Chichester, W. division of Sussex, 4 miles (S. W. by W.) from Midhurst; containing 119 inhabitants, and comprising 814 acres, of which 201 are common or waste land. The living is a vicarage, annexed to the rectory of Elstead. The church is in the early English style.
Didlington (St. Michael)
DIDLINGTON (St. Michael), a parish, in the union of Swaffham, hundred of South Greenhoe, W. division of Norfolk, 7 miles (N.) from Brandon; containing 77 inhabitants. It comprises about 1000 acres, the property of Lord Berners, of Didlington Hall, a neat brick mansion, in a small park ornamented with a fine piece of water and several lime-trees. The living is a discharged vicarage, with the rectory of Colveston consolidated, valued in the king's books at £3. 4. 4½.; net income, £110; patron and impropriator, Lord Berners: the glebe consists of about 80 acres. The church is a neat structure, picturesquely situated in the park, with a square embattled tower, and contains some monuments to his lordship's family.
Didmarton (St. Lawrence)
DIDMARTON (St. Lawrence), a parish, in the union of Tetbury, Upper division of the hundred of Grumbald's-Ash, W. division of the county of Gloucester, 4¾ miles (S. W.) from Tetbury; containing 95 inhabitants. The living is a discharged rectory, united to the rectory of Oldbury-on-the-Hill, and valued in the king's books at £8: the tithes have been commuted for £135, and the glebe comprises 34 acres. The church is a small building of singular form, with a turret of wood. A school is supported by subscription.
DIDSBURY, a parochial chapelry, in the parish of Manchester, union of Chorlton, hundred of Salford, S. division of the county of Lancaster, 5½ miles (S.) from Manchester; containing 5008 inhabitants, of whom 1248 are in the township of Didsbury. This chapelry, which is separated from Cheshire by the river Mersey, consists of the townships of Didsbury, Heaton-Norris, Burnage, and Withington; and comprises about 6190 acres, whereof 1560 are in Didsbury. The village lies on the road from Manchester to Congleton. A spinning, weaving, and bleaching manufactory, called Heaton-Mersey mills, employs about 1000 hands. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £188; patron, James Darwell, Esq.; appropriators, the Dean and Chapter of Manchester. The glebe contains 141/5 Lancashire acres, situated in the parish of Flixton. The chapel is dedicated to St. James, and is a very ancient structure, erected at different periods; it was repaired in 1620, when the tower was also rebuilt: there are several monuments to members of the families of Mosley and Bland, and a very interesting one to the family of Sir Nicolas Mosley, who was lord mayor of London about the year 1673. At Heaton-Norris is the old living of St. Thomas'. A church has lately been erected at Withington, to which the townships of Withington and Burnage have been assigned as a district; and another church has just been built at Heaton-Mersey, to which that part of the township of Heaton-Norris has been attached. The Wesleyans have a place of worship at Withington, and in the village of Didsbury a theological institution, adapted for 40 students. The building of the institution has an ornamental stone front, and retiring wings, forming three sides of a quadrangle; the centre part was the mansion of the late Col. Parker: attached are ten acres of land, beautifully laid out. Among the other places of worship is one at Heaton-Mersey for Independents, who have a college at Withington. Schools are supported by subscription, aided by a small endowment. The registers record the interment here of some officers of the royalist and parliamentary armies.
Digby (St. Thomas à Becket)
DIGBY (St. Thomas à Becket), a parish, in the union of Sleaford, wapentake of Flaxwell, parts of Kesteven, county of Lincoln, 6 miles (N. by E.) from Sleaford; containing 364 inhabitants. This parish, which is the property of the Earl of Harrowby, comprises by computation 3000 acres. A pleasure-fair is held on the 6th of July. The living is a discharged vicarage, united in 1717 to the rectory of Bloxham, and valued in the king's books at £5. 2. 11.: the tithes have been commuted for £240, and there are about ¾ of an acre of glebe. The church is a very handsome structure in the decorated English style, with a square embattled tower crowned with crocketted pinnacles, and surmounted by a spire of elegant design; the walls of the church are embattled, and the entrance is under a richly ornamented Norman arch. A school is endowed with £20 per annum, arising from land given by Henry Young, in 1761.
DIGBY'S-WASH, an extra-parochial liberty, adjoining the parish of Pinchbeck, in the union of Spalding, wapentake of Elloe, parts of Holland, county of Lincoln; containing 11 inhabitants. This place comprises 236 acres of land.
Digswell (St. John the Evangelist)
DIGSWELL (St. John the Evangelist), a parish, in the union of Welwyn, hundred of Broadwater, county of Hertford, 1¼ mile (S. E. by S.) from Welwyn; containing 187 inhabitants. It comprises 1623a. 3r. 10p., of which about 1000 acres are arable, 282 pasture, and 301 wood. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £7. 4. 2.; net income, £393; patron, the Rev. G. E. Prescott. The church has a chapel on the north side, and a square embattled tower at the west end; it contains many ancient effigies in brass, with various other sepulchral emblems.
Dilham (St. Nicholas)
DILHAM (St. Nicholas), a parish, in the incorporation of Tunstead and Happing, hundred of Tunstead, E. division of Norfolk, 5 miles (S. E.) from North Walsham; containing 488 inhabitants. The parish comprises 1563a. 9p., of which 1100 acres are arable, 365 meadow and pasture, 50 wood and plantation, and 25 water; a plantation of oaks, with a few other trees, covering about 25 acres, is completely surrounded by water. On the east side of the parish is Dilham Staith, upon the river Ant, where malting and lime-burning are carried on to a considerable extent: on the north is Dilham Mill, with a large pool or dam of 15 acres, connected with the Dilham and North Walsham canal, which is a cut from the river. The living is a discharged vicarage, with that of Honing united, valued in the king's books at £5. 7. 11.; patron and appropriator, the Bishop of Ely, under whom the Master and Fellows of Caius College, Cambridge, are lessees. The great tithes have been commuted for £315, and the vicarial for £163; and the glebe contains two acres. The body of the church, which is of brick, was rebuilt in 1755; in 1840 it was repewed, when 125 additional sittings were obtained.
Dilhorne (All Saints)
DILHORNE (All Saints), a parish, in the union of Cheadle, N. division of the hundred of Totmonslow and of the county of Stafford, 2¼ miles (W.) from Cheadle; containing with the township of Forsbrook, 1579 inhabitants. It comprises 3558a. 2r. 4p. of land: the whole extent towards Cheadle is supposed to be beds of coal, and three coal-mines are at present in operation. The Hall is a handsome seat. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £8. 13.; patrons and appropriators, the Dean and Chapter of Lichfield and Coventry. The great tithes have been commuted for £210, and the vicarial for £70; there are two acres of glebe belonging to the Dean and Chapter, and the vicarial glebe comprises about 90 acres. The church is a spacious structure; the body is modern, but the chancel and tower are very ancient, the latter being of an octagonal form, large and unadorned, and esteemed one of the most perfect specimens of the Norman style to be found in England. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans. The free grammar school is said to have been founded by an earl of Huntingdon, in the reign of Henry VIII., and endowed by the inhabitants; the income is now about £300 a year, and a new schoolroom, with a residence for the master, has been erected in the Elizabethan style, by the family of the Marquess of Hastings, the patron, at Blythemarsh, on the road from Uttoxeter to Newcastle. Three doles, amounting to £11. 12. per annum, are appropriated to the poor.