A Topographical Dictionary of England. Originally published by S Lewis, London, 1848.
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Bushley (St. Peter)
BUSHLEY (St. Peter), a parish, in the union of Upton-upon-Severn, Lower division of the hundred of Pershore, Upton and W. divisions of the county of Worcester, 1½ mile (N. W.) from Tewkesbury; containing 334 inhabitants. The parish is situated on the river Severn, by which it is bounded on the east, and which, on the opposite bank, receives the waters of the Avon, a little above Tewkesbury, in the county of Gloucester. It comprises 1681 acres, more than two-thirds of which consist of pasture and orchards; the lands are well-wooded, and the soil fertile. The village lies a little to the north of the Tewkesbury and Ledbury road. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £58; patron and impropriator, J. E. Dowdeswell, Esq. The present church, consecrated in June, 1843, stands on rising ground, and is a handsome edifice of cruciform design, with a spire: the walls are built of blue stone procured in the parish; the ornamental parts are of freestone. A small school is supported by the Dowdeswell family.
BUSLINGTHORPE, a parish, in the union of Caistor, wapentake of Lawress, parts of Lindsey, county of Lincoln, 4 miles (S. W. by S.) from MarketRasen; containing 50 inhabitants. The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at £2, and in the patronage of the Governors of the Charter-house, London: the tithes have been commuted for £235.
BUSTON, HIGH, a township, in the parish of Warkworth, union of Alnwick, E. division of Coquetdale ward, N. division of Northumberland, 4¾ miles (S. E.) from Alnwick; containing 100 inhabitants. It is bounded on the east by the German Ocean, and comprises 690 acres. Of the soil, which is rich, twothirds are arable, and the remainder pasture; the surface is undulated, and an excellent beach affords every facility for bathing. The tithes have been commuted for £78. 8. payable to the Bishop of Carlisle, and £23. 16. to the vicar of the parish.
BUSTON, LOW, a township, in the parish of Warkworth, union of Alnwick, E. division of Coquetdale ward, N. division of Northumberland, 5 miles (S. E. by S.) from Alnwick; containing 115 inhabitants. It is situated north of the river Coquet, and at some little distance to the east is the North Sea. The tithes have been commuted for £143. 18. payable to the Bishop of Carlisle, and £71. 4. to the vicar.
Butcombe (St. Michael,)
BUTCOMBE (St. Michael,) a parish, in the union of Axbridge, hundred of Hartcliffe with Bedminster, E. division of Somerset, 9 miles (S. S. W.) from Bristol; containing 256 inhabitants. It abounds in ironstone, which is sent to Bristol, and there shipped to Wales. The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at £6. 17. 10.; patron and incumbent, Rev. George John Sayce: the tithes have been commuted for £210, and the glebe consists of 5 acres. The church is a very old structure. A singular barrow, 150 feet in length from north to south, and 75 in breadth from east to west, was opened in 1788, and exhibited an entire specimen of a well-arranged family vault, in which were found skulls and other fragments of human bones.
Buteland, with Broomhope
BUTELAND, with Broomhope, a township, in the parochial chapelry of Birtley, union of Bellingham, N. E. division of Tindale ward, S. division of Northumberland, 2½ miles (E. by S.) from Bellingham; containing 145 inhabitants. The North Tyne river flows at a short distance from the hamlet on the west. An extensive farm here belongs to Greenwich Hospital.
Butleigh (St. Leonard)
BUTLEIGH (St. Leonard), a parish, in the union of Wells, hundred of Whitley, W. division of Somerset, 4½ miles (S. S. E.) from Glastonbury; containing, with the hamlet of Wooton-Butleigh, 872 inhabitants. The manor belonged to the abbots of Glastonbury, who had a park here. The parish is bounded on the northeast by the river Brue, and comprises by measurement 4670 acres: blue lias, which is used for paving and for building purposes, is quarried to a considerable extent. The living is a vicarage, with the living of Baltonsborough annexed, valued in the king's books at £12. 6. 8.; net income, £380; patron, the Hon. and Rev. G. Neville Grenville; impropriators, C. Neville Grenville, Esq., and the Saunders family. The church is a handsome structure in the decorated English style, with a central tower, and contains monuments to the Right Hon. James Grenville, to James Grenville, Baron Glastonbury, to General Richard Grenville, Sir Samuel Hood, Capt. Alexander Hood, and several lords of the manor. Admirals Viscounts Hood and Bridport were natives of the parish. There is a chalybeate spring, but in disuse.
BUTLEY, a township, in the parish of Prestbury, union and hundred of Macclesfield, N. division of the county of Chester, 2¾ miles (N. by W.) from Macclesfield; containing 602 inhabitants. At the time of the Norman survey, this place, then the property of Ulluric, a Saxon free-man, was exempted, and is consequently unnoticed in Domesday book; a mark of clemency which the owner probably acquired by some signal service to the Conqueror. The township comprises 1470 acres of land, the soil of which is clay and sand. The manufacture of silk is carried on to some extent. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans, with a school attached. Some tumuli were discovered in the vicinity a few years since. This is the birthplace of Thomas Newton, a distinguished writer in the sixteenth century.
Butley (St. John the Baptist)
BUTLEY (St. John the Baptist), a parish, in the union of Plomesgate, partly in the hundred of Plomesgate, but chiefly in that of Loes, E. division of Suffolk, 7¼ miles (E. by N.) from Woodbridge; containing 364 inhabitants. It is bounded on the east by a branch of the river Ore, called Butley Creek or Eye, over which are two ferries to Orford. The living is a perpetual curacy, with the living of Capel; net income, £135; patrons and impropriators, the Trustees of P. Thellusson, Esq. A priory of Black canons, dedicated to the Blessed Virgin, was founded in 1171, by Ranulph de Glanvill, a celebrated lawyer, and afterwards justiciary of England: the revenue, at the Dissolution, was £318. 17. 2. There are only some trifling remains of the buildings of the priory, but the gate-house is still in good preservation.
BUTSFIELD, a township, in the parish and union of Lanchester, W. division of Chester ward, N. division of the county of Durham, 11 miles (W. by N.) from Durham; containing 252 inhabitants. Two Roman aqueducts, for supplying the station at Lanchester, may be traced in the neighbourhood, particularly in the grounds belonging to Thomas White, Esq., who, on the inclosure of the common lands in 1773, purchased a part which was sold to defray the expense incurred in carrying the act of parliament into effect, and out of a barren waste succeeded in raising, in the course of a few years, the thriving and well-planted estate of Woodlands. Mr. White also built a good mansion-house, laid out pleasure-grounds and gardens, and made the neglected waters of the aqueducts supply his fishponds and reservoirs.
BUTTER-CRAMBE, a chapelry, in the parish of Bossall, union of York, wapentake of Bulmer, N. riding of the county of York, 9½ miles (N. E. by E.) from York. The chapelry comprises by computation 1500 acres, of which the soil is very productive, and the scenery pleasing and picturesque. The village is situated on the western bank of the navigable river Derwent, which is crossed by a stone bridge; and in the vicinity is Aldby Park, originally the site of a Roman station, and subsequently that of a royal Saxon ville, the summer retreat of Edwin the Great, where that prince was assaulted by an assassin whom Quichelm, King of the West Saxons, one of Edwin's secret enemies, had suborned to murder him. The chapel is a small plain edifice. In the park, and on the banks of the Derwent, are still vestiges of the Saxon ville; and those of an old castle erected on an eminence, were visible in Camden's time.
BUTTERLAW, a township, in the parish of Newburn, union and W. division of Castle ward, S. division of Northumberland, 5¼ miles (N. W. by W.) from Newcastle; containing 16 inhabitants. It comprises about 240 acres, and is the property of the Duke of Northumberland.
BUTTERLEIGH, a parish, in the union of Tiverton, forming a detached portion of the hundred of Cliston, locally in the hundred of Hayridge, Cullompton and S. divisions of Devon, 3¼ miles (S. E. by S.) from Tiverton; containing 155 inhabitants. It is situated on the old road from Tiverton to Exeter, and comprises about 450 acres by computation. The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at £10. 8. 8., and in the gift of the Crown: the tithes have been commuted for £85 per annum, and the glebe comprises 69 acres of land. The church is a substantial edifice.
BUTTERLEY, a hamlet, in the township of Ripley, parish of Pentrich, union of Belper, hundred of Morleston and Litchurch, S. division of the county of Derby, 3 miles (S.) from Alfreton. This hamlet lies at the north-east extremity of the township, and on the Alfreton and Derby road. Here are extensive ironworks, belonging to a company formed in 1792, and producing all the heavier articles in cast-iron, and machinery of various kinds: the ore and coal are conveyed to the spot by railways, and by the Cromford canal, which, by means of a tunnel, 2966 yards in length, passes under the works. In the neighbourhood is a reservoir covering 70 acres, for supplying the Nottingham canal. Butterley Hall is a handsome mansion, three-quarters of a mile from Ripley.
BUTTERMERE, a chapelry, in the parish of Brigham, union of Cockermouth, Allerdale ward above Derwent, W. division of Cumberland, 8½ miles (S. W. by W.) from Keswick; containing 84 inhabitants. The village lies in a deep winding valley environed by high rocky mountains, between the lake of Buttermere, noted for its char, and Crummock water, and in a district celebrated for picturesque and romantic beauty. Mines of lead and copper were formerly worked in the mountains; and many labourers are still occupied in the extensive quarries of fine blue slate in Honister Crag. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £56; patron and impropriator, the Earl of Lonsdale. The chapel is a neat edifice, of modern construction.
Buttermere (St. James)
BUTTERMERE (St. James), a parish, in the union of Hungerford, hundred of Kinwardstone, Everley and Pewsey, and S. divisions of Wilts, 5¼ miles (S.) from Hungerford; containing 130 inhabitants. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £10, and in the patronage of the Bishop of Winchester: the tithes have been commuted for £298. 10.
BUTTERTON, an ecclesiastical district, partly in the parishes of Swinnerton and Trentham, union of Stone, and partly in the parish and union of StokeUpon-Trent, N. division of the hundred of Pirehill and of the county of Stafford, 2½ miles (S. by W.) from Newcastle-under-Lyme; containing about 300 inhabitants, of whom 56 are in Butterton township. This district lies on the road from Drayton to Newcastle; the surface is undulated, and the scenery picturesque, the land being well wooded. The living is a perpetual curacy, in the patronage of the Owners of the Butterton estate: the income is derived from 22 acres of land, and other sources. The church, a cruciform edifice in the Norman style, with a Flemish tower, was built in 1844, at an expense of £2200, entirely obtained from the Butterton estate. A national school is supported by the family.
BUTTERTON, a chapelry, in the parish of Mayfield, S. division of the hundred of Totmonslow, N. division of the county of Stafford, 7 miles (E.) from Leek; containing 388 inhabitants. The river Manifold runs through the district, which comprises by computation 1300 acres: limestone is quarried, and a small quantity of gritstone; and a lead-mine is in operation. Portions of copper-ore, stalactites, fossil shells, and an ore called by the miners "brown end," convertible into zinc, are found; and there is a mineral spring strongly impregnated with sulphur. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £90; patron, the Vicar of Mayfield: impropriator, the Duke of Devonshire. The chapel, a neat stone edifice with a tower, was built in 1780. William Mellor, in 1754, bequeathed property now producing £16 a year, for which children are taught to read.
BUTTERWICK, a township, in the parish and union of Sedgefield, N. E. division of Stockton ward, S. division of the county of Durham, 11 miles (S. E.) from Durham; containing 51 inhabitants. This place formerly belonged to the see of Durham, and in the 13th century was granted by Bishop Nicholson, under the designation of Buterwyk, to the family of Sadberge; from them the estate passed to the Hotons, and among subsequent owners occur the families of Belasyse, Yong, Baynbrigg, and Salvin. The chantry of St. Katherine in the church of Sedgefield, also had land here, which was attached to it at the period of the Dissolution. The township comprises 1495 acres. The tithes have been commuted for £113. 11. 8.
Butterwick (St. Andrew)
BUTTERWICK (St. Andrew), a parish, in the union of Boston, wapentake of Skirbeck, parts of Holland, county of Lincoln, 1 mile (N. N. E.) from Bennington; containing 579 inhabitants. It is situated on the road between Boston and Wainfleet, and comprises 1766a. 26p. The living is a discharged vicarage, united in 1751 to that of Frieston, and valued in the king's books at £8. 4. 2.: the tithes have been commuted for land. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans. A grammar shool was endowed in 1665, by the Rev. Joshua Pinchbeck, with the rent of 130 acres of land, now valued at £280 per annum; besides which, there are various minor sums for the poor.
BUTTERWICK, a chapelry, in the parish of Foxholes, union of Driffield. wapentake of Dickering, E. riding of York, 10½ miles (N. by W.) from Great Driffield; containing 100 inhabitants. It comprises about 1645 acres, of which 1470 are arable, 95 grass, and 80 plantation: the village, which is neat, is situated on the banks of a small rivulet. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £47; patron, the Rector of Foxholes. The tithes were commuted for land in 1771. In the church, which is a small ancient edifice, is a Knight Templar's monument at full length.
BUTTERWICK, a township, in the parish of Barton-le-Street, union of Malton, wapentake of Ryedale, N. riding of York, 6 miles (N. W.) from Malton; containing 64 inhabitants. It is situated on the river Rye, and comprises about 500 acres of land. The tithes have been commuted for £150, and there is a glebe of 8 acres.
BUTTERWICK, EAST, a township, in the parishes of Bottesford and Messingham, union of Glandford-Brigg, E. division of the wapentake of Manley, parts of Lindsey, county of Lincoln, 10¾ miles (W.) from Glandford-Brigg; containing 378 inhabitants. It comprises 604 acres; 263 acres are common or waste. The Bottesford beck and another large drain merge into the Trent at this place, and there is a ferry to West Butterwick. The village is seated on the east bank of the river. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans.
BUTTERWICK, WEST, a chapelry district, in the parish of Owston, union of Gainsborough, W. division of the wapentake of Manley, parts of Lindsey, county of Lincoln, 4½ miles (E. N. E.) from Epworth; containing, with the hamlet of Kelfield, 865 inhabitants. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £80; patron, the Vicar of Owston. The chapel is dedicated to St. Mary, and is a handsome edifice; the east windows contain ten coats of arms, executed in stained glass, of those persons by whose benevolence it was built, among whom were the Archbishop of York, the Bishop of Lincoln, the Archdeacon of Stow, and Sir Robert Sheffield. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans.
BUTTERWORTH, a township, in the parish and union of Rochdale, hundred of Salford, S. division of the county of Lancaster, 2 miles (E. by S.) from Rochdale; containing 5088 inhabitants. The first lord of Butterworth upon record is Reginald de Bot'worth, who built the original mansion, called Butterworth Hall, in the reign of Stephen or Henry II. In Edward I.'s reign, Sir Baldwin Teutonicus or de Tyas, a knight of St. John of Jerusalem, and private secretary to John of Gaunt, granted all his lands in the township to Sir Robert de Holland in free marriage with his daughter Joan, who, surviving her husband, married, secondly, Sir John de Byron. The Ellands, however, as lords of Rochdale, claimed a superiority in the manor; but by an inquisition taken in the reign of Charles II., it was found that there was no manor at all. The Butterworth family resided here for several centuries. The township comprises 3752 acres, mostly pasture and moorland; 1752 are in the Freehold Side, and 2000 in the Lordship Side. Coal-mines and stone-quarries are in operation; the former are numerous, and, with bleach and calico works, afford extensive employment to the population. The Leeds and Liverpool canal, and the Manchester and Leeds railway, pass through the township.— See Milnrow.