A Topographical Dictionary of England. Originally published by S Lewis, London, 1848.
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Ware (St. Mary)
WARE (St. Mary), a market-town and parish, and the head of a union, in the hundred of Braughin, county of Hertford, 2¼ miles (E. N. E.) from Hertford, and 21 (N.) from London; containing 4653 inhabitants. This place, anciently called Guare, derived both its origin and name from a weare, or dam, constructed on the river Lea, and strongly fortified by the Danes in 894, in order to defend their vessels, which Alfred, by draining the bed of the river, is said to have stranded. His son Edward built a town here, which was, however, of no importance till the reign of John, when Sayer de Quincy forced the thoroughfare of the bridge over the Lea, by breaking the chain placed there until toll was paid to the king's bailiff at Hertford. This led to the diversion of the northern road through this town, instead of Hertford, which essentially conduced to its prosperity. In the time of Henry III., a tournament was held here by Gilbert Marshall, Earl of Pembroke, in which he was killed; and in the same reign, a Benedictine priory was founded by Margaret, Countess of Leicester, as a cell to the monastery of Ebralf, at Uttica, in Normandy: it was eventually bestowed by Henry V. on the Carthusian monastery of Sheen, in Surrey. Here was also a house of Franciscan friars.
The town is situated in a valley, on the east side of the river Lea, and consists of several streets, the principal of them extending about a mile along the high road from London to Cambridge. It is lighted, well supplied with both river and spring water, and is in a state of general improvement. A public library was established in 1795. The place was formerly subject to floods; but by diverting into the river the water that flowed through Baldock-street to near the centre of the town, the inconvenience has been removed. The trade is chiefly in malt, which is made to a very great extent; most of the London breweries are supplied from this town, which has above seventy malting establishments. The river is navigable hence to Hertford and to London, furnishing ample facilities for the conveyance of malt and corn to the metropolis, and for bringing back coal and manure; the. Hertford branch of the railway from London to Cambridge passes by the town, and has a station here. The market is on Tuesday; fairs take place on the last Tuesday in April, and the Tuesday before September 21st, for cattle. A market-house, supported on sixteen arches, and containing an elegant assembly-room, was completed in 1827, on a site given by the lord of the manor. The town is under the superintendence of four constables and three headboroughs; the county magistrates hold a petty-session every alternate Tuesday, and a court baron occurs annually. The parish comprises 4493 acres, exclusive of waste land.
The living is a vicarage, with that of Thundridge annexed, valued in the king's books at £20. 10.; patrons and impropriators, the Master and Fellows of Trinity College, Cambridge. The great tithes of Ware and Thundridge have been commuted for £1620, and the small for £404; the impropriate glebe consists of 172 acres, and the vicarial of 5 acres. The church, which is situated in the centre of the town, is an ancient cruciform edifice, with two sepulchral chapels, and a west tower surmounted by a low spire; it has an antique font in the later English style. In the churchyard is a tombstone bearing an inscription to the memory of William Mead, M.D., "who departed this life on the 28th day of October, 1652, aged 148 years, 9 months, 3 weeks, and 4 days." A church has been erected at English-Hall, containing 500 sittings, 380 of which are free, the Incorporated Society having granted £400 in aid of the expense; and a district church, dedicated to the Trinity, has just been completed near the hamlet of Wareside, in the Norman style, by subscription. The living of Trinity church is a perpetual curacy, in the gift of the Vicar, with a net income of £100. There are places of worship for Independents, Wesleyans, the Society of Friends, and Roman Catholics; also an old school-house belonging to the governors of Christ's Hospital, with a range of buildings for the accommodation of the nurses and children. Here are seventeen almshouses for widows and others, some of which have small endowments; and bequests to the amount of about £300 per annum have been left for the poor. The union of Ware comprises fifteen parishes or places, and contains a population of 15,528.
Near the town are two springs of excellent water, called the Chadwell Spring, or New River Head, and the Amwell Spring, which, under the superintendence of the New River Company, supply part of the metropolis. In the grounds of Amwell House is a beautiful grotto. The "great bed of Ware," sufficiently capacious to accommodate six couples, is of uncertain and conjectural origin; at the head is carved the date 1453. Four stone coffins were found in 1802, in Bury field, at the south-west corner of the town, which is supposed to have been the burial-place of the priory.
WAREHAM, a borough and market-town, having exclusive jurisdiction, and the head of the union of Wareham and Purbeck, locally in the hundred of Winfrith, Wareham division of Dorset, 17 miles (E. by S.) from Dorchester, and 119 (S. W. by W.) from London; containing, with the liberty of Stoborough, 2746 inhabitants. This town, which was anciently of great note, and existed in the time of the Britons, was by them called Durngueis, and by the Saxons Væpham, Vepham, Veapham, and Thornsæta; and in some records is designated Werham, and Varama, a compound of Var-Ham, "a habitation on a fishing shore." It has been supposed to occupy the site of the Morionium, or Moriconium, of Ravennas; and that it was known to the Romans is demonstrated by the existence of a Roman way proceeding to Dorchester, and by the discovery of coins in the vicinity. Wareham was the burial-place of Brithric, the West Saxon king, about the year 800. The Danes soon afterwards massacred the inhabitants, and reduced the town to ruins; but it had so recovered in the time of Athelstan, that he established two mints in it. In 978, the body of Edward the Martyr, after his assassination at Corfe Castle, was temporarily interred here, and was removed hence by St. Dunstan, with much ceremony, to Shaftesbury. After the lapse of twenty years, the town was again ravaged by the Danes, who, making the Isle of Wight their general place of rendezvous, proceeded thence to the mouth of the river Frome, and kept Wareham in a state of continual alarm. In 1138, the castle and town were seized for the Empress Maud, by Robert de Lincoln, but were retaken and burnt by Stephen. On the intended expedition of John against France, in 1205, that monarch landed here, and three years afterwards he garrisoned the town, which in 1213 became the scene of the cruel execution of Peter of Pomfret, a religious enthusiast, and his son, because the former had foretold the deposition of the king. During the parliamentary war, Wareham was alternately possessed by the king and the parliament. In 1762, two-thirds of it were destroyed by fire; but by a liberal subscription and an act procured for its restoration, it was, within two years, completely rebuilt.
The town is pleasantly situated between the mouths of the Frome and the Piddle, on an eminence commanding a prospect of Poole harbour; and in form resembles a parallelogram, occupying an area of about 100 acres, inclosed, except on the south, by a high wall, or rampart of earth. The intervening space between the wall and the town is laid out in large garden-grounds, divided into regular squares by lanes, which still exhibit traces of ancient buildings. The four principal streets, as well as the minor streets and the lanes, diverge at right angles, and the former are open and spacious, corresponding with the cardinal points of the compass. The south and north entrances are by bridges over the Frome and the Piddle, the former a handsome stone structure, erected in 1775, in lieu of an edifice which had stood from the time of William Rufus. The town is lighted with gas.
Wareham was once a noted port, and in the reign of Edward III. furnished three ships and 59 men for the siege of Calais; but the retreat of the sea from its harbour has long destroyed its importance, and withdrawn its commercial traffic, although, at very high tides, the water flows up nearly five miles to Holme bridge: the quay is on the south side of the town. The river Frome had anciently a celebrated salmon-fishery, of which the profits formed part of the dowry granted by Henry VII. to his queen; the fishery has long since declined, and few fish are now caught. The manufacture of shirtbuttons and straw-plat, and the knitting of stockings, employ a great number of the females. Pipeclay is obtained in large quantities from pits in the neighbourhood, and considerably more than 10,000 tons are annually shipped at Poole. The Southampton and Dorchester railway, completed in 1847, passes by. The market is on Saturday: fairs are held on April 17th and September 11th, for cattle, cheese, and hogs; and of late years six cattle-markets have been held during the spring. The toll of the market and fairs belongs to the mayor.
This is a borough by prescription, and the inhabitants have had their privileges confirmed by several charters, the last being that granted by Queen Anne in 1703, under which the municipal body consists of a mayor, and six capital and twelve assistant burgesses, with a recorder, town-clerk, and inferior officers. Wareham returned two members to parliament from the time of Edward I. to the 2nd of William IV., when it was deprived of one, and the right of voting was extended to the £10 householders of an enlarged district, comprehending 13,950 acres. The mayor, who is a justice of the peace, and coroner for the town and the Isles of Purbeck and Brownsea, and the capital burgesses, hold quarter-sessions of the peace, having exclusive jurisdiction. A court of record occurs on the first Monday in every month, for the recovery of debts under £40; and a court baron is held annually by the lord of the manor. The powers of the county debtcourt of Wareham, established in 1847, extend over the registration-district of Wareham and Purbeck.
Wareham includes the parish of the Holy Trinity, Within and Without, containing, with Stoborough liberty, 769 inhabitants; the parish of St. Martin, Within and Without, 531; and Lady St. Mary, Within and Without, 1446. The first comprises 1421a. 2r. 38p.; the second, 3154a. 3r. 33p., of which 1290 acres are common or waste; and the third, 372a. 2r. 32p. The living of Holy Trinity parish is a rectory, to which the rectories of St. Martin's and St. Mary's were united in 1678, valued in the king's books at £7. 5. 5., and in the patronage of J. Hales Calcraft, Esq.: the church has been appropriated for a national school. The living of St. Martin's is valued in the king's books at £8. 2. 6.: only the burial service is read in this church. The living of St. Mary's is a rectory not in charge. The church, a spacious and ancient structure containing early English and decorated portions, is believed to have been attached to a priory founded here before 876, when the priory was destroyed by the Danes, and to have been rebuilt about the period of the Conquest. Over a small north door is a rude piece of sculpture, representing the Crucifixion, surmounted by a Norman arch. In a south chapel, of which the ceiling is richly groined, are the recumbent effigies of two warriors in complete mail: in this chapel the remains of Mr. Hutchins, rector of the parish, and author of the History and Antiquities of the County of Dorset, are deposited. In the chancel are several mural monuments to the Calcraft family. Two other parochial churches, St. Peter's and St. Michael's, formerly existed. There are places of worship for Independents, Wesleyans, and Unitarians; also a free school in the parish of Lady St. Mary, founded by George Pitt, Esq., with a salary of £20 for a master, which was augmented in 1703 with £10 a year, now paid to a mistress. The poor-law union of Wareham and Purbeck comprises twenty-seven parishes or places, and contains a population of 16,542. Dr. John Chapman, tutor to the great Lord Camden; and Horace Walpole, Earl of Orford, were natives of the town.
Bloody-bank here, was the place of execution, in 1684, of Mr. Baxter, Holman, and others, for their attachment to the Duke of Monmouth. Of the castle, situated in the south-west angle of the town, and thought to have been originally built by the Romans, and renewed by the Conqueror, only the mound, or keep, called Castle Hill, remains; and the relics of the priory have been converted into a dwelling-house. At Stoborough, on opening a barrow, in 1767, the large hollow trunk of an oak was discovered, in which were human bones wrapped up in a covering composed of several deer skins, and a small vessel of oak, in the shape of an urn, conjectured by Mr. Hutchins to have been the drinking cup of the deceased, who, in the opinion of Mr. Gough, was some Saxon or Danish chieftain.
Warehorne (St. Matthew)
WAREHORNE (St. Matthew), a parish, in the union of East Ash ford, partly in the hundred of Ham, lathe of Shepway, E. division, and partly in the hundred of Blackbourne, lathe of Scray, W. division, of Kent, 7¼ miles (S. by W.) from Ashford; containing 428 inhabitants. The parish comprises 2870 acres, of which 620 are woodland: part of it is in the level of Romney Marsh, and in the borough of Great Kenardington. The village is situated on an eminence near the western extremity of some hills, and this eminence, with the whole of the land above the marsh, is within the Weald, the soil of which is in general a very deep clay. The river Rother has its source here, and the Royal Military canal crosses the southern portion of the parish. Fairs are held on May 14th, for toys, and on October 2nd and 3rd, for cattle; the former on Ham-Street Green, and the latter on Warehorne Green. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £19, and in the patronage of the Crown; net income, £298. A glebe-house has been lately built, a handsome residence in the Elizabethan style, beautifully situated near the village, which stretches round a green; the glebe contains 40 acres. The church is a structure of great antiquity, in the early Norman style: a brick tower was erected about eighty years since, the old one having fallen down.
Warenford, or Warrington
WARENFORD, or Warrington, a township, in the chapelry of Lucker, parish of Bambrough, union of Belford, N. division of Bambrough ward and of Northumberland, 4 miles (S. E. by S.) from Belford, on the road to Alnwick; containing 41 inhabitants. The village was formerly considerable, and, though now very small, has been much improved: the Waren burn passes in the vicinity, crossing the great north road. There is a place of worship for Presbyterians; also a school built in 1839.
Waresley (St. Andrew)
WARESLEY (St. Andrew), a parish, in the union of St. Neot's, hundred of Toseland, county of Huntingdon, 4¼ miles (N. N. E.) from Potton; containing 226 inhabitants. It comprises 1976 acres by admeasurement, and is on the road from St. Ives to Biggleswade. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £8. 16. 5½., and in the gift of the Master and Fellows of Pembroke Hall, Cambridge: the great tithes have been commuted for £335, and the vicarial for £188; the glebe contains 98 acres. The old church fell down in 1724, and the present edifice was erected in 1728; it is a plain stone edifice, and has a slated roof, with a cupola.
Warfield (St. Michael)
WARFIELD (St. Michael), a parish, in the union of Easthampstead, hundred of Wargrave, county of Berks, 6 miles (E. N. E.) from Wokingham; containing 1317 inhabitants. This parish, which once formed part of Windsor Forest, comprises 3360a. 2r. 21p.; about 1447 acres are arable, 1554 meadow, 165 coppice and plantations, and 71 heath. The neighbourhood is thickly studded with gentlemen's seats. The living is a vicarage, valued in the king's books at £13. 6. 8.; patron, Maxwell Windle, Esq.; impropriators, the landowners: the great tithes have been commuted for £668. 12., and the vicarial for £200; the glebe comprises 16 acres. The church contains some handsome monuments; and in a chapel, the burial-place of the Stavertons, attached to the north side of the chancel, is an ancient brass with an effigy of one of that family. The sum of £200, bequeathed by the Hon. Gen. William Hervey, was expended in the erection of premises for a national school, on land given by the late Lord Braybrooke. There are some remains of an intrenchment called Cæsar's Camp, where many Roman coins have been found.
WARFORD, GREAT, a township, in the parish of Alderley, union and hundred of Macclesfield, N. division of the county of Chester, 5 miles (E. by S.) from Knutsford; containing 404 inhabitants. It comprises 1181 acres, of which the prevailing soil is clay. There is a place of worship for Baptists.
Warford, Little.—See Marthall.
Wargrave (St. Mary)
WARGRAVE (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Wokingham, hundred of Wargrave, county of Berks, 3 miles (S. S. E.) from Henley; containing 1739 inhabitants. The parish is bounded on the north by the river Thames, and comprises 4308 acres, of which 2691 are arable, 844 pasture, 430 woodland, 25 in lavendergrounds, 38 in fisheries, and the remainder in roads, sites of houses, &c. A market granted in 1218 to Peter de Rupibus, Bishop of Winchester, used to be held here on Monday. The living is a vicarage, valued in the king's books at £13. 13. 6½., and in the gift of the lord of the manor and impropriator, Lord Braybrooke, to whose ancestor, Sir Henry Nevill, the Billingbear estates, and the hundred of Wargrave, anciently attached to the see of Winchester, were granted by Edward VI. The great tithes have been commuted for £820, and the vicarial for £300; there is a parsonage-house, and the impropriate glebe contains 43 acres. The church has a tower in the later English style. Richard Aldworth, in 1692, left an annuity of £5, and Robert Pigot, Esq., in 1796, £6700 three per cent, stock, which are applied to the support of a national school.
Wargrave, in the hundred of West Derby, county of Lancaster.—See Newton-in-Makerfield
Warham (All Saints)
WARHAM (All Saints), a parish, in the union of Walsingham, hundred of North Greenhoe, W. division of Norfolk, 2¼ miles (S. E. by E.) from Wells; containing 337 inhabitants. The parish comprises 1174a. 29p., of which 734 acres are arable, 430 pasture and meadow, and 10 salt-marsh: the sea forms the northern boundary. The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at £16, and in the patronage of the Crown: the tithes have been commuted for £245, and the glebe contains 7 acres. The church is a cruciform structure, partly in the early and partly in the later English style. In the valley of the Stiffkey stream are some remains of an intrenchment supposed to have been thrown up by the Danes; and on Chalk Farm is the ancient font of the church, which has remained there for centuries.
Warham (St. Mary)
WARHAM (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Walsingham, hundred of North Greenhoe, W. division of Norfolk, 2 miles (S. E. by E.) from Wells; containing 75 inhabitants. The parish comprises 2056 acres, of which about 1080 are arable, 860 pasture and meadow (the greater part salt-marsh), 80 wood, and 36 in roads and water. It was consolidated in 1795, for all except ecclesiastical matters, with Warham All Saints. The living consists of the united rectories of St. Mary and St. Mary Magdalene, with the living of Waterden annexed, valued in the king's books jointly at £11. 6. 8., and in the gift of the Earl of Leicester. The tithes of the parish have been commuted for £373. 10.; there is a parsonage-house, and the glebe contains 15¼ acres. The church is chiefly in the later English style, and consists of a nave, chancel, and chapel, with a square embattled tower: the chancel contains a neat monument to a late rector, the Rev. A. W. Langton, at whose expense several of the windows were ornamented with stained glass; the chapel floor is covered with marble slabs to members of the Turner family, who resided at the Hall, an ancient mansion in the Elizabethan style, taken down in 1815. Some small remains exist of the church dedicated to St. Mary the Virgin.
WARK, a parish, in the union of Bellingham, N. W. division of Tindale ward, S. division of Northumberland; containing, with the townships of Warksburn, and Shitlington High and Low Quarter, 940 inhabitants, of whom 490 are in Wark township, 12 miles (N. W. by N.) from Hexham. The manor was a royal possession in the time of Queen Elizabeth. It was granted to the Earl of Suffolk in 1603, and afterwards sold to the Earl of Derwentwater, by whose son it was forfeited for high treason, upon which it was given, together with his other large estates, to Greenwich Hospital. The parish is one of the six into which Simonburn was divided in 1814, under the authority of an act of parliament obtained in 1811. It is bounded on the east by the North Tyne, across which is a ferry; and comprises 20,944a. 1r. 2p., whereof 20,579 acres are meadow and pasture, 95 woodland, and 270 road and waste. The village was considerably improved a few years since, by the erection of a handsome row of houses, with stone taken from some extensive ruins. The living is a rectory not in charge, in the patronage of the Governors of Greenwich Hospital, who erected the handsome church, which was opened on Aug. 10th, 1818, and also built a parsonage-house, the whole at the cost of £7410, exclusively of the ground: the tithes have been commuted for £330, and there is a small portion of glebe land. The Presbyterians and Wesleyans have places of worship. A school is endowed with £45 per annum, and a house for the master; and the parish has a fund for apprenticing children, and the relief of the poor. About half a mile north of the village are, the site of an old church; a tumulus; and a cairn, in which urns and other relics have been found. Within the parish, also, are vestiges of several fortifications, said to have been thrown up by Edward III.; and on the bank of the river is Moat Hill, formerly occupied by a tower. There are two mineral springs in the neighbourhood, slightly impregnated with sulphur.
WARK, a township, in the parish of Carham, union of Glendale, W. division of Glendale ward, N. division of Northumberland, 4½ miles (W. S. W.) from Coldstream. It is bounded on the north by the river Tweed, and comprises about 3000 acres of land, mostly arable; the surface, on the banks of the Tweed, is rather level, and the soil of the township is a good deep loam. The whole is the property of the Earl of Tankerville, with the exception of 100 acres, the occupiers of which claim exemption from rent. The village is situated on the road from Kelso to Cornhill; and a little "to the west are the ruins of Wark Castle, on a circular mount apparently formed by art. This fortress was a formidable bulwark in the 12th century, when, according to Leland, it was built by order of Henry II.; and it forms a prominent object in the annals of the border wars. The great tithes of Wark and Sunnilaws have been commuted for £551, and the small tithes for £77.
Warkleigh (St. John)
WARKLEIGH (St. John), a parish, in the union and hundred of South Molton, South Molton and N. divisions of Devon, 5½ miles (W. S. W.) from South Molton; containing 291 inhabitants. It is bounded on the west by the river Taw, and on the east by the Mole; and comprises 2000 acres by computation. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £14. 4. 7., and in the gift of James Gould, Esq.: the tithes have been commuted for £230; the glebe consists of about 22 acres. The church is an ancient cruciform structure in the early English style, and contains a piscina and a beautifully-carved oak screen.
WARKSBURN, a township, in the parish of Wark, union of Bellingham, N. W. division of Tindale ward, S. division of Northumberland, 5¼ miles (S.) from Bellingham; containing 272 inhabitants. It extends along both sides of a rivulet of its own name, and consists of numerous farms, several of which are held by the tenure of customary freehold, paying a fine when the lord dies, and giving the best cow on the death of the tenant. The area of the township is 10,387 acres. At a short distance from a farmhouse called Roses Bower, is a medicinal spring known as the Holy Well, said to be of great efficacy in the cure of ague, the gravel, and similar complaints.
Warkton (St. Edmund)
WARKTON (St. Edmund), a parish, in the union of Kettering, hundred of Huxloe, N. division of the county of Northampton, 2 miles (E. N. E.) from Kettering; containing 313 inhabitants. It comprises 1867 acres, of which 216 are woodland, and the rest about equally divided between arable and pasture. The soil varies, but consists chiefly of clay, with an occasional admixture of loam, resting on limestone; wheat and beans constitute the main produce. The surface, which is undulated, is beautifully ornamented with rows of elm and lime trees, forming avenues of imposing appearance, planted by John, Duke of Montagu. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £18. 16. 3.; net income, £293; patron, the Duke of Buccleuch: the tithes were commuted for land in 1807, and there is a glebe-house. The church was originally of early English character, but the windows in the nave have been altered, and a chancel in the Grecian style has been built for the reception of some monuments to the Montagu family. Two of the monuments are by Roubilliac.
Warkworth (St. Mary)
WARKWORTH (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Banbury, hundred of King's-Sutton, S. division of the county of Northampton, 2 miles (E.) from Banbury; containing 42 inhabitants, and comprising about 2900 acres. The living is annexed to the vicarage of Marston St. Lawrence: the tithes for the township were commuted for land in 1764. The church is a very interesting edifice, containing some curious carving and specimens of early architecture: on the south side of the north aisle is a beautiful altar-tomb of the early part of the 14th century. The building was repaired in 1841.
Warkworth (St. Lawrence)
WARKWORTH (St. Lawrence), an ancient borough and a parish, in the union of Alnwick, partly in the E. division of Coquetdale, and partly in the E. division of Morpeth, ward, N. division of Northumberland, 7 miles (S. E.) from Alnwick; containing 3512 inhabitants, of whom 785 are in the township of Warkworth. This place is of great antiquity, and during the heptarchy was of considerable importance: a church was founded here in 736, by Ceolwulph, King of Northumbria, who is supposed to have granted the inhabitants a charter of incorporation, under the provisions of which the town still retains the privileges of a borough by prescription. In 1174, William the Lion, King of Scotland, taking up his head-quarters here, sent Earl Duncan, who commanded his army, to lay waste the adjacent country; and on the same day that William was defeated and taken prisoner at Alnwick, the earl, entering the town of Warkworth with his soldiers, set fire to it, and massacred the inhabitants without distinction of age or sex.
The baronial castle here, is thought to have been erected in the 11th century; and, on its forfeiture by the first earl of Northumberland, was granted to Roger de Umfraville, by Henry IV: it was restored, however, to the Percys, by Henry V. On subsequent attainders of the family, the castle was frequently forfeited to the crown, and became the property of various nobles, till the reign of Mary, when, in 1557, all the honours and estates appertaining to it were restored to Sir Thomas Percy, afterwards Earl of Northumberland, whose descendants are the present proprietors. The castle is now an interesting ruin, situated on a lofty eminence on the south side of the river Coquet, and commanding a splendid prospect over sea and land. It appears never to have been a favourite residence of the Percys. In 1608 the lead was stripped off the roofs of the towers in the inner court, then in a dilapidated state; and in 1810, the timber was removed and sold: the lead was subsequently taken from the keep; and of this once magnificent structure, little more than the walls are now remaining, which, however, from the excellence of the masonry, are likely to endure for centuries.
The town is at a small distance from the sea, and is almost encircled by a bend of the Coquet, over which is a bridge of two ribbed arches, built, it is supposed, about the year 1380, 20 marks having been previously bequeathed for the purpose by John Cooke, of Newcastle. At the south end of the bridge is a gateway tower of still more ancient date, through which the road passes. The town consists principally of three streets diverging from the market-cross; one of these forms an ascent to the castle, another leads to the bridge, and the third to the church: the houses are well built, and of modern appearance. A small fishery is carried on: five boats were formerly employed in it, and the number of fish taken averaged annually from 15,000 to 17,000; but, either from a change in the channel of the river, or the erection of a wear, and of a tin-plate manufactory, soon afterwards, about 6 miles higher up, the number of fish taken has been diminished to about 5000, chiefly salmon-trout of small size, and two boats only are employed. An act of parliament was lately obtained for improving the navigation of the river, under commissioners, by Mr. Browne, of Amble, one of the owners of a most extensive colliery. Upon this work, and in the erection of two breakwaters at the mouth of the river, upwards of £200,000 have been expended by that gentleman and his partners. From 50,000 to 60,000 tons of coal are yearly shipped from Warkworth; and as there is a virgin coal-field of 200 square miles in this part, it is supposed that, when the works now in progress are completed, the port will become of considerable note. The Newcastle and Berwick railway passes on the west, and has a branch of nearly five miles to the harbour. The market granted by King John, has long been discontinued; but a customary market for butchers' meat and provisions is held in the market-place every Saturday, and fairs are annually held on the second Thursday in May, the third Thursday in August, and the last Thursday in November. The chief privileges that remain of the ancient borough consist in 77 burgage tenures, the occupants of which have a right of pasture on the common for their cattle. A court leet is held by the steward of the Duke of Northumberland, annually, within 21 days after Michaelmas, at which a borough reeve, two moor grieves, constables, ale-tasters, bread-weighers, and other officers are appointed.
The parish comprises the townships of Amble, Acklington, Acklington-Park, Birling, Brotherwick, Bullock's-Hall, High and Low Buston, East and West Chevington, Gloster-Hill, Hadstone, Hauxley, Morwick, Sturton-Grange, Togston, Walkmill, and Warkworth. It extends about eight miles and a half from north to south, and about five from east to west; and comprises by computation 16,110 acres, whereof 892 are in Warkworth township, including 170 common or waste land. The substratum of the parish abounds with coal, ironstone, limestone, freestone, and whinstone, all of excellent quality.
The living is a vicarage, valued in the king's books at £18. 5. 7½.; net income, £528: patron and appropriator, the Bishop of Carlisle. The vicarial tithes of Warkworth township have been commuted for £78, and the appropriate for £103. The church is situated at the northern extremity of the town, near the river; it retains many details of Saxon architecture, and has a very handsome spire of more recent date, 108 feet in height, forming a conspicuous and interesting feature in the landscape. In the south-west angle of the church is the recumbent figure of a Knight Templar in armour, with a dog at the feet, and, in a panel in front, the inscription, "The effigies of Sir Hugh de Morwick who gave the common to the towne of Warkwarthe." In the churchyard, which is shaded with lime-trees, are numerous ancient monuments; and nearly adjoining it may be traced some foundations of a small Benedictine priory erected and endowed by Nicholas Farnham, Bishop of Durham, who died in 1257. There are places of worship for Wesleyans and Scottish Seceders.
About a mile west of the castle is an ancient hermitage, with a small chapel, hewn out of the solid rock, and supposed to have been the secluded retreat of one of the Bertram family. The chapel is 18 feet long, about 8 feet in width, and in close imitation of the early English style of architecture. The roof is groined, and rests on semi-hexagonal columns projecting from the walls. At the east end is the altar, to which is an ascent of two steps; and under a window in a recess at the south end, is formed a table-monument with the recumbent figure of a female, at the feet of which is that of a hermit, in a pensive attitude, the head reclining on the right hand, and the left hand placed across the breast. There are various other apartments, all cut out of the solid rock, among which is a kitchen, with a chamber over it; and above the hermitage is a garden, to which is an ascent by a winding staircase in the rock. Dr. Percy, Bishop of Dromore, author of the poem called the Hermit of Warkworth, says that the Percy family maintained a chantry priest to reside in the hermitage and celebrate mass in the chapel, and that, according to records still preserved, the last priest, whose appointment is dated Dec. 3rd, 1532, received an annual stipend of 20 marks, with pasture for cattle, and other perquisites. Warkworth gives the inferior title of Baron to the Duke of Northumberland.
Coquet Island, situated about one mile and a half from the mouth of the river, towards the south-east, is of ellipitical form, three-quarters of a mile in circumference, and comprises about 13 acres of good pasture land. It was the site of a Benedictine cell, subject to the priory of Tynemouth, and was a favourite resort of pilgrims during the time of St. Cuthbert; in the reign of Charles I., it was taken by the Scots, with 200 prisoners and seven pieces of cannon. Part of the ruins of the convent was converted, some years since, into a cottage for a family who had the care of a warren of Angola rabbits belonging to the Duke of Northumberland. Between the island and the shore is a roadstead for shipping, safe when entered, but difficult of entrance both on the north and the south from sunken rocks: a lighthouse was erected in the year 1841, with some houses for the light-keepers built on the site of the Benedictine cell.
WARLABY, a township, in the parish of Ainderby-Steeple, union of Northallerton, wapentake of Gilling-East, N. riding of York, 2¾ miles (S. S. W.) from Northallerton; containing 82 inhabitants. It is situated in the vale of the Wisk, and comprises by computation 754 acres.
Warleggon (St. Bartholomew)
WARLEGGON (St. Bartholomew), a parish, in the union of Bodmin, hundred of West, E. division of Cornwall, 5¾ miles (E. N, E.) from Bodmin; containing 277 inhabitants. It comprises 1900 acres, of which 500 are common or waste; the surface is hilly, the soil peaty, and in many parts encumbered with slate. The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at £5. 17. 6., and in the gift of G. W. F. Gregory, Esq.: the tithes have been commuted for an annual rent-charge of £170; there is a parsonage-house, and the glebe contains 9 acres.
WARLEY, a township, in the parish and union of Halifax, wapentake of Morley, W. riding of York, 2 miles (W.) from Halifax; containing 6857 inhabitants. This township, which is in the manor of Wakefield, is divided into Upper and Lower, the former being in the chapelry of Luddenden, and the latter in that of Sowerby-Bridge; and comprises by computation 3980 acres, chiefly meadow and pasture. Warley House is an extensive mansion with fine views. The village is situated on an eminence, and the surrounding scenery is beautifully picturesque; the inhabitants are principally employed in woollen and worsted mills, iron-foundries, and chemicalworks. There are places of worship for Independents; and a school partly supported by subscription. In the neighbourhood is one of the remarkable rocking-stones, supposed to be of Druidical origin.
Warley, Great (St. Mary)
WARLEY, GREAT (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Romford, hundred of Chafford, S. division of Essex, 4 miles (S.) from Brentwood; containing 596 inhabitants. This parish is separated from Little Warley by a rivulet that flows into the Thames. It comprises 2793a. 28p., whereof 1339 acres are arable, 1029 pasture, 209 wood, and 159 common, now inclosed; the surface is hilly, the soil in the higher grounds gravelly, and in the lower loamy. About 5 acres were appropriated for recreation, under an act of parliament passed in 1838 for inclosing the waste land. The village consists of well-built houses widely detached from each other. The Eastern Counties railway passes through the north-eastern extremity of the parish. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £14, and in the gift of St. John's College, Cambridge: the master of Ilford Hospital is owner of two-thirds of the great tithes of 903 acres, which have been commuted for a rentcharge of £90; and the incumbent's tithes have been commuted for £520, with a glebe of 10 acres. The church is an ancient brick edifice, with a belfry-turret of wood surmounted by a small spire. Dr. Fulke, a puritan divine, and author of annotations on the Rhemish Testament, was rector of the parish; and Mr. Day, author of Sandford and Merton, was born here.
Warley, Little (St. Peter)
WARLEY, LITTLE (St. Peter), a parish, in the union of Billericay, hundred of Chafford, S. division of Essex, 3½ miles (S. by E.) from Brentwood; containing 216 inhabitants. The parish comprises 1651 acres, of which 140 are common or waste; it is bounded on the west by a stream that flows into the Thames, and the Eastern Counties railway passes within a mile. A barrack for horse artillery, capable of receiving two troops, was erected in 1804. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £11. 3. 9., and in the gift of the Rev. John Pearson: the tithes have been commuted for £280; there is a parsonage-house, and the glebe comprises 32 acres. The church is a small ancient edifice, with a tower which has been rebuilt of brick. A small farm with a house, producing £25 per annum, was bequeathed to the poor by Hugh Chappington, Esq., about a century since.
WARLEY-SALOP, a township, in the parish of Hales-Owen, poor-law union of Bromsgrove, Upper division of the hundred of Halfshire, Hales-Owen and E. divisions of Worcestershire; containing 356 inhabitants.
WARLEY-WIGORN, a hamlet, in the parish of Hales-Owen, union of West Bromwich, Lower division of the hundred of Halfshire, Dudley and E. divisions of the county of Worcester, 3 miles (N. E. by E.) from Hales-Owen; containing 964 inhabitants, and comprising 1450 acres of land.
Warlingham (All Saints)
WARLINGHAM (All Saints), a parish, in the union of Godstone, Second division of the hundred of Tandridge, E. division of Surrey, 4¾ miles (S. S. E.) from Croydon; containing 512 inhabitants. The parish comprises, with Chelsham, 5091 acres, of which 479 are common or waste. The living is a vicarage, endowed with the rectorial tithes, and valued in the king's books at £11. 12. 11.: net income, £471; patron, A. D. Wigsell, Esq. The church was repaired in 1842. On Warlingham Green is a Wesleyan meeting-house. H. Atwood, in 1675, bequeathed two annuities of £10 each to the curate, and erected an almshouse, which he endowed with £20 per annum, for four aged persons.