A Topographical Dictionary of England. Originally published by S Lewis, London, 1848.
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Hedon, or Heydon (St. Augustine)
HEDON, or Heydon (St. Augustine), an incorporated town and a parish, possessing separate jurisdiction, and formerly a representative borough and a market-town, in the union of Sculcoates, locally in the Middle division of the wapentake of Holderness, E. riding of York, 44 miles (E. S. E.) from York, and 179 (N. by E.) from London; containing 998 inhabitants. This is reputed to have been anciently a very considerable sea-port. A charter was given to the burgesses by King Athelstan; and in 1199, King John granted to Baldwin, Earl of Albemarle and Holderness, and to his wife Hawis, free burgage here, by the same tenure and with the same privileges as at York and Lincoln; but Hedon has possessed little commercial or maritime importance since the foundation of the port of Hull by Edward I. In the year 1656, a great part of the town was consumed by fire, after which it was rebuilt in a more handsome and substantial manner. It is pleasantly situated in a level, fertile, and well-cultivated country, within a mile and a half of the Humber, and consists chiefly of one street, in the middle of which is the market-place. The Holderness Agricultural Society hold their meetings here every quarter, and possess a valuable and select library of the best works that have been written on agriculture, and on subjects connected with it. Assemblies are regularly held during the season. The old haven has long been choked up; but a canal, cut from the Humber, extends to within a quarter of a mile of the town, and is navigable for small craft. The weekly market on Saturday has been abolished, but a market for cattle is held on every alternate Monday throughout the year, and there are considerable fairs on Aug. 2nd and Sept. 22nd for horses, and Nov. 17th and Dec. 6th for cattle, &c.
The government of the borough, by charter dated in the 14th of James I., is vested in a mayor, recorder, two bailiffs, and nine aldermen, assisted by a town-clerk, and other officers, with an indefinite number of burgesses: the mayor is annually elected from among the aldermen, and the bailiffs, who during their office are justices of the peace, from the burgesses; the late mayor acts as coroner. Hedon sent members to parliament in the 23rd of Edward I., but discontinued till the 1st of Edward VI., from which time it made regular returns, until it was disfranchised in the 2nd of William IV.; the right of election was vested in the burgesses generally, in number about 300, and the mayor was the returning officer. The corporation hold quarterly courts of session for offences not capital, and a court of record for the determination of pleas and the recovery of debts to any amount. The powers of the county debt-court of Hedon, established in 1847, extend over the registration-district of Patrington, and part of the districts of Skirlaugh and Sculcoates. The parish comprises 312 acres, which are chiefly pasture and garden-grounds attached to the houses of the place. The living is a rectory, in the patronage of the Archbishop of York; net income, £45. There were formerly three churches in the town: of those of St. Nicholas and St. James, only traces of the foundations are visible; the remaining church, dedicated to St. Augustine, is a venerable and spacious cruciform structure, in the early, with a lofty central tower in the later, English style. The front of the north transept is a remarkably fine specimen of early English, and in the south transept is a very beautiful window, though mutilated; many portions of the edifice display elegance of design and richness of detail, and parts of the exterior are of Norman character. Here are places of worship for Baptists, Independents, and Wesleyans, and a Roman Catholic chapel. An hospital for lepers, dedicated to the Holy Sepulchre, was founded at Newton, near the town, in the reign of John, by Alan, son of Oubernus, for a master and several brethren and sisters; the revenue at the Dissolution was £13. 15. 10.
Hedsor (St. Nicholas)
HEDSOR (St. Nicholas), a parish, in the union of Wycombe, hundred of Desborough, county of Buckingham, 4¼ miles (E. by S.) from the town of Marlow; containing, with Lillifee, 194 inhabitants. The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at £4, and in the alternate gift of the Bishop of Norwich and Lord Boston: the tithes have been commuted for £83. 19., and the glebe comprises 2 acres. In the churchyard are interred the remains of Nathaniel Hooke, author of the Roman History, who died in 1763, and to whose memory a tablet was erected at the expense of Lord Boston.
HEDWORTH, a township, in the parish of Jarrow, union of South Shields, E. division of Chester ward, N. division of the county of Durham, 3 miles (S. by W.) from South Shields; containing 215 inhabitants. This place takes its name from the family of Hedworth, of Harraton, to whom it belonged. A considerable portion of the land was subsequently held on lease by the Stotes, of whose ancient mansion there are still some slight vestiges remaining; and from them the estate descended to the Listers, who have also some freehold property here. About 42 acres of freehold are annexed to the living of Monk-Wearmouth. The village is irregularly built: in the centre of it is a large pond for geese, of which great numbers are kept; and there is an extensive plot of waste ground for the recreation of the inhabitants.
HEELEY, an ecclesiastical parish, in the parish and union of Sheffield, S. division of the wapentake of Strafforth and Tickhill, W. riding of York, 2 miles from the centre of the town of Sheffield; containing about 2200 inhabitants. This place was constituted a district in July, 1846, and became an ecclesiastical parish, on the consecration of the church, in November, 1847; under the provisions of the act 6th and 7th Victoria, cap. 37. The area somewhat resembles an equilateral triangle, each side of which is about two miles in extent; the surface is hilly, and in the south-eastern part are coal-mines. The village, divided into Upper and Lower Heeley, is said to have been first inhabited by a party of refugee Huguenots; the population is employed in the manufacture of cutlery, and horn-handles for knives and umbrellas. The river Sheaf flows on the west; and the road from Sheffield to Chesterfield passes through Lower Heeley. The church is a cruciform structure in the decorated English style, with a tower over the north transept; it is of more ecclesiastical appearance than other churches in the neighbourhood, and cost £2400: architect, Mr. Joseph Mitchell, of Sheffield. The living is a perpetual curacy, in the patronage of the Crown and the Archbishop of York, alternately; net income, £150. The Wesleyans have a place of worship.
HEELYFIELD, a township, in the parish and union of Lanchester, W. division of Chester ward, N. division of the county of Durham, 8½ miles (N.) from Wolsingham; containing 189 inhabitants. It gave name to the ancient family of Heleie, and was, in the 12th century, the property of Alan de Chilton. The old chapel here is mentioned in the foundation charter of the collegiate church of Lanchester. At Allansford, in the township, is a bridge over the Derwent into Northumberland, surrounded by some of the most beautiful scenery on that stream; there are a few cottages on each side of the river.
HEENE, a parish, in the hundred of Brightford, rape of Bramber, W. division of Sussex, ¾ of a mile (W.) from Worthing; containing 185 inhabitants. This parish, which is bounded on the south by the English Channel, in ecclesiastical matters forms part of the Archbishop of Canterbury's peculiar of West Tarring. Here was anciently a chapel.
Heigham, county of Norfolk.—See Norwich.
Heigham, Potter (St. Nicholas)
HEIGHAM, POTTER (St. Nicholas), a parish, in the hundred of Happing, E. division of Norfolk, 7 miles (N. E. by E.) from Acle; containing 420 inhabitants. The parish is bounded on the south by the navigable river Thurne, and comprises 2439a. 35p., including 1100 acres of marsh and waste, a lake of 100 acres, and a piece of water called Heigham Sounds. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £6. 13. 4.; patron, the Bishop of Norwich; appropriators, the Dean and Chapter. The great tithes have been commuted for £348. 18., and the vicarial for £223. 15.; the appropriate glebe comprises 54 acres, and the vicarial 10 acres. The church is chiefly in the later English style, and has a tower circular in the lower part, and octagonal above. At the inclosure, about 100 acres of land were allotted to the poor.
Heighington (St. Michael)
HEIGHINGTON (St. Michael), a parish, in the unions of Darlington and Auckland, S. E. division of Darlington ward, S. division of the county of Durham; containing, with the townships of Coatsamoor, Killerby, Redworth, School-Aycliffe, and Walworth, 1347 inhabitants, of whom 695 are in the township of Heighington, 6½ miles (N. N. W.) from Darlington. This parish, anciently Hetchinton, comprises by measurement 8215 acres, of which about two-thirds are arable, and the remainder meadow and pasture, with a small portion of woodland. The substratum abounds with good limestone, of which great quantities are procured, and conveyed by the Darlington railway, which is joined at Sim-Pasture farm, in this parish (where is a station), by the Clarence railway, from the river Tees near Haverton Hill. The village is situated on elevated ground, and commands very extensive views, bounded by the Cleveland hills; the air is remarkably salubrious, and the place distinguished for the longevity of its inhabitants: water is supplied by pipes from a distance of a quarter of a mile. The living is a vicarage, valued in the king's books at £12. 14. 9½.; patrons and appropriators, the Dean and Chapter of Durham: the vicarial tithes have been commuted for £322. The church is an ancient structure, of which the body and the tower are of Norman architecture: the aisle is of later date; and in 1841 the whole of the interior was renewed, and eight handsome windows of a uniform style inserted, at an expense of £500. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans. The free grammar school was founded in 1601, by Elizabeth Jennison, of Walworth, who endowed it with £10 per annum; the income is now £52. 10., arising from endowments by the Rev. Edward Kirby, vicar of the parish, in 1697, and the Bishop of Durham in 1724. A mount here is supposed to have been the site of a Roman encampment. Catesby, one of the conspirators in the Gunpowder plot, resided at Midridge Grange, in the parish.
HEIGHINGTON, a chapelry, in the parish of Washingborough, Second division of the wapentake of Langoe, parts of Kesteven, union and county of Lincoln, 4¾ miles (E. S. E.) from Lincoln; containing 526 inhabitants. It comprises 1350 acres of land. The village is pleasantly seated on the banks of a rivulet, one mile and a half south of the river Witham. The chapel is an ancient stone building, in which the master of Washingborough grammar school performs divine service every Sunday. The tithes were commuted for land in 1829. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans.
HEIGHLEY, a township, in the parish of Mitford, union of Morpeth, W. division of Morpeth ward, N. division of Northumberland, 2¼ miles (N. N. W.) from Morpeth; containing 111 inhabitants. This formed part of the possessions of Newminster Abbey. High and Low Heighley, the Loaning-End, Warrener's-Houses, and High and Low Espley, form one constablewick, containing about 1185 acres of land, of which 40 are occupied with wood. Espley is a commodious farmhold, pleasantly situated on a rising ground, four miles northby-east from Mitford; Low Espley is also an agreeable place.
HEIGHTINGTON, a chapelry, in the parish of Rock, union of Cleobury-Mortimer, Lower division of the hundred of Doddingtree, Hundred-House and W. divisions of the county of Worcester, 4 miles (S. W.) from Bewdley. The river Severn flows on the east. The chapel is dedicated to St. Giles; and is a small edifice, situated in the village, and distant about two miles and a half from the parish church.
Heighton (St. Martin)
HEIGHTON (St. Martin), a parish, in the union of Newhaven, hundred of Flexborough, rape of Pevensey, E. division of Sussex, 1¾ mile (N. N. E.) from Newhaven; containing 81 inhabitants. The parish is bounded on the west by the river Ouse, and comprises 923 acres, of which 552 are waste land or common; the surface is hilly, and the mountain called the Five Lords' Bridge commands extensive views. The living is a rectory, with that of Tarring-Neville united, valued in the king's books at £11. 8. 6½., and in the patronage and incumbency of the Rev. Henry Wynch, with a net income of £412: the tithes of Heighton have been commuted for £150. The church, which was damaged by lightning in 1769, has nearly disappeared.
HELEN'S, ST., a market-town, in the parish and union of Prescot, hundred of West Derby, S. division of the county of Lancaster, 11 miles (E. N. E.) from Liverpool, 20 (W.) from Manchester, 48 (S.) from Lancaster, and 198 (N. W.) from London; comprising part of the township of Eccleston, and the entire townships of Parr, Sutton, and Windle; and containing 17,849 inhabitants. This town, originally a small village, is now a thriving place, situated on an extensive coal-field, to which it principally owes its prosperity. The buildings are irregular, and cover a large extent of ground; water is supplied under an act passed in 1843, and in 1845 an act was obtained for paving, lighting, and otherwise improving the town, and for establishing a market. There are some very important glass-works, particularly for plate glass. In 1763, an incorporated company, styled the British Plate-Glass Company, erected a manufactory at Ravenhead, in the township of Sutton, and this concern having failed, was succeeded by another company, formed in 1794, whose manufactory covers an area of nearly 30 acres, and is surrounded by a lofty stone wall, on the outśide of which are the habitations of the workmen: the erection of the building cost nearly £160,000. The first artisans were brought from France, and the glass now produced is equal, and in many respects superior, to the French and Venetian plates: the works, having been much increased within the last few years, are now the largest in the world, and are capable of producing 300,000 feet of glass annually. Two other plateglass manufactories have since been erected, on an extensive scale: in the township of Eccleston are three manufactories for crown and flint glass, and bottles; and there are potteries, breweries, and a cotton-mill, in the neighbourhood, many of which are worked by steam. In 1830, works for smelting copper were established by the Bolivar Mining Association; the ore is brought from Columbia, and from 30 to 40 tons of copper are produced weekly. Similar works have been erected by the British and Foreign Copper Company; and Messrs. John Bibby and Sons of Liverpool, and Messrs. Sims, Willyams, Nevill, and Company, of London, have works here in which they employ between 60 and 80 men in smelting copper-ore: the ore used by them is brought from Cornwall, Chili, South Australia, &c., and is sent hence in square cakes and round bolls to their works at Seacombe, near Birkenhead, to be there rolled and manufactured for the market. There are also several chymical-works. St. Helen's is connected with the Liverpool and Manchester railway by a branch line; and an act was passed in 1846 for a railway to Prescot and Huyton, five miles and a half in length, forming a second branch of the Manchester and Liverpool railway. The St. Helen's and Runcorn-Gap line, chiefly for the conveyance of coal, is twelve miles in length: the original capital was £120,000; it was afterwards increased to £150,000, and the line was completed at a cost of £220,000. There is also a canal, one of the first cut in England, down which great quantities of coal are conveyed to Liverpool, &c. In the centre of the town is a large market-place, forming a fine square, on one side of which a commodious town-hall has been erected. A market is held on Saturday; and there are fairs on the Monday and Tuesday after Easter-week, and the first Friday and Saturday after September 8th. At the courts leet and baron of the lord of the manor of Windle, held in November, peace officers are appointed for the district. The powers of the county debt-court of St. Helen's, established in 1847, extend over the registration-district of Prescot.
The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £240; patrons, certain Trustees; impropriators, the Provost and Fellows of King's College, Cambridge. The church, originally dedicated to St. Helen, on being enlarged in 1816, was dedicated anew to St. Mary; it is a plain brick building, but the interior arrangements are exceedingly convenient, and it will accommodate 2500 persons: the organ was primarily constructed for the commemoration of Handel in Westminster Abbey. The parsonage-house, which has been rebuilt, is pleasantly situated one mile and three-quarters out of the town, and is a large and handsome building. At Parr is a church in the gift of the Incumbent of St. Helen's. St. Thomas's church was erected at a cost of £3300, and endowed with £150 per annum, by Peter Greenall, Esq., and is a cruciform structure in the early English style, capable of containing nearly 900 persons: the same gentleman built a very convenient parsonage-house and a schoolroom. The living is in the gift of the family of Greenall. There are places of worship for the Society of Friends, Independents, and Wesleyans, and a Roman Catholic chapel. A school, subject to the control of the incumbent, is endowed with property producing £26 per annum. Another was founded in 1714, by a bequest from Sarah Cowley, who gave an estate at Hardshaw; it is situated at Moss Bank, in Windle, and is in connexion with the Established Church: more than 1000 children are educated, and divine service is regularly performed here every Sunday. The Sunday school connected with the old church was erected by subscription, and the proceeds of a bazaar, in 1819, at an expense of nearly £1000. There is also a Roman Catholic free school.
HELEN'S, ST., a parish, in the liberty of East Medina, Isle of Wight division of the county of Southampton, 3 miles (S. E. by E.) from Ryde; containing 1373 inhabitants. The parish is bounded on the north by Spithead, on the east by Brading harbour, and on the south by the parish of Brading; and comprises 1832 acres, of which 18 are waste land or common. The village occupies an agreeable situation, overlooking the English Channel and Brading haven, and is neatly built in the form of a square, inclosing a green. A hamlet named Sea-View is a place of favourite resort in summer; and near the site of a priory of Cluniac monks, a handsome mansion called the Priory has been erected. Not far from Sea-View is a quarry of excellent stone, which is raised for building purposes, and in which are found numerous rare fossils. The living is a perpetual curacy, in the gift of Eton College, with a net income of £121: the tithes have been commuted for £265. 13. The original church was partly taken down at the commencement of the last century, in consequence of encroachments made by the sea, but part of the tower was left standing as a landmark. The second parish church, with the exception of the chancel, was rebuilt in 1830, at an expense of £600; it is a handsome cruciform edifice, with a square embattled tower, and contains a monument to Sir Nash Grose, a judge in the reign of George III., and one to his son, Capt. Grose, who fell at Waterloo. The district church of St. John, at Oakfield, was consecrated in July, 1843: the living is a perpetual curacy, in the patronage of the Incumbent of St. Helen's; net income, £100. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans. In a wood adjacent to the Priory mansion are some remains of an oratory; but no vestiges exist of the buildings of the priory, the ground on which it stood having been destroyed by the sea.
HELFORD, a small sea-port, in the parish of Manaccan, union of Helston, hundred of Kerrier, W. division of Cornwall, 6 miles (S. S. W.) from Falmouth. This place is situated on the southern side of the river Hel, and has a haven where some trade is carried on in timber and coal imported from Wales. Here is a meeting-house for Independents.
HELLABY, a hamlet, in the parish of Stainton, union of Doncaster, S. division of the wapentake of Strafforth and Tickhill, W. riding of York, 5¼ miles (E.) from Rotherham; containing 30 inhabitants. This place, in Domesday book called Helgebi, was probably so termed from its having been the by or residence of a person named Ella among the Saxons. The monks of Roche Abbey had a little property here, and among other landowners occur the family of Fretwell, who lived in the 16th and 17th centuries. Hellaby Hall is now a farmhouse.
Helland (St. Helena)
HELLAND (St. Helena), a parish, in the union of Bodmin, hundred of Trigg, E. division of Cornwall, 2½ miles (N. by E.) from Bodmin; containing 300 inhabitants. Castlewood, here, derives its name from an ancient castle, of which only the mount, surrounded by a moat, is remaining; and opposite to it, in Lower Helland wood, is a similar relic. The parish comprises 2186 acres, of which 179 are common or waste; it is intersected by the river Camel, and the railroad from Wadebridge passes through part of it. The scenery derives much beauty from the windings of the river, the banks of which are lofty, and richly clothed with wood. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £9. 13. 9.; net income, £196; patron, William Morshead, Esq. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans. Dr. Richard Glynn Clobury, an eminent poet and physician, was born at Brodes, in the parish.
Hellesdon (St. Mary)
HELLESDON (St. Mary), a parish, partly within the city of Norwich, and partly in the hundred of Taverham (which latter portion is in the union of St. Faith), E. division of Norfolk, 2¾ miles (N. W. by W.) from Norwich; containing 400 inhabitants. It comprises 2001 acres, and is bounded on the west and southwest by the river Wensum. The living is a rectory, united to that of Drayton, and valued in the king's books at £12: the tithes have been commuted for £436, and the glebe comprises 29 acres. The church is chiefly in the decorated and later styles, and consists of a nave, chancel, and north aisle, with a small cupola surmounted by a spire; the churchyard contains an ancient cross. In a garden on the bank of the Wensum, a quantity of human bones was dug up, a few years since.
Hellidon (St. John the Baptist)
HELLIDON (St. John the Baptist), a parish, in the union of Daventry, hundred of Fawsley, S. division of the county of Northampton, 5 miles (S. W.) from Daventry; containing 420 inhabitants. The parish is situated on the borders of Warwickshire, and consists of 1478¼ acres. The situation of the village is very high, being more than 600 feet above the level of the sea. The river Leam rises here; and the Cherwell and Nene rise within two miles, the one flowing to Oxford and the other to Peterborough: the parish abounds, besides, in springs of beautiful water. The living is a vicarage; net income, £105; patron, the Rev. Charles Scrafton Holthouse; impropriator, Sir Francis Shuckburgh, Bart. The church is a plain building of the 14th century. In 1618, John Ball bequeathed £100 for the erection of a schoolroom, and a rent-charge of £10 a year towards the support of a master; the school now has an endowment of £20 per annum. There is a Sunday school with an endowment of £5. 15. a year.
HELLIFIELD, a township, in the parish of Long Preston, union of Settle, W. division of the wapentake of Staincliffe and Ewcross, W. riding of York, 6 miles (S. S. E.) from Settle; containing 273 inhabitants. This place, anciently called Helgefelt, or the Field of Helgh, its first Saxon possessor, was held by its mesne lords of the knights of St. John of Jerusalem, and by them of the Percys, as chief lords of the fee. The township comprises 3381a. 1r. 31p., of which 2968 acres are meadow and pasture, 254 common, 24 arable, and 78 wood; the soil is of moderate quality. Hellifield Peel, the residence of the Hamerton family, was embattled and fortified by Laurence Hamerton in the reign of Henry VI.; it has been modernised within the present century. The tithes have been commuted for £50. 5. 11. payable to the vicar, and £19. 15. 6. to the Dean and Chapter of Christ-Church, Oxford.
Hellingly (St. Peter and St. Paul)
Hellingly (St. Peter and St. Paul), a parish, in the union of Hailsham, hundred of Dill, rape of Pevensey, E. division of Sussex, 2 miles (N. by W.) from Hailsham; containing 1675 inhabitants. The roads from London to Eastbourne, and from Lewes to Hastings, both pass through the village. The only event of historical importance in reference to the parish, is the martyrdom of its Protestant minister, John Milles, who was burned at the stake at Lewes, in 1557. The ancient manor-house of the Horsehinges is still remaining, with the moat by which it was surrounded; and the interior displays some fine specimens of carved work. Fairs for cattle are held on the 9th of May and 29th of September. The living is a vicarage, valued in the king's books at £6. 16. 8.; net income, £344; patron, the Earl of Chichester; impropriator, J. Calverley, Esq., whose tithes have been commuted for £658: the glebe comprises 60 acres. The church is in the early and later English styles, with a tower which was rebuilt in 1836, when 112 additional sittings were obtained. There are places of worship for Wesleyans and Calvinists. A detached portion of the parish is situated in the liberty of Ralpshurst, in the hundred of Danehill-Horsted. The union workhouse for able-bodied men and children was erected here in 1837.
Helmdon (St. Mary Magdalene)
HELMDON (St. Mary Magdalene), a parish, in the union of Brackley, hundred of King's-Sutton, S. division of the county of Northampton, 6 miles (N.) from Brackley; containing 551 inhabitants, and comprising by measurement 1922 acres. The working of an excellent quarry of freestone here has been long discontinued, probably from want of facilities for conveyance. The parish is within the duchy of Lancaster, for which a court leet is held here by the crown. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £13. 11. 0½.; net income, £267; patrons, the President and Fellows of Corpus Christi College, Oxford. The tithes were commuted for land and a money payment in 1758; the land comprises 60 acres. The church is an ancient structure in the later English style; the nave is lighted by a fine range of clerestory windows, and in the chancel are a piscina and some sedilia, nearly perfect, and of elegant design. A place of worship for Baptists has been opened.
Helmingham (St. Mary)
HELMINGHAM (St. Mary), a parish, in the union and hundred of Bosmere and Claydon, E. division of Suffolk, 9 miles (N. by E.) from Ipswich; containing 284 inhabitants. This parish, which comprises by measurement 2438 acres, has belonged for many generations to the family of Tollemache, whose seat, Helmingham Hall, is still kept up. The present mansion is comparatively modern, and is pleasantly situated in an extensive park, remarkable for the stateliness of its timber; the house is surrounded by a moat with drawbridges. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £18, and in the patronage of the Crown, with a net income of £461: the glebe comprises 37 acres. The church is an ancient edifice in the early and decorated English styles, with a handsome tower of flint erected in the reign of Henry VI., and contains many splendid memorials of the Tollemaches.