A Topographical Dictionary of England. Originally published by S Lewis, London, 1848.
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Caldbeck (St. Kentigern)
CALDBECK (St. Kentigern), a parish, in the union of Wigton, Allerdale ward below Derwent, W. division of Cumberland; containing 1553 inhabitants, of whom 282 are in High, 646 in Low, and 567 in Haltcliffe, Caldbeck; 8 miles (S. E.) from Wigton. This parish comprises a mountainous tract of 18,000 acres, not more than 6000 of which are inclosed, the remainder being appropriated to pasturing numerous flocks of sheep. The hills contain various mineral productions, principally lead and copper ores, limestone, and coal; and there are several establishments for working the mines: a considerable proportion of silver is occasionally extracted from the lead-ore. The river Caldbeck flows through the village, about half a mile from which, in a romantic glen called the Howk, where is a natural bridge of limestone, the stream dashes impetuously over rocks, and forms two interesting cascades, by the sides of which are singular excavations named the Fairies' Kirk and Fairies' Kettle. A manufactory for blankets, flannels, &c., has been long established; and there are a brewery, a small paper-mill, a fulling-mill, a gingham and check manufactory, and a dye-house. Hesket-Newmarket, in the division of Haltcliffe, is a smaller village, but more compact than Caldbeck, from which it is about a mile and a quarter distant to the east; it is situated on the south side of the river Caldew, which divides this parish from that of Castle-Sowerby. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £45. 13. 6½.; net income, £436; patron, the Bishop of Carlisle. The church bears date 1112, and was founded soon after the establishment of an hospital for travellers, by the prior of Carlisle, with the permission of Ranulph D'Engain, chief forester of Inglewood: it stands in the township of Low Caldbeck, and was new roofed and greatly embellished in 1818. There are three meetinghouses for the Society of Friends, who settled here in the time of George Fox, their founder, who resided for some time at Woodhall; but their number, although formerly considerable, is now reduced to a few families. Robert Sewell, a natural philosopher of considerable repute, was a native of the parish.—See Hesket-Newmarket.
CALDBRIDGE, a township, in the parish of Coverham, union of Leyburn, wapentake of Hang-West, N. riding of York, 3¼ miles (S. W.) from Middleham; containing 95 inhabitants. This place, also named Caldberg, comprises 2724 acres, of which 2300 are common or waste; and includes the hamlet of East or Little Scrafton, which occupies the acclivities on the east of the river Cover. Lead-ore is obtained, in small quantity, on the moors that adjoin Witton Fell. Here is a well called St. Simon's, formerly in great estimation, but the properties of which are unknown; and it is probable that the monks of Coverham, who had land here, valued at £7. 13. 4. per annum, possessed near this well an oratory, designated St. Simon's chapel. The tithes have been commuted for £15.
Caldecot (Virgin Mary)
CALDECOT (Virgin Mary), a parish, in the union of Swaffham, hundred of South Greenhoe, W. division of Norfolk, 4 miles (N. E.) from Stoke-Ferry; containing 48 inhabitants, and comprising about 640 acres. The living is a discharged sinecure rectory, valued in the king's books at £3. 1. 10½.; net income, £6; patron and impropriator, Sir H. R. P. Bedingfield, Bart. The church has been in ruins upwards of a century and a half, and the village has disappeared.
Caldecote (St. Michael)
CALDECOTE (St. Michael), a parish, in the union of Caxton and Arrington, hundred of Longstow, county of Cambridge, 4 miles (E. by S.) from Caxton; containing 117 inhabitants. The living is a discharged vicarage, annexed to the rectory of Toft, and valued in the king's books at £3. 11. 0½.: the tithes have been commuted for £69. A school, built by subscription, is endowed with £18 per annum left by a late rector.
Caldecote (St. David and St. Chad)
CALDECOTE (St. David and St. Chad), a parish, in the union of Nuneaton, Atherstone division of the hundred of Hemlingford, N. division of the county of Warwick, 1½ mile (N. N. W.) from Nuneaton; containing 93 inhabitants. The parish comprises by measurement 668 acres of excellent land, in equal portions of arable and pasture: the surface is level, and is intersected by the river Anker and the Coventry canal. On the north-east the parish is bounded by the Watlingstreet, which separates it from Leicestershire; and on the south-west by the road between Nuneaton and Atherstone. The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at £6. 15., and in the gift of Kirkby Fenton, Esq.: the tithes have been commuted for £170. The church is an ancient edifice with a tower, and contains monuments to the Purefoy family. In 1647, George Abbot bequeathed land, directing the annual produce, about £4. 10., to be expended in teaching children.
CALDECOTT, a township, in the parish of Shocklach, union of Great Boughton, Higher division of the hundred of Broxton, S. division of the county of Chester, 5½ miles (N. W.) from Malpas; containing 69 inhabitants. The river Dee flows on the west of this township, which comprises 595 acres of land. The soil is clay.
Caldecott (St. Mary Magdalene)
CALDECOTT (St. Mary Magdalene), a parish, in the union of Hitchin, hundred of Odsey, county of Hertford, 3½ miles (N. by W.) from Baldock; containing 41 inhabitants. It comprises by measurement 319 acres, chiefly arable. The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at £8, and in the patronage of W. Hale, Esq.: the tithes have been commuted for £70, and the glebe comprises 14 acres. In the year 1724, several Roman urns containing burnt bones and ashes, were discovered.
CALDECOTT, a chapelry, in the parish of Liddington, union of Uppingham, hundred of Wrandike, county of Rutland, 4¾ miles (S.) from Uppingham; containing 260 inhabitants. The Welland, which here separates the county from Northamptonshire, and the small river Eye, flow through the chapelry; which comprises 1089 acres of, in general, good land. The chapel is dedicated to St. John.
CALDER-BRIDGE, a hamlet, in the parish of Beckermet, St. Bridget, union of Whitehaven, Allerdale ward above Derwent, W. division of Cumberland, 5 miles (S. E.) from Egremont. This place owes its origin and name to a bridge over the river Calder; and is celebrated for the remains of an abbey founded for Cistercian monks, by Ralph de Meschines, second earl of Chester and Cumberland, in 1134, in honour of the Virgin Mary, and the revenue of which, at the suppression, was £64. 3. 9. The beautiful ruins are situated in a sequestered and well-wooded vale, and consist principally of part of the transepts of the church, and a tower. The chapel here was rebuilt in 1841.
CALDEY-GRANGE, a township, in the parish of West Kirby, union, and Lower division of the hundred, of Wirrall, S. division of the county of Chester, 8½ miles (N. W. by N.) from Great Neston; containing 132 inhabitants. The manor of "Grange Hall" was granted by Edward VI., in 1552, to the family of Glegg, of Gayton, with whom it continued till the death of William Glegg, in 1785: the estate was purchased some years ago by John Leigh, Esq., of Liverpool. The township lies at the mouth of the river Dee, a little north of the village of West Kirby; and comprises 920 acres, the soil of which is clay and light moss. There is an endowed school.—See Kirby, West.
CALDEY, GREAT, a township, in the parish of West Kirby, union, and Lower division of the hundred, of Wirrall, S. division of the county of Chester, 6¾ miles (N. W. by N.) from Great Neston; containing 104 inhabitants. The manor of Caldey, some years ago, was divided between the families of Whitmore and Goodwin. The township, which, like the preceding, lies at the mouth of the Dee, comprises 715 acres, and the soil is clay and loam, with rock. The village is distant about a mile south-east of the village of West Kirby, and a mile and a half north-west of that of Thurstaston.
Caldicot (St. Mary)
CALDICOT (St. Mary), a parish, in the union and division of Chepstow, hundred of Caldicot, county of Monmouth, 5½ miles (S. W.) from Chepstow; containing 625 inhabitants. The name is said to have been derived from Cil y Coed, signifying the "skirt of the wood." The parish comprises by computation 2000 acres, the soil of which is dry and gravelly. Caldicot Level, a portion of the lands called "the Moors," was in ancient times subject to continual inundations; but the greater part having been drained by the monks of a religious house in the vicinity, it now forms a rich grazing district, protected from the encroachments of the sea by walls and embankments. Here are limestonequarries. The new passage ferry across the Bristol Channel is only two miles distant, and vessels under thirty tons' burthen approach, at spring tides, to within about a mile of the village; which contains a lofty cross. The Living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £6. 0. 7½.; patron, Sir E. Keynton Williams; impropriator, T. Rowland, Esq.: the great tithes have been commuted for £240, and the vicarial for £188, and the glebe contains about 15 acres. The church is chiefly in the decorated and later English styles, and consists of a nave, chancel, and north aisle, with a tower rising from between the chancel and nave, and a very large south porch supposed to have been a chapel. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans. Here stand the remains of a magnificent castle that belonged to the Bohuns, earls of Hereford, as hereditary constables of England, and was held by the service of that office. The walls are of an oblong form, with round towers at the different angles: the principal entrance is under a lofty gate of smooth stone, flanked by others of massive construction; and opposite to this grand gateway is another entrance, through a fine hexagonal tower with a machicolated battlement. Within are the ruins of several apartments, particularly the baronial hall. At the northern angle is a circular tower on a mound of earth, evidently the keep, encircled by a ditch; and another dilapidated circular tower stands at the southern angle: the whole is still surrounded by a moat.
Caldicote (St. Mary Magdalene)
CALDICOTE (St. Mary Magdalene), a parish, in the union of Peterborough, hundred of NormanCross, county of Huntingdon, 1½ mile (W. S. W.) from Stilton; containing 52 inhabitants. It is situated on the great road from London to York. The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at £7. 3. 6.; present net income, £156; patron, William Wells, Esq.
CALDICOTT, a hamlet, in the parish of Northill, hundred of Wixamtree, county of Bedford, 1½ mile (N. W. by N.) from Biggleswade; containing 509 inhabitants, of whom 270 are in Upper, and 239 in Lower, Caldicott.
CALDWELL, a township, in the parish of Stanwick St. John, union of Richmond, wapentake of Gilling-West, N. riding of York, 5¼ miles (E.) from Greta-Bridge; containing 209 inhabitants. This was formerly a place of much greater importance than it is at present. The township comprises by computation 2000 acres, the soil of which is light and fertile: the Tees flows on the north, at the distance of about three miles from the village. A chapel of ease has been built. A Roman military road passed through the township, and a variety of coins have been found in the vicinity.
Calke, Derby.—See Caulk.
Callaley, with Yetlington
CALLALEY, with Yetlington, a township, in the parish of Whittingham, union of Rothbury, N. division of Coquetdale ward and of Northumberland, 10½ miles (W. by S.) from Alnwick; containing 306 inhabitants, and comprising 3610 acres, of which 450 are common or waste. This place anciently gave name to its possessors; and was granted, by Gilbert de Callaley, in the reign of Henry III., to Robert Fitz-Roger, Baron of Warkworth and Clavering, an ancestor of the present family of Clavering, one of the most ancient in the county. Callaley Castle, their residence, stands in a large and beautiful park, and the scenery around is truly picturesque. Attached is a place of worship for Roman Catholics. The village of Yetlington is three and a half miles west-south-west of Whittingham. On Castle Hill, a conical eminence embosomed in woods, is a circular intrenchment with vestiges of buildings, denoting a British or Saxon position.
CALLERTON, BLACK, a township, in the parish of Newburn, union and W. division of Castle ward, S. division of Northumberland, 6¼ miles (N. W.) from Newcastle-upon-Tyne; containing 158 inhabitants. It is situated not far distant from the road between Newcastle and Rothbury, and 3½ miles north-by-east from Newburn; and comprises 1377 acres, of which 1145 are arable, 197 meadow, 15 plantation, and 18 road. The rectorial tithes of the township have been commuted for a yearly rent-charge of £220, and for the vicarial a modus of £6 is paid.
CALLERTON, HIGH, a township, partly in the parish of Ponteland, and partly in that of Newburn, union and W. division of Castle ward, S. division of Northumberland, 7½ miles (N. W.) from Newcastleupon-Tyne; containing 131 inhabitants. It comprises by computation 989 acres: the village stands a considerable distance south of the church of Ponteland. The tithes have been commuted for £116. 1. 8. payable to Merton College, Oxford, and £11 to the vicar of Ponteland. Lady's Land, in the township, consisting of about eight acres, belongs to Morpeth free school.
Callerton, Little, or Low
CALLERTON, LITTLE, or LOW, a township, in the parish of Ponteland, union and W. division of Castle ward, S. division of Northumberland, 7¾ miles (N. W. by W.) from Newcastle-upon-Tyne; containing 34 inhabitants. It is situated on the Pont, and comprises 573 acres, of which 380 are arable, 150 pasture, and 43 wood and water: the soil is a strong clay, suitable for the culture of wheat. The tithes have been commuted for £77 payable to Merton College, Oxford, and £10 to the vicar of the parish.
Callington (St. Mary)
CALLINGTON (St. Mary), a market-town and parish, and formerly a borough, in the union of Liskeard, Middle division of the hundred of East, E. division of Cornwall, 10½ miles (S. by E.) from Launceston, 14 (N.) from Plymouth, and 213 (W. S. W.) from London; containing 1685 inhabitants. This town, anciently called Calweton, Calvington, and Killington, is situated on a gentle acclivity, and consists principally of two spacious streets; the houses are in general of mean appearance, and irregularly built, but the town is paved, and amply supplied with water. The inhabitants had a considerable trade in wool, which has of late declined: mining is carried on to some extent, there being several copper-mines in operation, the chief of which are those at Holm-bush and Redmoor, the former employing more than 100 persons; and in the vicinity are also some manganese mines. The market days are Wednesday and Saturday, of which the former is for corn and provisions, and the latter for meat only; and a cattle-market is held on the first Wednesday in every month. An excellent market-place has been opened, together with a corn-market 90 feet long, by the present lord of the manor, Lord Ashburton; it is a very commodious building, ornamented with a colonnade round it, supported on granite pillars. The fairs, chiefly for cattle and sheep, are on the first Thursday in May and September, and the first Wednesday and Thursday in November. The county magistrates hold a petty-session on the first Thursday in every month; and a portreeve and other officers for the town are appointed annually at the court leet of the lord of the manor. The court-house, a commodious edifice, was built by Lord Clinton. The borough received the elective franchise in the 27th of Elizabeth, from which time it continued to return two members of parliament, till it was disfranchised by the act of the 2nd of William IV., cap. 45. The parish comprises 2235 acres, of which 607 are common or waste. The living is a perpetual curacy, annexed to the rectory of South-Hill: the glebe comprises 50 acres. The church, a spacious structure containing three aisles, and constructed entirely of granite, was chiefly built at the expense of Nicholas de Asheton, one of the judges of the court of king's bench, who died in 1645, and to whose memory a marble tomb is in the chancel: in the churchyard is the shaft of an ancient cross, on the upper part of which is a representation of the Crucifixion. There are places of worship for Independents and Wesleyans; and a school erected by subscription, which is highly ornamental to the eastern and southern entrances to the town.
CALLOW, a hamlet, in the parish and hundred of Wirksworth, S. division of the county of Derby, 2½ miles (S. W.) from Wirksworth; containing 112 inhabitants. It comprises about 1000 acres of land, and has a small village. Callow Hall was an ancient moated mansion of considerable extent, of which a small portion remains, occupied as a farmhouse; the moat and part of the bridge are still visible. The rectorial tithes have been commuted for £154.
Callow (St. Michael)
CALLOW (St. Michael), a parish, in the hundred of Webtree, union and county of Hereford, 4 miles (S. S. W.) from Hereford; containing 171 inhabitants. It is situated on the road from Hereford to Ross, and comprises by measurement 582 acres; the surface is moderately undulated and well wooded, and the soil is nearly of average fertility. The living is a perpetual curacy, endowed with the rectorial tithes, and annexed to the vicarage of Dewsall; 22 acres of land are tithefree, having belonged to the fraternity of St. John of Jerusalem. The tithes have been commuted for £86. 2. 10.; in addition to which, £12 a year are received from fourteen acres of land, purchased a few years ago, with an allowance from Queen Anne's Bounty. The church is pleasantly situated on the summit of a hill overlooking, at a short distance, the high road; it was rebuilt about the year 1831. The rent of four acres of land bought with £100 bequeathed by Henry Pearle, Esq., a native, is given to the poor on St. Thomas's day, when a distribution is also made of the interest of £80 in the savings' bank at Hereford, the produce of timber cut down on the land a few years since. There are the remains of two Roman camps.