A Topographical Dictionary of England. Originally published by S Lewis, London, 1848.
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Semer (All Saints)
SEMER (All Saints), a parish, in the union and hundred of Cosford, W. division of Suffolk, 2 miles (S. by E.) from Bildeston; containing 370 inhabitants. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £11. 7. 1., and in the gift of the Rev. J. Young Cooke: the tithes have been commuted for £350, and the glebe comprises 65 acres. A house of industry here, erected in 1799, has been converted into a workhouse for the union, which comprises 28 parishes or places, and contains a population of 18,237.
SEMINGTON, a chapelry, in the parish of SteepleAshton, union of Melksham, hundred of Whorwelsdown, Melksham and N. divisions of Wilts, 3 miles (N. E. by E.) from Trowbridge; containing, with Littleton tything, 570 inhabitants. The chapel is dedicated to St. George. The impropriate tithes have been commuted for £180, and the vicarial for £145. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans.
Semley (St. Leonard)
SEMLEY (St. Leonard), a parish, in the union of Tisbury, hundred of Chalk, Hindon and S. divisions of Wilts, 4¾ miles (S. by W.) from Hindon; containing 736 inhabitants. The parish comprises 2947a. 2r. 13p., of which 298 are common or waste land. The surface is undulated, and towards the south rises to a considerable eminence called Semley Hill, in which the small river Sem has its source. There is a quarry of soft greenstone, of which material the houses are generally built. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £17. 2. 8½.; patrons, the Dean and Canons of Christ-Church, Oxford: the tithes have been commuted for £492. 10., and the glebe comprises 101 acres. The church is a very ancient structure, greatly dilapidated. There is a place of worship for Baptists. Dr. William Thorn, a celebrated divine and Hebrew scholar, was born here towards the close of the sixteenth century.
Semperingham, or Sempringham (St. Andrew)
SEMPERINGHAM, or Sempringham (St. Andrew), a parish, in the union of Bourne, wapentake of Aveland, parts of Kesteven, county of Lincoln, 3¼ miles (E. S. E.) from Folkingham; containing, with the chapelries of Birthorpe and Pointon, 556 inhabitants, of whom 54 are in the township of Semperingham. The parish comprises 1867a. 2r. 18p., of which about one-half is pasture, and the other arable; the soil is good, and part of the land is in the fenny district. The substratum abounds with stone, quarried chiefly for repairing the roads. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £2. 15. 8.; net income, £131; patron and impropriator, Earl Fortescue. The church appears to have been originally a larger structure, and is principally in the Norman style, with a plain tower of later date crowned by eight crocketed pinnacles. Gilbert de Sempringham, rector of the parish, and founder of the Gilbertine or Sempringham order, built a priory here about 1139, in honour of the Blessed Virgin Mary, for nuns and canons, whose revenue, at the Dissolution, was valued at £359. 19. 7. It was the superior establishment of the order, where the general chapters were held, and stood a little northward of the church, but the site only is discernible, surrounded by a moat.
Send (St. Mary)
SEND (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Guildford, Second division of the hundred of Woking, W. division of Surrey; containing, with the chapelry of Ripley, 1538 inhabitants, of whom 687 are in the hamlet of Send. A priory of Black canons, in honour of the Blessed Virgin Mary and St. Thomas à Becket, was founded in the time of Richard I., at Newark, in the parish, by Ruald de Calva and Beatrix his wife, and at the Dissolution possessed a revenue of £ 294. 18. 4.: there are still some remains. The parish comprises 4391a. 20p., of which 2516 acres are arable, 1421 pasture, and 452 woodland. The village is long and scattered, and situated between the Wey navigation and the high road from Guildford to Ripley: the surrounding meadows are sometimes overflowed in wet seasons. The living is a vicarage, valued in the king's books at £8. 18. 1½.; net income, £260; patron, the Earl of Onslow. The church is principally in the early English style. At Ripley is a chapel of ease; also a place of worship for Baptists.
Sennen (St. Senan)
SENNEN (St. Senan), a parish, in the union of Penzance, W. division of the hundred of Penwith and of the county of Cornwall, 8¼ miles (W. S. W.) from Penzance; containing 659 inhabitants. This parish is situated at the extreme western point of England, and includes the Land's End, a promontory 150 feet above the level of the sea; Whitsand bay; and Sennen Cove. King Stephen landed at Whitsand Bay on his first arrival in England, as did also King John on his return from the conquest of Ireland, and Perkin Warbeck in the reign of Henry VIII. The parish comprises 2050 acres, of which 800 are common or waste: the surface is varied with valleys and hills, though none of the latter rise to any considerable height; and the low lands are watered by a few brooks. The scenery along the coast is strikingly bold and magnificent; the Scilly Islands, about nine leagues west-by-south from the Land's End, are distinctly seen in clear weather. Off the coast are several rocks called the Longships, on one of which a lighthouse was erected in 1797 by the Trinity House. A pilchard-fishery is carried on at Sennen Cove, and great quantities of ling are cured for the London and other markets. The living is a rectory, united, with that of St. Levan, to the rectory of St. Burian: the tithes have been commuted for £230. There are places of worship for Baptists and Wesleyans. Near Sennen Cove are the remains of an ancient chapel, and the site of Castle Mayon; and in the village of Mayon is a large flat stone called Table Maen, on which, according to Hals, seven Saxon kings dined together, when they came to visit the Land's End, towards the close of the sixth century. In 1807, 400 Roman coins of copper and plated metal were found between two flat stones under a large projecting rock.
SERLBY, a hamlet, in the parish of Harworth, union of East Retford, Hatfield division of the wapentake of Bassetlaw, N. division of the county of Nottingham, 2¾ miles (S. S. W.) from Bawtry; containing 89 inhabitants. Here was formerly a chapel of ease to the vicarage of Harworth.
Sessay (St. Cuthbert)
SESSAY (St. Cuthbert), a parish, in the union of Thirsk, wapentake of Allertonshire, N. riding of York, 6¾ miles (N. W. by W.) from Easingwould; containing 437 inhabitants, of whom 323 are in the township of Sessay, and 114 in that of Hutton-Sessay. The parish comprises 3039 acres of fertile land, mostly the property of Viscount Downe; the soil is generally clay alternated with sand, the surface undulated, and the scenery varied. The York and Newcastle railway has a station here. The village, which is on the north-side of a tributary of the Swale, is long and scattered, and consists of neat houses and gardens. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £17. 0. 2½.; patron, the Viscount: the tithes have been commuted for £619, and the glebe consists of 67 acres. The church is a very ancient structure, but has undergone so many alterations and repairs that it now presents a modern appearance; the porch, the tower (which is of brick), and the Ionic columns on each side of the altar, were erected about 1713. The poor have several parcels of land and some money benefactions.
SETCHEY, a parish, in the union and hundred of Freebridge-Lynn, W. division of Norfolk, 5 miles (S.) from Lynn; containing 100 inhabitants. It comprises 734 acres, of which 57 are arable, 647 pasture, and 30 common. Here was formerly a market; but it has been removed to Lynn. The navigable river Nar flows through the parish. The living is a rectory, annexed to that of North Runcton. The church has long been demolished; but a school-house, erected by Daniel Gurney, Esq., of North Runcton Hall, has been licensed for the performance of divine service.
SETMURTHY, a chapelry, in the parish of Brigham, union of Cockermouth, Allerdale ward above Derwent, W. division of Cumberland, 4 miles (E. N. E.) from Cockermouth; containing 181 inhabitants. The chapelry comprises 2579a. 24p., of which about 1690 acres are pasture, 763 arable, and 124 woodland. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £54; patrons, the Inhabitants. A rent-charge of £16 has been awarded as a commutation for the impropriate tithes. The chapel, a plain neat edifice, was built by the landed proprietors in 1794; and a school was erected in the following year, for the endowment of which about 60 acres of land were allotted at the inclosure, in 1812.
SETTLE, a market-town, and the head of a union, in the parish of Giggleswick, wapentake of Staincliffe West, W. riding of York, 59 miles (W. by N.) from York, and 234 (N. W. by N.) from London; containing 2041 inhabitants. This place is supposed to have derived its name from the Saxon Setl, "a seat," descriptive of its singular situation at the base of an almost perpendicular limestone rock called Castlebergh, which rises immediately behind it, to the height of 200 feet. It appears to have attained to some importance in the reign of Henry III., who granted the inhabitants a charter for a weekly market and an annual fair; and in the reign of Henry VII. it had become populous and flourishing. The town is on the eastern bank of the river Ribble, and consists of two principal streets, which are partially paved, and of some smaller streets: the houses are well built, chiefly of stone obtained from the neighbouring quarries, and the inhabitants are supplied with water from wells and numerous springs. In the market-place, which is spacious and well adapted to its use, a handsome town-hall was erected in 1832, at an expense of £5500, by a body of £10 shareholders. The building is in the Elizabethan style, and contains a court-room, assembly-rooms, a subscription library and newsroom; apartments for a literary institution established in 1770, which has a good library; and a savings' bank, in which are deposits to a considerable amount. The cotton manufacture is carried on to some extent; there are several roperies, and a paper manufactory. The market, which is amply supplied with provisions of all kinds, is on Tuesday; and great markets for fat-cattle are held every alternate Monday, and for milch-cows and lean stock every alternate Friday from the fortnight preceding Easter till Whitsuntide. Fairs, chiefly for sheep and cattle, take place on the 26th of April, 19th of August, and the first Tuesday after the 27th of October; a pleasure-fair occurs on Whit-Tuesday. The powers of the county debt-court of Settle, established in 1847, extend over part of the registrationdistrict of Settle. A constable is appointed annually at the court leet of the lord of the manor.
The township, which includes the hamlets of Meerbeck-Lodge and Anley, comprises 4370 acres of grazing land. The pastures extend along the eastern acclivities of the vale, which is inclosed on each side by a continuous range of rugged limestone rocks, of mountainous elevation, terminated by the lofty eminences of Pendle Hill on the south, Pennigant on the north, and Ingleborough on the north-west. The scenery, especially on the hills near Attermire, is strikingly romantic, and in some parts beautifully picturesque: the pastures are rich, and of those near the town some are rented at from £5 to £8 per acre. A district church, dedicated to the Ascension, was erected in 1839, at an expense of £3000, raised by subscription, towards which William Wilkinson, Esq., contributed £500; it is a handsome structure in the later English style, and contains 700 sittings, of which 250 are free. The living is a perpetual curacy, endowed with £1000 by Mrs. Swale; total net income, £160; patrons, the Vicar of Giggleswick, the Master of Giggleswick grammar school, and three other Gentlemen, as trustees. There are places of worship for the Society of Friends, Independents, and Wesleyans. The poor-law union comprises 31 parishes and townships, containing a population of 14,096, and the workhouse is at Giggleswick. Thomas Proctor, an eminent sculptor who died in his youth, was born here.
Settrington (All Saints)
SETTRINGTON (All Saints), a parish, in the union of Malton, wapentake of Buckrose, E. riding of York; containing, with the township of Scagglethorpe, 741 inhabitants, of whom 492 are in Settrington township, 4 miles (E. S. E.) from Malton. The parish comprises about 4300 acres, and is chiefly the property of Henry Willoughby, Esq., lord of the manor, to whom the estate was bequeathed by the late Lord Middleton, of Birdsall Hall. The village is situated in the narrow' vale of a rivulet, at the foot of the Wolds; and is chiefly of modern erection, the greater portion of it having been rebuilt by Lady H. M. Sykes, who died in 1813. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £42. 12. 6., and in the patronage of the Trustees of the Earl of Bridgewater; net income, £1045. The tithes were commuted for land and money payments in 1797, when the township was inclosed. The church is a handsome structure in the later English style, comprising a nave, chancel, and aisle, with a square embattled tower; the east window is embellished with beautiful stained glass, and the interior is very neatly fitted up. Here were formerly two chantries. In the parish are the remains of some military intrenchments, and there are several tumuli. The manor gives the title of Baron of Settrington to the Duke of Richmond.
Sevenhampton (St. Andrew)
SEVENHAMPTON (St. Andrew), a parish, in the union of Northleach, hundred of Bradley, E. division of the county of Gloucester, 4¼ miles (S.) from Winchcomb; containing 471 inhabitants. It comprises about 3290 acres, of which 2980 are arable, and 270 meadow and pasture: the soil is generally light, resting on stone; the surface is hilly. The river Colne flows through the parish; and one of the most distant sources of the Thames rises within its limits, in seven different springs. There are some extensive quarries of freestone, which is raised for building. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £49; patrons, F. Craven and W. Morris, Esqrs.: the tithes were commuted for land and money payments in 1814. The church is a venerable cruciform structure, with a square embattled tower in the centre; it was built by John Camber, who was buried in the chancel in 1447. Here is a place of worship for Baptists.
SEVENHAMPTON, a chapelry, in the parish of Highworth, union of Highworth and Swindon, hundred of Highworth, Cricklade, and Staple, Swindon and N. divisions of Wilts, 1½ mile (S. E. by S.) from Highworth; containing 254 inhabitants. The chapel is dedicated to St. Andrew.
SEVEN-OAKS, a township, in the parish of Great Budworth, union of Runcorn, hundred of Bucklow, N. division of the county of Chester, 4 miles (N. W. by N.) from Northwich; containing 149 inhabitants. It comprises 584 acres, of a clay soil.
Seven-Oaks (St. Nicholas)
SEVEN-OAKS (St. Nicholas), a market-town and parish, and the head of a union, in the hundred of Codsheath, lathe of Sutton-at-Hone, W. division of Kent, 17½ miles (W.) from Maidstone, and 24 (S. E. by S.) from London; containing, with the chapelry of Riverhead, and the liberty of Weald, 5061 inhabitants. This place, which in the Textus Roffensis is written Seovan Acca, is supposed to have derived its name from seven large oaks that stood upon the eminence on which the town is built. The period of its origin is uncertain, and the only historical event connected with it is the defeat here of Sir Humphrey Stafford, by Jack Cade and his followers, in 1450. The manor, anciently an appendage to Otford, and as such belonging to the see of Canterbury, was conveyed about the time of the dissolution of monastic establishments, by Archbishop Cranmer, to Henry VIII., and subsequently became the property of the dukes of Dorset.
The town is situated on the ridge of hills which crosses the county, separating the Upland from the Weald or southern part, and stands near the river Darent, in a fertile and beautiful country. It consists principally of two streets, is well built, and very respectably inhabited. Some silk-mills in the neighbourhood have been lately taken down. The market is on Saturday, and mostly for corn; there is also a market on the third Tuesday in every month, for cattle, which is numerously attended: fairs take place on July 10th and Oct. 12th, the latter being likewise a statute-fair. A bailiff, high constable, and several inferior officers, are chosen annually at a court leet. Petty-sessions for the lathe of Sutton-at-Hone are held here; and in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, and at two or three subsequent periods, the assizes took place in the ancient markethouse near the middle of the High-street. The powers of the county debt-court of Seven-Oaks, established in 1847, extend over part of the registration-districts of Seven-Oaks and Mailing. The parish comprises 6000 acres, of which 1377 are in wood, and 53 common. The living comprises a sinecure rectory, and a vicarage, the former valued in the king's books at £13. 6. 8., and the latter at £15. 3. l½.; patron and incumbent, the Rev. Thomas Curteis. The rectorial tithes have been commuted for £543. 10., and the vicarial for £744. 10.; the rectorial glebe comprises 15 acres. The church is a spacious and handsome edifice, at the southern end of the town, and on so elevated a site as to be a conspicuous object many miles round. At Riverhead and Weald are separate incumbencies. The Baptists have two places of worship, and the Supralapsarians and Wesleyans one each.
The free grammar school was founded and endowed in 1432, by Sir William Sevenoake, usually written Sennocke, who, being deserted by his parents, was brought up by some charitable persons, and apprenticed to a grocer in London, from which station he rose to be lord mayor of that city, and its representative in parliament, leaving a portion of his wealth to found this school and an hospital for decayed elderly tradespeople. Queen Elizabeth granted a charter to the school, placing the management in the wardens and assistants of the town; and it is in consequence called "The Free Grammar School of Queen Elizabeth." It has seven scholarships; namely, four of £15 per annum each, in any college at either of the universities, founded by direction of the court of chancery, in 1735, from surplus funds in the hands of the trustees; two in Jesus College, Cambridge, founded by Lady Boswell, which have greatly increased in value; and one of £4 at either university, founded by Robert Holmden, and paid by the Leather-sellers' Company. The income derived from Sir William Sennocke's endowment, including some additions to it, particularly a gift by Anthony Pope in 1571, is between £700 and £800 per annum. Lady Margaret Boswell established a school in 1675, the income of which is about £450: a new school-house was erected in 1827, at an expense of about £2000, defrayed by savings from the income. In the almshouse founded by Sir William Sennocke are 32 persons; and sixteen out-pensioners receive an allowance from the endowment. The poorlaw union of Seven-Oaks comprises 16 parishes or places, and contains a population of 22,210.
Severn-Stoke.—See Stoke, Severn.
Sevington (St. Mary)
SEVINGTON (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of East Ashford, hundred of Chart and Longbridge, lathe of Shepway, E. division of Kent, 2¼ miles (S. E. by E.) from Ashford; containing 96 inhabitants. It comprises 820a. 3r. 5p., of which 229 acres are arable, 589 pasture, and about 2 woodland. The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at £8. 14. 0½., and in the gift of the Rev. Robert Morgan: the tithes have been commuted for £230, and the glebe comprises 12 acres.
SEWARDSTONE, a hamlet, in the parish of Waltham-Abbey, union of Edmonton, hundred of Waltham, S. division of Essex, 1¼ mile (S.) from WalthamAbbey; containing 901 inhabitants. This place is situated within the limits of Epping forest, and near the river Lea. It is said to have been formerly a distinct parish; and in the vicinity is still a heap of rubbish, called "the ruins of the old church." The district church of St. Paul, here, was erected by subscription, on a site given by Captain Sotheby, and was consecrated December 20th, 1837: the living is in the gift of the Bishop of London. The Wesleyans have a meetinghouse.
Sewerby, with Marton
SEWERBY, with Marton, a township, in the parish and union of Bridlington, wapentake of Dickering, E. riding of York, 1¾ mile (E. N. E.) from Bridlington; containing 352 inhabitants. The township comprises about 2000 acres, and is situated on the coast. Its pleasant and well-built village is distant about three miles west-south-west from Flamborough-head, and commands fine views of the sea: Marton is half a mile north-west from the village of Sewerby. In the township are vestiges of an ancient ravine, consisting of a double line of defence with breast-works, extending one mile and a quarter from the southern shore of Flamborough-head, and termed "Danes Dike."
SEWSTERN, a chapelry, in the parish of Buckminster, union of Melton-Mowbray, hundred of Framland, N. division of the county of Leicester, 9 miles (E. by N.) from Melton-Mowbray; containing 292 inhabitants, and comprising about 1200 acres. The chapel is dedicated to St. Michael. A rent-charge of £300 has been awarded as a commutation for the impropriate tithes, and one of £4 for the vicarial. There are places of worship for Independents and Wesleyans.
SEXHOW, a township, in the parish of Rudby-inCleveland, union of Stokesley, W. division of the liberty of Langbaurgh, N. riding of York, 5 miles (S. W. by W.) from Stokesley; containing 33 inhabitants. This place is sometimes written Saxhoe: no mention of it occurs in Domesday book, but in the reign of Edward I. it appears to have belonged to Robert de Brus, who held the estate under the king in capite, and on whose death it passed to the family of De Roos. The Thwengs were afterwards proprietors; and among subsequent owners occur the families of Gower, Layton, and Foulis, to which last the township now belongs. It comprises 540 acres, and is situated on the river Leven, northwest of the road between Stokesley and Thirsk. The impropriate tithes have been commuted for £17. 5.