A Topographical Dictionary of England. Originally published by S Lewis, London, 1848.
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Orpington (All Saints)
ORPINGTON (All Saints), a parish, in the union of Bromley, hundred of Ruxley, lathe of Sutton-atHone, W. division of Kent, 3 miles (S. by W.) from Foot's-Cray; containing 907 inhabitants. The parish comprises 3502 acres, of which 840 are in wood: the river Cray has its source here. The living is a discharged vicarage, with that of St. Mary Cray annexed, valued in the king's books at £11. 10. 5.; patron, the Rector. The rectory is a sinecure, valued in the king's books at £30. 14. 4½.; patron, the Archbishop of Canterbury. The tithes of Orpington and St. Mary Cray have been commuted for £1181 payable to the rector, and £380 payable to the vicar; the rector has 78 acres of glebe, and the vicar one acre. There is a place of worship for Independents. Queen Elizabeth was splendidly entertained at the manor-house in 1573.
Orrell, with Ford
ORRELL, with Ford, a township, in the parish of Sefton, union and hundred of West Derby, S. division of Lancashire, 4½ miles (N.) from Liverpool; containing 235 inhabitants. The Blundells, of Crosby, had lands here in the reign of Edward III. John del Plat, in the reign of Henry VI., gave to John Bawden all his hereditary lands in Orrell; and Joan, widow of the lastnamed, soon afterwards gave to Henry Blundell, of Little Crosby, all the messuages, lands, and tenements which she possessed here. The township comprises 470 acres, of a light soil, with a red-sandstone substratum; it stands elevated, and has fine views of the sea and the Welsh hills. The Leeds and Liverpool canal intersects Ford. Halton House, in the township, is the seat of Gilbert Henry Harrison, Esq.: from the grounds are extensive prospects, which, besides the sea and the Welsh hills, include the Cumberland mountains. The air is very salubrious and healthy. The tithes have been commuted for £155.
ORRELL, a township, in the parish and union of Wigan, hundred of West Derby, S. division of Lancashire, 3¼ miles (W.) from Wigan, on the road to Ormskirk; containing 2478 inhabitants. In the Domesday survey, this place is returned as being exempt from danegeld, and fines for wounding and rape. In the 32nd of Edward I., Robert de Holland had a charter of free warren here, and three years afterwards he endowed the priory of Holland with lands in Orrell. An heiress of the family married Sir John Lovell, ancestor of Francis, Viscount Lovell, who was attainted in the reign of Henry VII., when the manor was granted to the Earl of Derby, whose representative is the present lord. The township comprises 1481 acres, of which 487 are arable, 973 pasture, and 21 woodland; it stands elevated 160 feet above the Wigan canal, and has a good and rich soil. The river Douglas flows on the north; and the Liverpool and Bury railway passes through a part of the south-west side of the township. Orrell Hall, a mansion in the Elizabethan style, is now a farmhouse. Orrell Mount was until lately occupied as a nunnery of French Benedictines. The nuns of this establishment quitted France in October 1792, in the midst of the tragical scenes of the revolution, and fixed themselves at Heath, in the West riding of Yorkshire, whence they removed to this place in 1821; they have lately left, and taken up their residence at St. Mary's Priory, Princethorp, near Coventry. The Independents have a place of worship, with a school attached; there is also a national school. Here is a fine mineral spring, which discharges about 300 gallons per minute.
Orsett (St. Giles and All Saints)
ORSETT (St. Giles and All Saints), a parish, and the head of a union, in the hundred of Barstable, S. division of Essex, 18½ miles (S. S. W.) from Chelmsford; containing 1435 inhabitants. The parish comprises 4136 acres, the soil of which in the northern part is heavy and swampy, but in the middle lighter; 237 acres are common or waste. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £29. 6. 8., and in the gift of the Bishop of London: the tithes have been commuted for £1225, and there is a glebe-house, with 10 acres of land. The church is large and handsome, and contains some very beautiful monuments to the Baker family. Here is an endowed school, founded by Edward Anson, Esq., and now in connexion with the National Society. The poor have considerable bequests in land. The union of Orsett comprises eighteen parishes or places, and contains a population of 10,157. In the neighbourhood are vestiges of ancient intrenchments, inclosing four or five acres.
Orston (St. Mary)
ORSTON (St. Mary), a parish, in the union, and N. division of the wapentake, of Bingham, S. division of the county of Nottingham, 6¼ miles (E. by N.) from Bingham; containing 501 inhabitants. It comprises by computation 1800 acres. The soil is marly, resting towards the east and south upon limestone, and near the west upon a reddish clay; and there is an extensive bed of gypsum, used very generally for floors. The small river Smite runs through the parish. The living is a discharged vicarage, with the livings of Scarrington and Thoroton annexed, valued in the king's books at £12. 4. 7.; net income, £268; patrons and appropriators, the Dean and Chapter of Lincoln. The tithes were commuted for 132 acres of land in 1796. The body of the church is ancient, but the tower was rebuilt about the year 1763. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans. Near the village is a powerful chalybeate spring impregnated with sulphur.
ORTON, a parish, in the union of Carlisle, ward and E. division of Cumberland; containing, with the township of Baldwinholme, 482 inhabitants, of whom 204 are in the township of Orton, 5½ miles (W. by S.) from Carlisle. This place was anciently of greater importance than it is at present, and many Roman remains have been discovered in the neighbourhood. The whole parish was formerly encompassed by a rampart and ditch; and at the extremity of each of two lanes running northward and eastward from the village, is an intrenchment for the defence of the road, across which an iron chain was fixed, to guard against sudden attacks from the moss-troopers during the border warfare. Coal is found. A market once held has long been disused. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £9; net income, £370; patron, Sir Wastell Brisco, Bart. Near the church is a school, endowed in 1785, by Thomas Pattinson, with the interest of £100. William Nicholson, a learned divine and antiquary, was born here in 1655.
ORTON, a chapelry, in the parish and hundred of Rothwell, union of Kettering, N. division of the county of Northampton, 4¼ miles (W. by N.) from Kettering; containing 110 inhabitants. It comprises 928a. 2r. 28p., of hilly surface, and producing excellent corn: stone is quarried for the roads. By an inclosure act in 1782, one hundred guineas per annum are paid to Rothwell Hospital, in lieu of tithes. The chapel is dedicated to All Saints.
ORTON, a liberty, in the parish of Wombourne, union of Seisdon, S. division of the hundred of Seisdon and of the county of Stafford, 1 mile (N. by W.) from the village of Wombourne; containing 169 inhabitants, and comprising 1128a. 2r. 18p. The impropriate tithes, payable to Lord Wrottesley, have been commuted for £180, and the vicarial for £100. 13.
Orton (All Saints)
ORTON (All Saints), a market-town and parish, in East ward and union, county of Westmorland, 9 miles (S. W. by S.) from Appleby, and 275 (N. W. by N.) from London; containing, with the townships of Bretherdale, Langdale, Raisbeck, Tebay, part of Birbeck-Fells, and part of Fawcet Forest, 1449 inhabitants, of whom 558 are in the township of Orton. The town is pleasantly situated near the river Lune, and consists chiefly of one irregular street; it is supplied with water from two small rivulets, uniting at its extremity. There is a copper-mine in the neighbourhood; also abundance of limestone, and some quarries of white sandstone. The Appleby and Kendal road passes through, and at Tebay is a station of the Lancaster and Carlisle railway. A small market is held on Friday, the grant of which was confirmed by Cromwell, in 1653; and there are fairs on May 3rd, the Friday before Whit-Sunday, and the second Friday after Old Michaelmas, for horned cattle and sheep; and on the 20th August for sheep only. The parish contains about 25,000 acres, one-third of which is mountainous common land uninclosed, about 60 acres are woodland, and the rest meadow and pasture, with the exception of a few hundred acres in tillage.
The living is a vicarage, valued in the king's books at £16. 17. 3½.; net income, £235; patrons and impropriators, the Landowners. The tithes of the manor of Orton were commuted for land in 1769, and the tithes of the rest of the parish have been commuted for a rentcharge and seven acres of land under the commutation acts. There is a glebe of 214 acres, with a glebe-house. The church, standing upon rising ground on the north side of the town, is a neat edifice in the ancient English style, with a low embattled tower, and contains a monument in memory of Dr. Richard Burn, forty-nine years vicar, author of treatises on The Office of a Justice of the Peace and on Ecclesiastical Law, and, conjointly with Joseph Nicholson, of the History of Westmorland and Cumberland. There are places of worship for Baptists, Wesleyans, and other dissenters; also a free school having several benefactions. On the highest part of Orton Scar was formerly a beacon, communicating with those of Penrith, Stainmore, and Winfell in Kendal; and behind the Scar, to the east, is Castle-Folds, a place of safety for cattle in case of incursions from the Scottish borderers, before the union of the two kingdoms. Two large mounds near Tebay, called Castle How, commanding the pass by the river Lune, are Roman fortifications; and a little lower down the valley, near Borrowbridge, is a large square Roman camp, where several coins of the reign of Adrian were lately found. Near Raisgill Hall is a circular tumulus of loose stones, one hundred yards in circumference, on digging beneath which a human skeleton and several bones have been discovered. In a field called Gamelands is a number of large granite stones, the remains of a Druidical temple. Three-quarters of a mile from the church, is Our Lady's Well. Dr. Thomas Barlow, Bishop of Lincoln, and a writer of some eminence, was born in the parish in 1607.
Orton-Longville (Holy Trinity)
ORTON-LONGVILLE (Holy Trinity), a parish, in the union of Peterborough, hundred of NormanCross, county of Huntingdon, 2¼ miles (S. W. by W.) from Peterborough; containing, with the merged parish of Botolph-Bridge, 264 inhabitants. The parish is situated near the river Nene, on which is a wharf at Woodstone, about two miles distant. There are quarries of stone, which is used for repairing the roads, and in which are found numerous fossils and antediluvian remains. The living is a rectory, with that of BotolphBridge united in 1721, valued together in the king's books at £20. 13. 4.; net income, £332; patron, the Marquess of Huntly. The church, chiefly in the early and decorated English styles, having fallen into a very dilapidated condition, was restored by the munificence of the Duke of Northumberland and the Marquess of Huntly, in 1836, and is now a beautiful and interesting specimen of its kind; in the process of restoration, the foundations of a Norman structure, and a font of that character, were discovered. The church of BotolphBridge, dedicated to All Saints, is desecrated. Lady Mary Armyne, in 1654, bequeathed a rent-charge of £22, for widows or widowers; and there is a fund of £8. 10. per annum for distribution in coal. The late Bishop of Quebec was rector of the parish from 1798 till 1825.
Orton-on-the-Hill (St. Edith)
ORTON-ON-THE-HILL (St. Edith), a parish, in the union of Market-Bosworth, hundred of Sparkenhoe, S. division of the county of Leicester, 6 miles (N.) from Atherstone; containing 348 inhabitants. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £6. 12. 8.; net income, £218, with a house, recently built; patron and appropriator, the Bishop of Oxford. The church is a handsome structure.
Orton-Waterville, or Overton (St. Mary)
ORTON-WATERVILLE, or Overton (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Peterborough, hundred of Norman-Cross, county of Huntingdon, 3 miles (S. W. by W.) from Peterborough; containing 313 inhabitants. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £12. 11. 5½.; net income, £354; patrons, the Master and Fellows of Pembroke Hall, Cambridge. The tithes were commuted for land and a money payment in 1805. There is an allotment of land, let for £30, of which a portion is applied in the distribution of coal, and in procuring medical advice for the poor.
Orwell (St. Andrew)
ORWELL (St. Andrew), a parish, in the union of Caxton and Arrington, hundred of Wetherley, county of Cambridge, 7½ miles (N. N. W.) from Royston; containing 583 inhabitants. The living, till lately, comprised a sinecure rectory and a discharged vicarage, the former valued in the king's books at £19. 19. 4½.; and the latter at £7. 10. 10., but which are now united; net income, £313; patrons, the Master and Fellows of Trinity College, Cambridge. At Malton, anciently a distinct parish, is a church, now used as a barn. A school was founded and liberally endowed in 1743, by the Rev. John Colbatch, D.D., some time rector.
OSBALDESTON, a township, in the parish, union, and Lower division of the hundred, of Blackburn, N. division of Lancashire, 4½ miles (N. W. by N.) from Blackburn; containing 289 inhabitants. This place gave name to one of the first families in the county, who were seated here until the beginning of the 18th century. It was the property of Eilfi of Osbaldeston, a Saxon, whose son Hugh was living in the 30th of Henry III.: from this latter the Osbaldeston family descended; while from his brother William, who assumed the surname of Balderston, descended a family which terminated in two co-heiresses, in the reign of Henry VI. This is a small township, sloping down to the banks of the river Ribble, and near the road from Preston to Whalley; the surface is undulated, the soil various, and the scenery beautiful. Lord de Tabley is lord of the manor. Here was a chapel in 1560. The Roman Catholic chapel of St. Mary, in the township, was built in 1836, and has recently been decorated in accordance with its style of architecture. It has an open roof, which is painted blue, and interspersed with stars; the altar and tabernacle are richly embellished with gold, and some of the windows are filled with stained glass: within an arch are three figures, the centre one representing the Virgin, with St. Augustine and St. William on the right and left. The priest, the Rev. Thomas Irving, has a farm valued at £40 per annum, with a house. Adjacent are schools, built in 1846, at a cost of £400.
Osbaldwick (St. Thomas)
OSBALDWICK (St. Thomas), a parish, in the union of York, wapentake of Bulmer, N. riding of York; containing, with the township of Murton, 361 inhabitants, of whom 200 are in the township of Osbaldwick, 2¼ miles (E.) from York. The township comprises about 700 acres, of which 300 are arable, and 400 meadow and pasture. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £4; patron, the Archbishop of York; net income, including a recent augmentation from the Ecclesiastical Commissioners, £145. The tithes were for the most part commuted, under an act of inclosure, in 1769.
OSBASTON, a township, in the union of MarketBosworth, partly in the parish of Market-Bosworth, but chiefly in that of Cadeby, hundred of Sparkenhoe, S. division of the county of Leicester, 2 miles (N. E.) from Market-Bosworth; containing 209 inhabitants.
OSBERTON, a township, in the parish and union of Worksop, Hatfield division of the wapentake of Bassetlaw, N. division of the county of Nottingham; containing 127 inhabitants. Osberton Hall is an elegant mansion, surrounded by beautiful scenery.
Osbournby (St. Peter and St. Paul)
OSBOURNBY (St. Peter and St. Paul), a parish, in the union of Sleaford, wapentake of Aswardhurn, parts of Kesteven, county of Lincoln, 2¾ miles (N.) from Falkingham; containing 599 inhabitants. It is situated on the road from London to Lincoln, and comprises 1500 acres: stone for building and for the roads is quarried. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £7. 0. 5.; net income, £234; patrons, Hulme's Trustees; impropriator, M. A. Barham, Esq. The tithes were commuted for land and a money payment in 1795; the vicarial glebe consists of about 140 acres. The church, erected in the fourteenth century, contains some stalls, the remains of a rood-loft, a screen, and a large ancient font. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans.
OSCOTT, a hamlet, in the parish and union of Aston, Birmingham division of the hundred of Hemlingford, N. division of Warwickshire, 6 miles (N.) from Birmingham. This place is distinguished as the site of a large Roman Catholic college, founded in 1794, and devoted to religious and secular purposes, under the title of "St. Mary's College, Oscott." The establishment was, till lately, conducted in a building situated about two miles distant, in the parish of Handsworth, Staffordshire; but in 1837, the present college was erected, after a design by Joseph Potter, Esq., at a cost of about £40,000. It is a fine edifice in the Elizabethan style, presenting a front of 346 feet, and two wings, besides a chapel and offices, which occupy another wing; the situation is exceedingly imposing, and the pleasure-grounds, extending over about 15 acres, comprise handsome gardens, plantations, and terraces. The interior of the buildings was partly fitted up under the superintendence of A. W. Pugin, Esq. The chapel, which was consecrated May 29th, 1838, is elaborately decorated with stained glass and carvings in oak; the library containing nearly 20,000 volumes, occupies two spacious rooms, and there are, besides, a valuable museum, and numerous paintings scattered through the principal apartments and the galleries. Accommodation can be provided for about 130 students, exclusively of professors. The course of instruction embraces the various departments of literature, science, and philosophy, and theology for such as are intended for the priesthood.
Osgarthorpe (St. Mary)
OSGARTHORPE (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Ashby-de-la-Zouch, hundred of West Goscote, N. division of the county of Leicester, 5¼ miles (E. N. E.) from Ashby; containing 396 inhabitants. A canal passes from Barrow-hill, in the parish, and, crossing Sheepshead, terminates in Loughborough parish. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £7; net income, £184; patron, the Marquess of Hastings. The tithes were commuted for land and a money payment in 1785. In 1670, land was bequeathed by Thomas Harley, Esq., now producing £379 per annum, for founding a school, and an hospital for the maintenance of six clergymen's widows; another cottage was added, under a bequest by John Allsop in 1683.
OSGODBY, a township, in the parish of Lavington, union of Grantham, wapentake of Beltisloe, parts of Kesteven, county of Lincoln, 4½ miles (N. E.) from Corby; containing 82 inhabitants. The vicarial tithes have been commuted for £149. 10.
Osgodby, with Kirkby, wapentake of Walshcroft, county of Lincoln.—See Kirkby.
OSGODBY, a township, in the parish of Hemingbrough, union of Selby, wapentake of Ouse and Derwent, E. riding of York, 2½ miles (E. N. E.) from Selby; containing 168 inhabitants. It comprises 1524a. 20p. of land: the village is seated about a mile east of the river Ouse, which also flows in a very devious course on the south of the township. Certain impropriate tithes were commuted for land in 1811.
OSGODBY, a township, in the parish of Cayton, union of Scarborough, Pickering lythe, N. riding of York, 2¾ miles (S. by E.) from Scarborough; containing 69 inhabitants. It is situated on the sea-shore, and comprises about 1300 acres; the road from Scarborough to Filey passes a little to the east of the hamlet.
OSGOODBY, a hamlet, in the parish of Thirkleby, union of Thirsk, wapentake of Birdforth, N. riding of York, 4¾ miles (E. by S.) from Thirsk; containing 29 inhabitants. A small rivulet, which divides the parish into two parts, flows on the west of the hamlet.