A Topographical Dictionary of England. Originally published by S Lewis, London, 1848.
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WATCHETT, a sea-port and market-town, in the parish of St. Decuman, union of Williton, hundred of Williton and Freemanners, W. division of Somerset, 5 miles (E.) from Dunster, and 154 (W. by S.) from London; containing 916 inhabitants. This place, which was anciently called Weced-poort, and suffered severely from the Danes in the year 886, is situated in a pleasant valley, on a creek of the Bristol Channel, and consists chiefly of four paved streets. It once had an extensive trade, and was noted for its herring-fishery: some vessels are now employed in the coasting-trade, and in the importation of coal from Newport and Swansea; and two packets ply between the place and Bristol every fortnight. A pier, originally erected by the Wyndham family, was repaired by Sir William Wyndham previously to 1740. The cliffs in the vicinity abound with alabaster and limestone. There is a small manufacture of woollen-cloth and of paper. The market is on Saturday; and a fair takes place on Nov. 17th. In the town are places of worship for Baptists and Wesleyans.
WATCHFIELD, a township, and formerly a chapelry, in the parish and hundred of Shrivenham, union of Farringdon, county of Berks, 4½ miles (S. W. by S.) from Farringdon; containing 375 inhabitants, and comprising 1476a. 3r. 38p. The chapel was taken down about the year 1770.
Waterbeach (St. John)
WATERBEACH (St. John), a parish, in the union of Chesterton, hundred of Northstow, county of Cambridge; containing 1270 inhabitants, and comprising 3374 acres. The road from Cambridge to Ely passes within about half a mile on the west, and the river Cam at nearly the same distance on the east. Here is also a station of the Cambridge and Ely railway, 5½ miles distant from the Cambridge station, and 9½ miles from that of Ely. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £5. 15. 7½., and in the gift of the Bishop of Ely: the great tithes have been commuted for £9. 6., and the vicarial for £73; the glebes comprise allotments of 332 and 288 acres, respectively. The church is in the early English style, and is supposed to have been built about the beginning of the 13th century. A charity school, now conducted on the national plan, was instituted in 1687, and endowed with lands, by Grace Clarke and Dorothy Staines; the master's salary is upwards of £40. An almshouse for six widows was founded in 1628, by a bequest from John Yaxley, of Cambridge, and endowed with £ 12 per annum; to which a rent-charge of £15 was added by Mrs. Jane Brigham, in 1705. About the year 1160, a cell to the monastery of Ely was established in a small island called Elmeneye, and was shortly after removed to Denney, both in this parish; in the following century, it was occupied by the Knights Templars, who then possessed the manor of Waterbeach. In 1293, an abbey for minoresses of the order of St. Clare was founded at Waterbeach by Dionysia de Mountchensi, which, in 1338 (the order of the Templars being then abolished), was transferred to Denney; at the Dissolution there were twenty-five nuns, and the annual value of the lands was estimated at £172. The abbey house and the demesne have been many years rented as a farm, and the refectory converted into a barn.
Waterden (All Saints)
WATERDEN (All Saints), a parish, in the union of Docking, hundred of Brothercross, W. division of Norfolk, 5 miles (S. E.) from Burnham-Market; containing 29 inhabitants. It comprises 793a. 1r. 30p., of which 640 acres are arable, 120 pasture and meadow, and 10 woodland. The living is a discharged rectory, annexed to that of Warham St. Mary, and valued in the king's books at £5. 6. 8.: the tithes have been commuted for £190, and the glebe comprises 18½ acres. The church is chiefly in the early style; there was formerly a south aisle, but it has been removed, and the tower is in ruins.
WATER-EATON, a township, in the parish of Bletchley, poor-law union of Newport-Pagnell, hundred of Newport, county of Buckingham, ¾ of a mile (S.) from Fenny-Stratford; containing 267 inhabitants. It has an ancient manor-house, with a chapel, in which divine service is performed every Sunday.
WATER-EATON, a tything, in the parish of Eisey, poor-law union of Cricklade and Wootton-Bassett, hundred of Highworth, Cricklade, and Staple, Cricklade and N. divisions of Wilts, 2¼ miles (E. S. E.) from Cricklade; containing 51 inhabitants.
Waterfall (St. James)
WATERFALL (St. James), a parish, in the N. division of the hundred of Totmonslow and of the county of Stafford, 7 miles (E. S. E.) from Leek, on the road to Ashbourn; containing, with the chapelry of Calton, 517 inhabitants, of whom 446 are in Waterfall township. The river Hamps, which encompasses about two-thirds of the parish, enters the ground at Waterhouses, and pursues a subterraneous course of about three miles to Ilam, where it emerges and joins the river Manifold. The parish comprises about 1200 acres, mostly a limestone soil, with a portion of clay, and diversified with hill and dale. Gritstone, and lead-ore, are found; and at the hamlet of Winkhill are two paper-mills, a flax-mill, and an iron forge and foundry. The living is a perpetual curacy, with a net income of £65; patron, A. Henniker, Esq.; impropriator, John Townsend, Esq. The church, with the exception of the chancel, was rebuilt about a century ago. At Winkhill is a place of worship for Wesleyans, and at Waterhouses one for Primitive Methodists. A school is aided by an endowment of £6. 12. per annum, with a house for the mistress.
WATERGALL, an extra-parochial liberty, in the union of Southam, Southam division of the hundred of Knightlow, S. division of the county of Warwick, 4 miles (S.) from Southam; containing 14 inhabitants, and comprising 507 acres. This place gives name to a river which unites with the Avon.
WATERHEAD, a township, in the parish of Lanercost-Abbey, union of Brampton, Eskdale ward, E. division of Cumberland, 7½ miles (N. E.) from Brampton; containing 366 inhabitants. The township is bounded on the east by the river Irthing, which here separates the county from Northumberland; the surface is undulated, the soil various, and the scenery and views are beautiful. Burdoswald, the Amboglana of the Romans, and forming the next station, westward, from Caer Voran, stands on a large plain, at the head of a steep descent towards the Irthing. Camden discovered here six altars, dedicated to Jupiter Optimus Maximus, and an inscription, " The Sixth Legion, victorious, pious, and happy, made this;" and other altars have been found, as have also several sepulchral and other memorials.
WATERHEAD, an ecclesiastical parish, in the parish of Prestwich cum Oldham, hundred of Salford, S. division of Lancashire, 2 miles (E. by N.) from Oldham; containing upwards of 4000 inhabitants. It is about a mile in length and two miles in breadth, of cold aspect, and rather sterile and rugged surface. Whatever part of the land has escaped conversion into stone-quarries and coal-mines, is occupied in grazing cattle. The village has grown into its present magnitude within the last twenty years: the population is employed in the mines and the cotton manufacture. The road from Manchester to Huddersfield passes through. The district of Waterhead was formed out of St. James's district, Oldham, in Nov. 1844, under the act 6th and 7th Victoria, cap. 37; and became a parish on the consecration of the church in July 1847. The edifice is dedicated to the Holy and Undivided Trinity, and is a beautiful structure in the style of the 13th century, containing accommodation for 800 persons. Of the cost, exceeding £3000, the sum of £1380 was contributed by Church-Building societies, and the remainder collected from the inhabitants of Waterhead and Oldham, and, through the exertions of the Rev. P. H. Reynolds, the first incumbent of the parish, from persons in other parts of England. It is proposed to erect a tower and spire, when funds are obtained for the purpose. The living is a perpetual curacy, in the patronage of the Crown and the Bishop of Manchester, alternately; net income, £150. The late A. R. Sidebottom, Esq., presented the sites for the church and schools. There is a place of worship for Independents.
Wateringbury (St. John the Baptist)
WATERINGBURY (St. John the Baptist), a parish, and formerly a market-town, in the union of West Malling, hundred of Twyford, lathe of Aylesford, W. division of Kent, 5 miles (W. by S.) from Maidstone; containing 1273 inhabitants. This parish is situated on the road between Tonbridge and Maidstone, and bounded on the south by the river Medway. It comprises 1420a. 27p., and is agreeably enlivened by several gentlemen's seats in the neighbourhood of the village. Fruit is extensively raised for the London market, and there are 266 acres of woodland. Here is a station of the Maidstone branch of the South-Eastern railway. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £5, and in the gift of the Dean and Chapter of Rochester: the great tithes have been commuted for £96. 16., and the vicarial for £820; there is a glebe-house, with 2 acres of garden-ground. The church, an ancient edifice in the early English style, with a spire, formerly exhibited a profusion of stained glass, with portraits of Edward III. and his consort Philippa; a handsome vestry-room was added in 1838, at the expense of the late M. P. Lucas, Esq.
WATERLOO, an ecclesiastical district, in the parish of Sefton, union and hundred of West Derby, S. division of Lancashire, 5 miles (N. by W.) from Liverpool; containing about 750 inhabitants. This village is beautifully situated on the coast, near the mouth of the river Mersey. It is a favourite sea-bathing place, remarkable for the firmness of its sands, the clearness of the water, and salubrity of the air; and is much frequented by families from Liverpool. The village consists of several ranges of commodious houses, a fine marine crescent, and some excellent hotels; commanding prospects of the entrance to the Mersey, and the port of Liverpool, with parts of Cheshire, and the northern coast of Wales. The ecclesiastical district was formed out of the townships of Great Crosby and Litherland. The living is a perpetual curacy, in the patronage of Adam Hodgson, John Eden, and Robert Bickersteth, Esqrs., and others; net income, £150. The church, dedicated to Christ, was built in 1841, on land given by William Potter, Esq., at a cost of £4000; it stands near the beach, and is in the early English style, with a tower. There is a small place of worship for Wesleyans; and adjacent to the church are excellent schools.
WATERLOO-VILLE, an extra-parochial district, in the union of Catherington, hundred of FinchDean, Petersfield and N. divisions of the county of Southampton; containing 175 inhabitants. It is on the road from Horndean to Portsmouth. A church, a neat edifice dedicated to St. George, was erected in 1841, at the cost of £1400, containing 530 sittings, of which 370 are free. The living is a perpetual curacy, with an endowment of 8 acres of land and the pew-rents; the patronage belongs alternately to the Bishop of Winchester and Winchester College.
WATER-MILLOCK, a chapelry, in the parish of Greystock, union of Penrith, Leath ward, E. division of Cumberland, 7 miles (S. W.) from Penrith; containing 524 inhabitants. This place is sometimes called Newchurch, from the present chapel, which was built in 1558, on a more convenient site than the former. It is situated on the north side of Ullswater lake, in a district abounding with diversified scenery, the natural beauties of which have been heightened and improved by the erection of several handsome private residences, with pleasure-grounds tastefully laid out. In a deep glen in Gow-Barrow Park, rushing impetuously through the thick foliage of full-grown trees, is Airey Force, a beautiful cataract, which, dashing from rock to rock, emits a considerable spray. The discharge of a gun produces, from the reverberation of the hills, an effect somewhat like thunder, and one or two French horns that of an harmonious concert of musical instruments. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £100; patron, the Rector of Greystock. A school for boys is endowed with £525 in the three and a half per cent, consols.
WATER-OVERTON, a chapelry, in the parish and union of Aston, Birmingham division of the hundred of Hemlingford, N. division of the county of Warwick, 2½ miles (N. W.) from Coleshill; containing 252 inhabitants. The village derives its name from its situation near a river, and upon an ascent. As a member of Aston, it anciently belonged to the barons of Dudley; and in 1346 the inhabitants were sufficiently numerous to raise a chapel, for which a licence was granted by Bishop Northburgh, it being provided that the full dues should be still paid to the vicar of Aston. The Birmingham and Derby railway has a station here, 6¾ miles from the Birmingham station. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £115; patrons and impropriators, Trustees. The chapel is dedicated to St. Peter and St. Paul.
Waterperry (St. Mary)
WATERPERRY (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Thame, hundred of Bullingdon, county of Oxford, 2 miles (S. W.) from Wheatley; containing, with the hamlet of Thomley, 270 inhabitants. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £8. 1. 5½.; net income, £60; patron and impropriator, Joseph Henley, Esq. The church consists of a nave, south aisle, and chancel, with a wooden tower of singular construction; and contains some fine brasses to the Curzon family, whose ancient mansion near it is now the property of Mr. Henley. In the south aisle is an altar-tomb, with the effigy of a crusader, supposed to be one of the family of Ledwell; and in the chancel is a splendid monument, by Chantrey, to Mrs. Greaves.
Waterstock (St. Leonard)
WATERSTOCK (St. Leonard), a parish, in the union and hundred of Thame, county of Oxford, 2½ miles (E.) from Wheatley; containing 127 inhabitants. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £10. 16. 0½.; net income, £58; patron, William Henry Ashurst, Esq. The chancel of the church is modern; it contains a monument to Sir George Crook, a judge of the court of king's bench in the reign of Charles I.