A Topographical Dictionary of England. Originally published by S Lewis, London, 1848.
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Hickling (St. Mary)
HICKLING (St. Mary), a parish, in the Tunstead and Happing incorporation, hundred of Happing, E. division of Norfolk, 3 miles (S. E.) from Stalham; containing 860 inhabitants. The parish comprises 4260 acres, of which 2000 are marsh: there is a lake upwards of three miles in circumference, navigable for small craft to the Thurne and Bure rivers. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £5. 3. 4.; net income, £253; patron and impropriator, N. Micklethwaite, Esq. The church is chiefly in the decorated style, with a lofty embattled tower; the nave is separated from the chancel by a carved screen. There are places of worship for Wesleyans and Primitive Methodists. At the inclosure, in 1805, an allotment of 83 acres was made to the poor, the proceeds of which amount to about £50 per annum. A dividend of £8. 15., from a bequest by the Rev. John Wells in 1803, is paid for teaching children. A priory of Black canons, dedicated to the Virgin Mary, St. Augustine, and All Saints, was founded in the year 1185, by Theobald de Valentia or Valoins; the revenue, at the Dissolution, was valued at £137. 0. 1.
Hickling (St. Luke)
HICKLING (St. Luke), a parish, in the union, and S. division of the wapentake, of Bingham, S. division of the county of Nottingham, 8¼ miles (N. W. by N.) from Melton-Mowbray; containing 581 inhabitants. This parish, which is situated within two miles of the road from Melton-Mowbray to Nottingham, comprises about 3000 acres: the soil in some parts is fertile, and in others indifferent in quality; the substratum is chiefly limestone, in which many fossils are imbedded. The Nottingham and Grantham canal passes close to the village. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £18. 8. 4., and in the gift of Queen's College, Cambridge. On the division of the common, 490 acres of land were given in lieu of tithes; much of it is of inferior quality: the value of the whole is £400 per annum. The church is a handsome ancient structure, with a lofty tower: the lid of a stone coffin, curiously inscribed with Runic characters, has been discovered in the chancel. Here is a place of worship for Wesleyans. The Roman Fosse-road from Lincoln passes through the parish; and in 1771, 200 coins of the reign of Vespasian were dug up on Standard Hill, so called from a standard formerly on it.
HIDCOTE-BARTRIM, a hamlet, in the parish of Mickleton, union of Shipston, Upper division of the hundred of Kiftsgate, E. division of the county of Gloucester, 2 miles (N. E.) from Chipping-Campden; containing, with Hidcote-Boyce, in the parish of Ebrington, 189 inhabitants, of whom 74 are in the hamlet of Hidcote-Bartrim.
Hidden with Eddington and Newtown
Hide, with Wintercott
Hide, West.—See West-Hide.
Hiendley, Cold.—See Havercroft.
HIENDLEY, SOUTH, a township, in the parish of Felkirk, wapentake of Staincross, W. riding of York, 6½ miles (N. E.) from Barnsley; containing 290 inhabitants. This place was formerly the property of the viscounts Galway, whose ancient mansion, Hodroyd Hall, is now a farmhouse. The township comprises about 1246 acres, and includes the hamlet of Upper Hiendley: the village is pleasantly situated on an acclivity. Schools for the children of the poor are partly supported by endowment.
High Abbot-Side, county of York.—See Abbot-Side, High.
HIGHAM, a hamlet, in the parish of Shirland, union of Chesterfield, hundred of Scarsdale, N. division of the county of Derby, 2½ miles (N. by W.) from Alfreton; containing 451 inhabitants. This is a place of great antiquity, situated upon the Roman Ikeneld-street, and at the Alfreton turn on the Chesterfield road, on a fine eminence above the Derwent vale, commanding extensive views. Nearly the whole of the hamlet is the property of Gladwyn Turbutt, Esq., of Ogston Hall. The Midland railway runs for two miles through this part of the parish. There was formerly a market, discontinued in 1785: the cross still stands in the centre of the village. Many of the inhabitants are employed in weaving stockings. Fairs for cattle are held on the first Wednesday after New-Year's day, and on the 27th of February.
Higham (St. Mary)
HIGHAM (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of North Aylesford, hundred of Shamwell, lathe of Aylesford, W. division of Kent, 5 miles (N. N. W.) from Rochester; containing 777 inhabitants. A nunnery of the Benedictine order, dedicated to the Blessed Virgin Mary, was founded here, before 1151, by King Stephen, whose daughter Mary, afterwards abbess of Romsey, became one of the nuns; it was suppressed by Fisher, Bishop of Rochester, in the 13th of Henry VIII., and given by the king to St. John's College. The parish comprises 2994a. 2r. 17p., of which 1397 acres are arable, 987 pasture, 78 meadow, 100 woodland, 23 in hop plantations, and 150 in gardens and orchards. Gad's Hill, mentioned by Shakspeare in his play of Henry IV., is within its limits. The river Thames bounds the parish on the north, and the Gravesend and Rochester railway is conducted into the adjoining parish of Frindsbury by a tunnel two miles and a quarter in length. The living is a vicarage, valued in the king's books at £8. 10.; net income, £518; patrons and impropriators, the Master and Fellows of St. John's College, Cambridge.
Higham (St. Mary)
HIGHAM (St. Mary), a parish, in the incorporation and hundred of Samford, E. division of Suffolk, 8 miles (N. N. E.) from Colchester; containing 259 inhabitants. The parish comprises 880a. 2r. 11p., and is bounded on the south by the river Stour, and on the west by the river Bret or Breton, which empties itself into the Stour: a bridge was built over the Bret in 1837. The living is a perpetual curacy, valued in the king's books at £5. 6. 8., and in the gift of certain Trustees: the incumbent's tithes have been commuted for £206, and the glebe comprises 51 acres. The church is neat, and situated near the junction of the two rivers.
HIGHAM-BOOTH, a township, in the parochial chapelry of Padiham, parish of Whalley, union of Burnley, Higher division of the hundred of Blackburn, N. division of Lancashire, 4½ miles (N. W.) from Burnley; containing 960 inhabitants. This was one of the eleven vaccaries of Pendle Forest. According to tradition, criminals tried by John of Gaunt, at Ightonhill Park, were executed here; and there is still a handsome stone building in the village, called the Court-house, with the arms of John of Gaunt on the west front: the building is now occupied as a farmhouse. The township is bounded on the south by the river Calder, and comprises, with the inferior manor of West Close, 957 acres of land. Hachiller House, an ancient mansion; White Lee, an old fabric dated 1593; and Pendle Hall, a farmhouse near Pendle water, are in the township. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans; also a national school, in which divine service is performed.
Higham, Cold (St. Luke)
HIGHAM, COLD (St. Luke) a parish, in the union and hundred of Towcester, S. division of the county of Northampton, 3½ miles (N. W. by N.) from Towcester, on the road to Daventry; containing, with the hamlet of Grimscote, 388 inhabitants. It comprises 1699a. 32p.; of which three-fourths are arable, and the rest pasture, with about 30 acres of wood; the surface is gently undulated, and the soil chiefly a reddish, sandy loam. From the elevated situation of the parish the views are extensive, embracing the battle-field of Naseby, eighteen miles distant. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £10; net income, £407, with a glebe-house; patron, the Earl of Pomfret. The tithes were commuted for land in 1812. Of the church, the nave and chancel are in the decorated style, and built in the 14th century; the tower is early English: in a small chapel is a monument to a Knight Templar. There are a Sunday school, and a clothing club. The parish is bounded on the north-east by the Roman Watlingstreet.
HIGHAM-DYKES, a township, in the parish of Ponteland, union, and W. division, of Castle ward, S. division of Northumberland, 10 miles (N. W.) from Newcastle-upon-Tyne; containing 20 inhabitants. It is situated on the Kirk-Whelpington road, about three miles north-west from Ponteland, and comprises 219 acres. There is a pleasant mansion-house well sheltered by flourishing trees. The impropriate tithes have been commuted for £31. 12., payable to Merton College, Oxford, and the vicarial for £3. 1. 6.
Higham-Ferrers (Virgin Mary)
HIGHAM-FERRERS (Virgin Mary), a town and parish, in the hundred of Higham-Ferrers, union of Wellingborough, N. division of the county of Northampton, 15½ miles (E. N. E.) from Northampton, and 65 (N. N. W.) from London; containing 1030 inhabitants. This place, which was formerly a representative borough and a market-town, derives its distinguishing appellation from the ancient family of Ferrers, who were its lords, and had a castle here; the name Higham is said to be a contraction of High-ham, denoting elevated situation. The town stands on a rocky eminence abounding with springs, about half a mile from the south-eastern bank of the navigable river Nene, and consists chiefly of two streets, with a market-place in which stands a cross: the roads from Wellingborough to Kimbolton, and from Kettering to Bedford, meet here. It is supposed to have been much larger than it now is, possessing at one period three weekly markets, none of which have been held for the last fifty years. The chief business consists in making boots, shoes, and bobbin-lace; and there are fairs on March 7th, June 28th, the Thursday before August 5th, October 11th, and December 6th. Here is a station of the Northampton and Peterborough railway, 4½ miles from the Wellingborough station, and 6 from that of Thrapstone.
The town was incorporated in the 2nd and 3rd of Philip and Mary, and its privileges were confirmed by a charter granted in the 36th of Charles II., under which the corporation consists of a mayor, recorder, deputyrecorder, seven aldermen, and thirteen capital burgesses; the aldermen are chosen from among the burgesses, and the mayor is elected annually from among the aldermen. The mayor is lord of a manor called Borough-hold, extending from Stump-cross northward to Spittle-cross southward; he holds a court leet annually before the expiration of the term of his office, and he and his predecessor are justices of the peace. The town-hall was erected by the corporation in 1812, near the site of a prior one, which had fallen to decay. The borough sent a representative to parliament from the third year of Philip and Mary to the second of William IV., when it was disfranchised. The parish consists of 1918a. 1r. 37p., whereof three-fourths are arable, and the remainder pasture; the soil is various, partly clay and partly alluvial: there are limestone-quarries. The living is a vicarage not in charge, with the living of Chelveston united; net income, £345; patron and impropriator, Earl Fitzwilliam: the tithes were commuted for land and money payments, under an act of inclosure, in the 3rd of Victoria. The church is a handsome building, displaying various styles of English architecture, and consists of two naves, with north and south aisles, and a chancel separated by a decorated screen; on each side of the chancel are stalls, with curious emblematical devices. At the west end is a porch, much ornamented with sculpture; also an embattled tower, from which rises a finely-proportioned octagonal crocketed spire. The church contains some ancient monuments and sepulchral brasses. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans. A free grammar school, now an English school, was founded in 1420 by Archbishop Chichele, who left an endowment of £10 per annum. Some remains of an ancient college are still discernible; and on the north side of the church is a spot called Castleyard, the site of a castle: some parts of the moat, and a few traces of the foundations, are remaining. Archbishop Chichele, a great patron of literature in the reign of Henry V., was born here in 1362.
Higham-Gobion (St. Margaret)
HIGHAM-GOBION (St. Margaret), a parish, in the union of Ampthill, hundred of Flitt, county of Bedford, 7 miles (W. N. W.) from Hitchin; containing 109 inhabitants. It comprises by measurement 1287 acres. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £8. 9. 7.; patron and incumbent, the Rev. J. R. Wardale: the tithes have been commuted for £300, and the glebe comprises 32 acres. The church contains a monument to Dr. Edmund Castell, a learned orientalist, who was for several years rector.
HIGHAM-GREEN, a hamlet, in the parish of Gazeley, union of Newmarket, partly in the hundred of Lackford, but chiefly in that of Risbridge, W. division of Suffolk, 6¾ miles (E. by N.) from the town of Newmarket; containing 370 inhabitants. Higham Hall was the original seat of the family of Higham, from whom the hamlet took its name.
Higham-on-the-Hill (St. Peter)
HIGHAM-ON-THE-HILL (St. Peter), a parish, in the hundred of Sparkenhoe, S. division of the county of Leicester, 3 miles (N. E.) from the town of Nuneaton; containing, with the hamlets of Lindley and Rowden, 556 inhabitants. This parish, which is situated on the line of the ancient Watling-street, comprises 2500 acres. The soil is chiefly a stiff clay, alternated with marl, producing fine crops of wheat; the surface is generally flat, and the scenery enriched with wood. The Ashby-de-la-Zouch canal passes through. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £7. 9. 4½.; net income, £552; patron and incumbent, the Rev. J. Fisher: the tithes were commuted for land and a money payment in 1806. The church has a Norman tower; the body has been rebuilt in the Grecian style. In 1607, many silver coins of the reign of Henry III. were discovered, on turning up a large stone which lay at the intersection of the Watling-street with another road leading to Coventry; and several Roman coins, a gold ring with a ruby, another with an agate, and a third of silver with an Arabic inscription, were found here about the same period.
HIGHAM-PARK, an extra-parochial liberty, in the union of Wellingborough, hundred of HighamFerrers, N. division of the county of Northampton, 3½ miles (S. S. E.) from the town of Higham-Ferrers; containing 12 inhabitants. It is situated on the borders of Bedfordshire, being bounded on two sides by that county; and comprises 596 acres. The impropriate tithes have been commuted for £120.
Highampton.—See Hampton, High.
HIGHBRIDGE, a hamlet, partly in the parish of Burnham, union of Axbridge, hundred of Bempstone, E. division, and partly in the parish of Huntspill, union of Bridgwater, hundred of Huntspill and Puriton, W. division, of Somerset, 7 miles (N. by E.) from Bridgwater. This place is about a mile east from the shore of Bridgwater bay, and is situated on both sides of the river Brue, which is here crossed by a bridge. It has latterly become one of the largest inland coal-ports between Bristol and Taunton; spacious wharfs for coal and other heavy goods have been formed, and bricks for building are sent in considerable quantities to Cardiff, Newport, and Lidney. The Bristol and Exeter railway has here its largest station for merchandise between Bristol and Bridgwater. A market is held on the first Monday in every month for sheep, cattle, and pigs: the chief produce of the neighbourhood is cheese; and upwards of 1000 tons of this article are now shipped weekly from the port to China alone.
Highclere (St. Michael)
HIGHCLERE (St. Michael), a parish, in the union of Kingsclere, hundred of Evingar, Kingsclere and N. divisions of the county of Southampton, 8½ miles (N. by W.) from Whitchurch; containing 468 inhabitants. This was anciently part of the bishopric of Winchester, and is recorded as such in Domesday book; the bishops had a palace here, in which they occasionally resided, until the bailiwick held by them was dismembered by Bishop Poynet, in the reign of Edward VI., and vested in the crown. Upon the site of the original edifice, which stood in a well-wooded and beautiful park, upwards of thirteen miles in circumference, is a fine mansion, erected by the Hon. Robert Herbert, and greatly enlarged by the Earl of Carnarvon, his descendant; the house occupies a site 587 feet above the sea, and the grounds inclose Sidown Hill, which has an elevation of 942 feet, and are embellished with an exten sive and picturesque lake. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £7. 13. 9., and in the gift of the Earl: the tithes have been commuted for £305, and the glebe comprises 85 acres. The church was rebuilt in the time of Charles II., by Sir Robert Sawyer, attorney-general in that and the succeeding reign, who was buried here. On a plain about a mile from the village, are several barrows of considerable size, with three smaller ones; and some curious relics have been found in them. A mile and a half eastward from Beacon Hill, on an eminence called Ladle Hill, is a circular intrenchment inclosing an area of about eight acres; southward from this are three barrows; and at a short distance towards the north-north-east, on the declivity of the hill, is another small circular work, pitched entirely with flint stones. Dr. Jeremiah Miller, a learned antiquary, was born here in 1713; he died in the year 1784.
HIGH-CROSS, a hamlet, in the parish of Standon, union of Ware, hundred of Braughin, county of Hertford, 2½ miles (N. by E.) from Ware, on the road to Cambridge; containing 199 inhabitants. A church district was formed in 1846 by the Ecclesiastical Commission: the living was endowed, and the church built, at the expense of Lady Giles Puller, who has the patronage. The church was consecrated in August 1847, and will hold 500 persons.
Highead, or Ivegill
HIGHEAD, or Ivegill, a chapelry, in the parish of Dalston, union of Carlisle, ward, and E. division of the county, of Cumberland, 4 miles (S. by W.) from Dalston; containing 124 inhabitants. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £80: patrons, twelve Trustees; appropriator, the Bishop of Carlisle. The chapel, a mean building devoid of ornament, was erected by William L'Englise, and once belonged to the lords of the manor: near it, situated on the brow of a rocky eminence, are the gateway-tower, a turret, and other remains of Highead Castle, the ancient residence of the Richmond family, now a farmhouse.
HIGHGATE, a town and chapelry, partly in the parishes of St. Pancras and Islington, but chiefly in that of Hornsey, union of Edmonton, partly in the Holborn, but chiefly in the Finsbury, division of the hundred of Ossulstone, county of Middlesex, 4 miles (N.) from London; containing 4302 inhabitants. There is every reason to believe, that at a very remote period, a large portion of the present county of Middlesex formed the bed of an estuary of the sea, and that Highgate and the neighbouring eminences were the first spots quitted by the ocean, and the earliest inhabited by the aborigines of this part. The hypothesis is strengthened by the appearance of the superior strata, which consist of clay with super-imposed deposits of sand, nearly identical with that on the sea-shore. It is certain, however, that the ocean had abandoned the district long before the time of the Romans, as, when that people arrived in Britain, the neighbourhood presented a vast uncultivated forest, called the Forest of Middlesex, which was not disafforested till 1218. According to Camden and other authorities, the hamlet of Highgate derived its name from the high-gate, or gate upon the hill, erected by the Bishop of London, on or very near the site of the present Gatehouse inn, about 500 years ago, when the high road over the hill was formed. But in a recent work drawn up on the invitation of the Highgate Literary Institution, it is supposed, with some probability, that the name (which in an ancient record is written Hygate), is deducible from Hy, a syllable in the British language, perhaps corrupted from Hu, a cap, and implying also Episcopal, and Gate, an entrance or way. In proof of this is alleged the fact that Highgate stands on what has been from a very early period episcopal ground, and was long the site of a residence of the bishops of London. The old gate-house, which was one of the first buildings erected on the spot, was removed in 1769. The dwelling that existed earliest appears to have been a hermitage, of the great antiquity of which, it is known, that it was certainly in being before the year 1386, when, as is recorded in the Bishop's muniment book, now in St. Paul's Cathedral, a hermit was presented to it by the Bishop of London (Braybrook), in whose gift it was. The last hermit appointed was probably William Forte, who received a grant of the hermitage or chapel, 20th April, 1531, from Bishop Stokesley. In 1387, Hornsey Park, which occupied the site of the present Highgate, was the place where the nobles met together, says Norden, "in a hostile manner, to rid the king (Richard II.) of those traitors he had about him." In the year 1483, the odious Duke of Gloucester, and the youthful King Edward V., were met at the same place by the chief citizens of London, and conducted by them to the metropolis with great pomp; and after the battle of Bosworth-Field, the victorious Richmond (Henry VII.) was welcomed here, on his way to the capital, by the corporation and others. In 1589, the hamlet was visited by Queen Elizabeth, and in 1624 James I. slept here on the night before hunting a stag in St. John's Wood, in the vicinity.
The village or town stands on the great north road, and is remarkable for the purity of its air, the diversified scenery of its neighbourhood, and the extensive and beautiful prospects which its lofty situation commands; the streets are lighted with gas, and the inhabitants are amply supplied with water, chiefly from wells. The height of the hill, which is 400 feet above the summit of St. Paul's Cathedral, formerly rendered the ascent to the village exceedingly hazardous, and liable to accident; schemes to remedy this were at various times devised, but none were productive of any benefit, until the formation, in 1813, of the Archway, which, avoiding the village, runs by the eastern side of the hill. On the road to Hampstead, is Caen Wood, the magnificent domain of the Earl of Mansfield, containing a handsome mansion, of which the central part was erected by the eminent Lord Chief Justice Mansfield. The village was once celebrated for the administration of a burlesque oath, by which the juror pledged himself, amongst other things, never to eat brown, when he could get white, bread, nor drink small, when he could get strong, beer, with many similar engagements; but with the proviso, "except he liked the other better." The oath was sworn at the inns of the place; and so much was the now obsolete custom in vogue, that, 60 years since, three out of every five passengers in upwards of 80 stage-coaches that stopped daily at the Red Lion, took the oath.
A small chapel, which had been connected with the above-mentioned hermitage from a very early period, was rebuilt, in connexion with a free school, in 1578, and from that time to its demolition, in 1833, was the only place of worship, according to the rites of the Church of England, which existed in Highgate. It was repaired and enlarged several times, and in the reign of Elizabeth almost wholly rebuilt, and was a brick edifice, consisting of a nave, chancel, and south aisle, with a small square tower: it contained monuments to the memory of Dr. Lewis Atterbury, a celebrated divine, who was preacher in the chapel for 36 years; Francis Pemberton, chief justice of both benches, temp. Charles II.; and Sir John Wollaston, Knt., lord mayor of London. The foundation wall of the chancel still remains; and a portion of the side wall and window, also standing, forms a picturesque ruin, connected with the adjoining residence of the master of the grammar school. A new church was erected, on another site, in 1833, towards the expense of which the Church Commissioners granted £4800, the governors of the free school, in consideration of having sittings allotted for the use of the scholars, £2000, and the Incorporated Society £500, the remainder being raised by subscription among the inhabitants. It is dedicated to St. Michael, and is a very elegant specimen of the later English style, with an enriched tower and crocketed spire. The east window is embellished with painted glass brought from Rome, and the church contains many handsome monuments removed from the old chapel, together with a tablet inscribed to the memory of Samuel Taylor Coleridge, the eminent poet and philosopher, who spent the greater part of his life at Highgate. The Bishop of London presents to the incumbency. The free grammar school was founded in 1562, by Sir Roger Cholmeley, Knt., chief justice of the king's bench, who procured in aid of its complete establishment two charters from Queen Elizabeth, in 1565; and by a deed-poll, based on the letters-patent, and dated the same year, Edmund Grindall, Bishop of London. and "lord and proprietor of the chapel at Highgate," granted to Sir Roger, for the purposes of the new school, the chapel and premises, with two acres of land adjoining. The school-house was finished in Sept. 1578, at the same time as the rebuilding of the chapel; the income is now about £900 per annum. There are places of worship for Baptists and Independents.
The Highgate Cemetery, belonging to the London Cemetery Company, and situated on that side of the hill facing London, was consecrated by the Bishop of London on the 20th May, 1839. It comprises within lofty walls an area of 21 acres, presenting a tasteful combination of art with nature. The grounds are disposed in the most varied manner, enlivened with picturesque trees of different kinds, and intersected by gravel-walks; the entire scene being majestically crowned on the northern side, by the church of St. Michael. The entrance lodge, in Swain's-lane, is in the early English style, and contains a chapel for the performance of the burial service. Almshouses for six poor widows were founded pursuant to a bequest by Sir J. Wollaston, in 1658; these having become much decayed, 12 others were erected, in 1722, by Edward Pauncefort, Esq., who left property for the support of the charity, which has been augmented by subsequent benefactions. An hospital for lepers was founded on the lower part of Highgate Hill, by William Poole, yeoman of the crown in the reign of Edward IV., which continued till the time of Henry VIII., and is supposed to have occupied a site now called Lazarets, or Lazarcot Field, near Whittington Stone. [Whittington College, near the Archway, is noticed in article Holloway, which see.] The village has been the residence of various characters of note: Lauderdale House is said to have been an abode of Nell Gwynne's; in an adjoining mansion lived Andrew Marvell; and Cromwell House was the property of General Ireton. Sir Thomas Cornwallis, comptroller of the household to Queen Mary; Sir Richard Baker, Knt., author of the Chronicle of the Kings of England, 1641; and Dr. Sacheverell, who died here June 5th, 1724, were residents; and in the mansion of the Earl of Arundel, a nobleman of refined taste and classical mind, died the illustrious philosopher, Lord Bacon, April 9th, 1626, after a few days' illness.