A Topographical Dictionary of England. Originally published by S Lewis, London, 1848.
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Wenden-Lofts (St. Dunstan)
WENDEN-LOFTS (St. Dunstan), a parish, in the union of Saffron-Walden, hundred of Uttlesford, N. division of Essex, 6 miles (W. by N.) from SaffronWalden; containing 72 inhabitants. This parish, which is supposed to have derived the adjunct to its name from a former proprietor, is situated in an open country every where presenting interesting scenery, and comprises 778a. 10p., whereof 638 acres are arable and pasture, and 139 woodland, The living is a discharged rectory, with the vicarage of Elmdon annexed, valued in the king's books at £9. 10. 10.; net income, £470; patron and impropriator, John Wilkes, Esq. The church is a small edifice, containing some ancient brasses and monumental inscriptions.
Wendens-Ambo (St. Mary)
WENDENS-AMBO (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Saffron-Walden, hundred of Uttlesford, N. division of Essex, 2 miles (S. W. by W.) from SaffronWalden; containing 347 inhabitants, and comprising by computation 1450 acres. It appears to have derived its affix from the consolidation of two parishes consequent on the destruction of the parochial church of Little Wenden. The river Cam has its source in the parish; and here is a station of the railway from London to Cambridge, about two miles distant from the Newport station. The living is a discharged vicarage, with the rectory of Little Wenden united, valued jointly in the king's books at £17; net income, £165; patron, the Marquess of Bristol. The tithes were commuted for land and a corn-rent in 1814. The church is an ancient structure in the early English style, with a low square tower; the chancel is separated from the nave by a richly-carved screen of oak.
Wendlebury (St. Giles)
WENDLEBURY (St. Giles), a parish, in the union of Bicester, hundred of Ploughley, county of Oxford, 2½ miles (S. W.) from Bicester; containing 214 inhabitants. It comprises by estimation 1119 acres, of which nearly one-half is pasture and meadow. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £11. 9. 4½. net income, £250; patrons, the Dean and Canons of ChristChurch, Oxford: the tithes were commuted for land and a money payment, under an inclosure act in the 39th of George III. The church, with the exception of the tower, which has stood for above 700 years, was rebuilt in 1761. The Rev. Robert Welborne, rector from 1730 to 1764, bequeathed 60 folio volumes to the parish as the foundation of a theological library.
Wendling (St. Peter and St. Paul)
WENDLING (St. Peter and St. Paul), a parish, in the union of Mitford and Launditch, hundred of Launditch, W. division of Norfolk, 4¼ miles (W.) from East Dereham; containing 330 inhabitants. This place is of considerable antiquity. Prior to 1267 an abbey was founded by William de Wendling, in honour of the Blessed Virgin, for Praemonstratensian canons; is was suppressed by a bull of Pope Clement, and in 1528 granted to Cardinal Wolsey for the foundation of his colleges, when its revenue amounted to £55. 18. 4.: part of the church was standing till lately. The parish comprises about 1500 acres, chiefly arable: the village is pleasantly situated on the road from Swaffham to East Dereham. The living is a perpetual curacy, united to that of Longham; net income, £52; patron, the Earl of Leicester: the church is a neat structure in the later English style, with a square tower. At the inclosure, 10 acres were allotted to the poor for fuel.
Wendover (St. Mary)
WENDOVER (St. Mary), a market-town and parish, and formerly an unincorporated borough, in the union of Wycombe, hundred of Aylesbury, county of Buckingham, 23 miles (S. E. by S.) from Buckingham, and 35 (N. W. by W.) from London; containing 1877 inhabitants. The manor was given by Henry II. to Faramus de Boulogne, and was subsequently in the possession of the Fiennes; of Sir John Molins; Alice Perrers, a favourite of Edward III.; Thomas Holland, Earl of Kent; Edward, Duke of York, in 1338 (between which period and 1564 it was held either by the queen or some branch of the royal family);and Sir Francis Knollys and Catherine his wife. In 1660 it was purchased by the Hampden family, and continued in their possession until the decease of Lord Hampden, when it became the property of the Earl of Buckinghamshire, who sold it to Samuel Smith, Esq., in 1828; it is now the property of Abel Smith, Esq., who represented the borough till its disfranchisement by the act of the 2nd of William IV. The town is situated at the foot of the Chiltern hills, near the entrance to the Vale of Aylesbury. It is indifferently built, containing but few good houses; the inhabitants are supplied with water from wells. Many of the females are engaged in lace-making. A branch of the Grand Junction canal extends to the town, passing through a reservoir of 70 acres in the neighbourhood. The market was granted in 1403, and confirmed in 1464, with two fairs; the former is on Monday, and the latter take place on May 13th and October 2nd.
Wendover was a borough by prescription. It returned members to parliament from the 28th of Edward I. to the 2nd of Edward II., from which period the right was unexercised till, after a lapse of more than 400 years, it was restored through the exertions of Mr. Hakeville, a barrister, who, on examining the parliamentary writs in the Tower, in the 21st of James I., discovered that Amersham, Wendover, and Great Marlow, had all sent representatives. Hampden, the patriot, was member fur the borough in five successive parliaments. Petty-sessions are held once a fortnight, and courts leet and baron occasionally. The parish comprises 5640a. 31p., of which 3787 acres are arable, 1262 meadow and pasture, and 590 woodland. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £12. 6. 1., and in the patronage of the Crown, with a net income of £271; impropriator, Abel Smith, Esq. The great tithes have been commuted for £184, and those of the vicar for £46. The church stands about a quarter of a mile from the town: a beautiful font was presented by Robert Fox, Esq., of The Lodge, in 1840. An ancient chapel, dedicated to St. John, was taken down some years since, to afford a site for an infants' school. There are places of worship for Baptists and Independents. Joan Bradshaw, in 1578, left property now producing a rental of £31. 10., half of which is distributed, with £32. 13., arising from other benefactions, among the poor; and William Hill, in 1723, bequeathed an estate now let for £145 per annum, for the support of national schools in the parishes of Bierton and Wendover, and for the distribution of coal to poor men in the above and four other parishes. Roger de Wendover, historiographer to Henry II.; and Richard, Bishop of Rochester in the reign of Henry III., were natives of the place.
Wendron (St. Wendron)
WENDRON (St. Wendron), a parish, in the union of Helston, comprising the borough and market-town of Helston (which has separate jurisdiction), and partly in the W. division of the hundred of Kerrier, W. division of Cornwall; containing 9160 inhabitants, of whom 5576 are in that portion exclusive of Helston. This parish is situated near the coast of the English Channel, and comprises about 13,000 acres, of which 3500 are common or waste. It is rich in mineral treasure, and the tin and copper mines within its limits afford employment to many of the inhabitants. The living is a vicarage, with the rectory of Helston annexed, valued in the king's books at £26. 19. 4½., and in the gift of Queen's College, Oxford. The impropriate tithes have been commuted for £584. 6., and the vicarial for £860. A church district named Carnmenellis was endowed in 1846 by the Ecclesiastical Commissioners. There are places of worship for Baptists, Bryanites, and Weslcyans. On the summit of a hill sailed Caer Bonalas, is a circle of upright stones, inclosing an intrenchment 35 feet in diameter, in the centre of which are four thin flat stones placed one upon another, the uppermost being 19 feet in diameter. On the same hill are two barrows, one of which is inclosed by a wall about five feet high. Roman coins have been found at a place named Golvaduck barrow; and at Trehill is an ancient well.
WENDY, a parish, in the union of Royston, hundred of Armingford, county of Cambridge, 6¼ miles (N. N. W.) from Royston; containing 151 inhabitants. The living is a discharged vicarage, with the living of Shingay annexed, valued in the king's books at £5. 10.10.; income, £200; patron and impropriator, the Representative of the late Hon. T. Windsor. A school is supported by a rent-charge of £30, given by the late Hon. T. Windsor, who erected the school-house.
Wenham, Great, or Wenham-Combust (St. John)
WENHAM, GREAT, or Wenham-Combust (St. John), a parish, in the incorporation and hundred of Samford, E. division of Suffolk, 8 miles (S. W. by W.) from Ipswich; containing 198 inhabitants, and comprising by admeasurement 1108 acres. The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at £8. 13. 4.; patron, the Rev. D. C. Whalley: the tithes have been commuted for £275, and the glebe consists of 6 acres.
WENHAM, LITTLE, a parish, in the incorporation and hundred of Samford, E. division of Suffolk, 5 miles (S. E. by E.) from Hadleigh; containing 87 inhabitants. It comprises by measurement 930 acres, of which the soil is strong and fertile, and the surface flat. The living is a discharged rectory, consolidated with that of Capel St. Mary, and valued in the king's books at £5. 8. 11½.: the tithes of Little Wenham have been commuted for £260, and the glebe consists of 14 acres. The church contains memorials to the family of Brewes. Here are the remains of an old castellated mansion, the seat of that ancient family, by whom it appears to have been erected in 1569; it has been converted into a granary.
Wenhaston (St. Peter)
WENHASTON (St. Peter), a parish, in the union and hundred of Blything, E. division of Suffolk, 1½ mile (E. S. E.) from Halesworth; containing, with the hamlet of Mells, 1094 inhabitants. It comprises 2326a. 3r. 13p., of which 95 acres are common or waste; and is bounded on the north-east by the navigable river Blythe. The family of Leman bad a seat here. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £6. 0. 10., and in the patronage of the Crown; impropriator, the Earl of Gosford. The great tithes have been commuted for £400, and the vicarial for £142; the glebe comprises 8 acres. The church is an ancient structure in the decorated English style, with a square embattled tower, and contains several monuments to the Leman family. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans. William Pepyn in 1562, and Reginald Lessey in 1563, bequeathed land for the support of a school.
Wenlock, or Much Wenlock (Holy Trinity)
WENLOCK, or Much Wenlock (Holy Trinity), a borough, market-town, and parish, having separate jurisdiction, and the head of a liberty.in theunion of Madeley, S. division of Salop, 12 miles (S. E.) from Shrewsbury, and 148 (N. W.) from London; containing 2487 inhabitants, of whom 947 are in the township. Of this place, which is of considerable antiquity, the British name was Llan Meilien, or "St. Milburgh's Church;" in the Monasticon it is denominated Winnica, or "the windy place." Its early importance was derived from the establishment of a convent, about 680, by Milburga, daughter of King Merwald, and niece of Wulfhere, King of Mercia, who presided as abbess, and at her death was interred here. Having been destroyed by the Danes, the convent was restored by Leofric, Earl of Mercia, in the time of Edward the Confessor, after which it fell into decay. It was rebuilt, or repaired, soon after the Conquest, by Robert de Montgomery, who largely endowed it, converted it into a priory for Cluniac monks, and dedicated it to St. Milburga: at the Dissolution, the revenue was valued at £434. 1. 2.
The ruins, which are situated on the south side of the town, are extensive, and present every variety of the latest Norman, and the early and decorated English styles. Of the church, the south transept is in the most perfect state; the end and side walls, including the triforium and clerestory windows, are standing, and exhibit the purest specimens of elegant design and elaborate execution: one wall of the north transept also remains, in which is a continuation of the same details. The bases of the four massive piers which supported the tower, and of those that separated the aisles from the nave and choir, are still uncovered by turf, and mark out the ground plan of a cathedral which, for magnificence, scarcely had its equal in the kingdom. Three beautiful arches, highly ornamented, form an entrance to the chapter-house, whose walls are embellished with successive series of intersecting arches, with clustered columns of exquisite design. Two of the cloisters also remain in a very perfect state: one is of the lighter decorated style, and has a lofty ceiling, richly groined, and ornamented with slender shafts terminating in corbels on the walls; the other is of the more massive, but finished Norman style, with low clustered pillars ranged upon circular plinths.
The town, situated in a pleasant vale, consists principally of one long street from which another diverges at right angles; the houses are in general of brick, and well built, several of them being modern and handsome, with many cottages of stone, having thatched roofs. The streets are macadamized, and the inhabitants are supplied with water from pumps attached to the houses. In the time of Richard II., the place was noted for its lime-quarries and copper-mines, of which the former are still extensive, but the latter are not now worked. The market, originally granted to the prior and brethren, is on Monday. Fairs are held on the second Monday in March, and May 12th, for horned-cattle, horses, and sheep, and for hiring servants; on July 5th, for sheep; and October 17th and December 4th, for horned-cattle, horses, sheep, and swine. Much Wenlock enjoys many peculiar privileges, with a jurisdiction extending over seventeen parishes. By a charter of incorporation granted by Edward IV., and confirmed and extended by subsequent sovereigns, the government was vested in a bailiff, recorder, and an unlimited number of bailiff's peers; the corporation at present consists of a mayor, six aldermen, and 18 councillors, under the act 5th and 6th of William IV., cap. 76. The borough is divided into three wards, and the number of magistrates is seven. The freedom is obtained by birth after the father has been sworn, and by servitude. The town was the first that possessed the right of parliamentary representation by virtue of a charter from the crown; the franchise was granted by Edward IV. in 1478, when it returned one member. At present it sends two members, chosen by the £10 householders of the borough, which comprises an area of 47,589 acres: the mayor is returning officer. Manorial courts are held at Easter and Michaelmas, at the latter of which, constables are appointed. The guildhall is an ancient building of timber framework, resting on piazzas, and is more remarkable for its antiquity than the beauty of its architecture.
Wenlock is the head of a deanery. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £12. 9. 7.; net income, £180; patron and impropriator, Sir W. W. Wynn, Bart. The tithes were commuted for land in 1773. The church, a venerable structure with a square tower surmounted by a spire, partakes, in a very remote degree, of the style of the abbey, being partly Norman, and partly decorated English; it consists of a chancel, nave, and aisles, with clustered piers and obtusely-pointed arches. A small theological library, left by one of the vicars for the use of the clergy, was, about sixty years since, extended by subscription into a circulating library for the use of the inhabitants. At Burton is a separate incumbency. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans; also a free school, endowed with £14. 5. 10. per annum by the Rev. Francis Southern, and others. Paul Beilby Thomson, Esq., was created Baron Wenlock on the 2nd of May, 1839.
Wenlock, Little (St. Lawrence)
WENLOCK, LITTLE (St. Lawrence), a parish, within the liberties of the borough of Wenlock, union of Madeley, S. division of Salop, 3¼ miles (S.) from Wellington; containing 1091 inhabitants. There are some coal and iron mines, and extensive quarries of limestone. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £11. 13. 4., and in the gift of Lord Forester: the tithes have been commuted for £548, and the glebe comprises 12 acres. The church has been enlarged.
WENN, ST., a parish, in the union of St. Columb Major, E. division of the hundred of Pyder and of the county of Cornwall, 4 miles (N. E. by E.) from St. Columb Major; containing 725 inhabitants. This parish, which derives its name from the dedication of its church, comprises 3858 acres, whereof 1166 are common or waste. It is intersected in the northern part by the river Camel, a few miles to the south of its influx into the Bristol Channel. Fairs for cattle are held at Tregonetha on April 25th, May 6th, and August 1st. The living is a vicarage, valued in the king's books at £16. 6. 8., and in the patronage of W. Rashleigh, Esq.: the church, with the exception of the tower, was rebuilt in 1825. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans; also a school endowed with £5 per annum.
Wennington (St. Peter)
WENNINGTON (St. Peter), a parish, in the union of Romford, hundred of Chafford, S. division of Essex, 7 miles (S. S. E.) from Romford; containing 281 inhabitants. The parish is bounded by the river Thames, and comprises 1100 acres, of which more than half are pasture and marsh, about 16 acres woodland, and the remainder arable. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £8, and in the gift of the Bishop of London: the tithes have been commuted for £420, and the glebe comprises 3 acres. The church is a handsome ancient structure, with a square tower.
WENNINGTON, a township, in the parish of Melling, hundred of Lonsdale south of the Sands, N. division of Lancashire, 6½ miles (S. by E.) from KirkbyLonsdale; containing 148 inhabitants. According to the earliest records Wennington Hall, with the manor, was held by a family who bore the local name. At a period antecedent to the time of Edward II., William de Wennington was in possession of the estate, which about the 4th of Edward III. (1330) passed to the family of Morley, of Great and Little Morley, with whom it remained until 1673, when it was sold to the Marsdens, of Gisborne. From a connexion of the latter family, it was purchased by Richard Saunders, Esq., of Fairlawn, whose son is the present lord of the manor. The township is bounded by the rivers Wenning and Greta, and lies chiefly in the valley of the Wenning; it comprises 830 acres, of which the surface is undulated, the soil rather strong, and the scenery beautiful and well wooded. The village, called by way of eminence Wennington, or "the town upon the Wenning," seems to have a claim to higher antiquity than any other in the vale, the spot having been chosen by the first settlers in the district on account of its fertility and beauty. Freestone and flagstone are obtained. The present mansion, the seat of William Allen Francis Saunders, Esq., occupies the site of the ancient structure, of the date of which no record exists. In front of the house is a long avenue of fine limes, and a deer-park closely adjoining the Hall contains judiciously planted clumps, while some chesnuttrees of large size, and Scotch firs of ancient growth, heighten the general effect. On Moss-House Farm, Mr. Saunders has built a "farmery," on the newest principles: in one building the operations of threshing, sawing timber, preparing food, &c., are carried on, by aid of a steam-engine; and in another building and under one roof, about 430 feet in length, accommodation is provided for 120 animals. In Melling church is a chantry chapel, an appendage to the manor of Wennington.
Wensley, Derby.—See Snitterton
Wensley (Holy Trinity)
WENSLEY (Holy Trinity), a parish, in the union of Leyburn, wapentake of Hang-West, N. riding of York; containing, with the chapelries of Bolton-Castle and Redmire, and the townships of Leyburn and Preston-under-Scar, 1969 inhabitants, of whom 309 are in Wensley township, 3 miles (N. W. by W.) from Middleham. In the township are 1940 acres, of which 45 are common or waste; it is chiefly the property of Lord Bolton, who is lord of the manor. The river Ure runs through the parish, and is crossed by an ancient bridge, erected about the commencement of the fourteenth century, and lately widened and repaired at the expense of the riding. The village, which is well built, is pleasantly situated on the north bank of the river. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £49. 9. 9½.; net income, £1337; patron, Lord Bolton. The tithes of Wensley township have been commuted for £309, and the glebe consists of 28 acres. In the church is some fine screen-work, which is said to have belonged to the abbey of St. Agatha, near Richmond. The chapelries of Bolton-Castle and Redmire form a separate incumbency, in the Rector's gift. Vestiges of an extensive religious building are discernible near the village: about forty years ago, large quantities of stone, and some specimens of highly-carved Gothic windows, were dug from the ruins; and in sloping a precipitous bank near them, in the spring of 1843, the skeletons of thirty human bodies were removed and interred below. Near the foot of an ancient yew-tree of immense size, human bones, and bones of horses, with implements of war, were found some years since, in a mass of black earth.
Wentnor (St. Michael)
WENTNOR (St. Michael), a parish, in the union of Clun, hundred of Purslow, S. division of Salop, 5½ miles (N. E. by E.) from Bishop's-Castle, on the road to Shrewsbury; containing 715 inhabitants. The parish is about, sixteen miles in circumference, and comprises about 6000 acres, in nearly equal portions of arable and pasture, with extensive sheep-walks. It is rich in mineral produce; there are some quarries of stone, and the Bog lead-mines, which were formerly very productive but are now abandoned, are in the parish. The village is pleasantly situated, and near it is a small woollen manufactory. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £7. 2 11.; net income, £189; patrons, the Dean and Canons of Christ-Church, Oxford. The church is ancient. There is a place of worship for Independents; also a school endowed with £100 new four per cents, and a house and garden. About half a mile distant from the church is a mineral spring.
Wentworth, or Wingford
WENTWORTH, or Wingford, a parish, in the hundred of South Witchford, union and Isle of Ely, county of Cambridge, 4½ miles (W. S. W.) from Ely; containing 155 inhabitants. It comprises 1437a. 3r. 38p., of which 1128 acres are arable, and 309 in grass; the soil is partly clay. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £10, and in the gift of the Dean and Chapter of Ely: the tithes have been commuted for £450, and the glebe comprises 28 acres. The church is in the early and decorated English styles, with some Norman details, and contains about 100 sittings.
WENTWORTH, a chapelry, in the parish of Wathupon-Dearne, union of Rotherham, N. division of the wapentake of Strafforth and Tickhill, W. riding of York, 5½ miles (N. W. by N.) from Rotherham; containing 1497 inhabitants. This place has belonged, from a very remote period, anterior to the existence of any authentic records, to a family who adopted for their surname the name of the township. The most remarkable member of this family was Sir Thomas Wentworth, the second baronet, celebrated in history as the Earl of Strafford, after whose attainder and execution in 1641, his estates and titles were restored to his son William, who dying without issue in 1695, left his estates to the Hon. Thomas Watson, third son of his eldest sister Anne, who had married Edward Watson, Lord Rockingham. Mr. Watson, on succeeding to his uncle's property, assumed the name of Wentworth in addition to his own, and, dying in 1723, left an only son, Thomas, who, on the revival of the order of the Bath in 1725, was installed one of the first knights; be was elected a representative for the county of York in the first parliament of George II., and in 1728 was raised to the peerage under the title of Lord Malton. In 1734 he was created Earl of Malton, and in 1746 Marquess of Rockingham, having succeeded to the barony of Rockingham on the death of the Earl of Rockingham, the head of his paternal family, the year preceding. Thomas, Marquess of Rockingham, died in 1750, and was succeeded by his only surviving son, Charles, second marquess, at whose death, in 1782, the estate of Wentworth devolved upon William, the late Earl Fitzwilliam, his nephew, son of his eldest sister, Anne, who had married William the preceding earl.
The mansion of the Wentworth family, originally called Wentworth-Woodehouse, was rebuilt by the first Marquess of Rockingham, who gave it its modern appellation of Wentworth House. The present mansion is a very spacious structure, covering about two acres of ground. The west front, towards the gardens, erected in 1726, is 260 feet in length, partly of stone and partly of brick. The east front, towards the park, was built between the years 1740 and 1745, chiefly in the style of Wanstead House; it is 612 feet in length, including the wings, and the central portion or main body of the house, which is 260 feet in length, is embellished with a boldly projecting portico of the Corinthian order, having six lofty columns. The principal apartments are, the saloon, nearly 60 feet square, and 40 feet in height; the dining and drawing rooms, each 38 feet square, and 24 feet in height; and a gallery 126 feet long, which looks into the gardens: the chapel is 45 feet long, 25 wide, and two stories in height. The house contains a valuable collection of paintings, and many portraits, among which are several by Vandyke of eminent characters of the time of Charles I.; and in the saloon, and the museum adjoining it, are some marbles, chiefly copies of antique statues, collected by the late Marquess of Rockingham.
The grounds are very extensive, and partly appropriated to deer. At the southern extremity is a Doric column, commenced by Lord Rockingham, to commemorate the naval glory of England, and called the Keppel column, from the admiral of that name. On a hill in the north of the park is a pyramidal building erected by Thomas, Marquess of Rockingham, to commemorate the suppression of the rebellion in 1745, and the pacification of Europe by the treaty of Aix la Chapelle in 1748. Nearly opposite to the principal front of the house, and about a mile distant from it, in the park, is a mausoleum, erected by the late Earl Fitzwilliam to the memory of his uncle, the Marquess of Rockingham. This building, which is 90 feet in height, consists of three stories. The lowest is of the Doric order, and contains a statue of Lord Rockingham, by Nollekens, in the centre; while in four surrounding niches are busts of the Duke of Portland and Mr. Frederick Montague, of Edmund Burke and Sir George Savile, of Charles James Fox and Admiral Keppel, and of Mr. John Lee and Lord John Cavendish.
The township comprises 2234 acres. The village, which is large and well built, is situated near the western boundary of the park. The chapel is a neat plain structure, of which a great part was rebuilt in the time of William, Earl of Strafford; it contains many monuments to the Wentworths, including one to Thomas, Earl of Strafford, and in the cemetery is the family vault of Earl Fitzwilliam, inclosed with an iron palisade. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £125; patron, Earl Fitzwilliam. An hospital for twelve aged persons, and a school for boys at a place called the Barrow, were founded and endowed by the Hon. Thomas Watson Wentworth; and a girls' school and an infants' school have been recently erected by Lord Fitzwilliam.