A Topographical Dictionary of England. Originally published by S Lewis, London, 1848.
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CARBURTON, a chapelry, in the parish of Edwinstowe, union of Worksop, Hatfield division of the wapentake of Bassetlaw, N. division of the county of Nottingham, 4¼ miles (S. S. E.) from Worksop; containing 193 inhabitants, and comprising 1516 acres. The Duke of Portland is lord of the manor, and sole owner, with the exception of about 40 acres which belong to the Duke of Newcastle, and are inclosed in Clumber Park. The village is on the west side of the park, on the small river Wollen, and near the Ollerton road. The chapel is a small edifice, with a burial-ground.
Car-Colston (St. Mary)
CAR-COLSTON (St. Mary), a parish, in the union and N. division of the wapentake of Bingham, S. division of the county of Nottingham, 9 miles (S. W. by S.) from Newark; containing 276 inhabitants. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £6. 1. 10½.; net income, £203; patron and incumbent, the Rev. J. C. Girardot; impropriator, the Rev. R. Lowe: the glebe contains about 20 acres, with a house. The church has a handsome tower with four bells. There is a meeting-house for Wesleyans. This place was the residence of Dr. Thoroton, author of the History and Antiquities of Nottinghamshire.
CARDEN, a township, in the parish of Tilston, union of Great Boughton, Higher division of the hundred of Broxton, S. division of the county of Chester, 4½ miles (N. N. W.) from Malpas; containing 233 inhabitants. It comprises 617 acres, of a sandy soil. The village lies about a mile north of Tilston. A detachment of dragoons from the parliamentary garrison at Nantwich, on the 12th of June, 1643, plundered Carden Hall, and made its owner, John Leche, Esq., a prisoner.
Cardeston (St. Michael)
CARDESTON (St. Michael), a parish, in the union of Atcham, hundred of Ford, S. division of Salop, 6 miles (W.) from Shrewsbury; containing, with part of the township of Wattlesborough, 372 inhabitants. It comprises about 2000 acres of land, some portions of which are occasionally flooded by the river Severn, that runs not far distant on the north. The soil is cold, resting chiefly on a stiff clay; coal and limestone exist, and the latter is worked. The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at £3; net income, £274; patron, Sir B. Leighton, Bart.
Cardington (St. Mary)
CARDINGTON (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Bedford, hundred of Wixamtree, county of Bedford, 3 miles (E. S. E.) from Bedford; containing, with the township of Eastcotts, 1466 inhabitants. This parish is bounded on the north by the river Ouse, and comprises 5170 acres, of which 200 are common or waste. The manufacture of lace is carried on, affording employment to about 250 females, who work at their own houses. The river is navigable for barges to Bedford. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £7. 17.; patrons and impropriators, the Master and Fellows of Trinity College, Cambridge. The great tithes have been commuted for £1350, and the vicarial for £250: the impropriate glebe consists of about 5 acres, and the vicarial of 2 acres; there is a good glebe-house. The church contains a tablet in memory of John Howard, the eminent philanthropist, who lived some years at this place, and served the office of sheriff for the county in 1773; and also a splendid monument by Bacon, the last of his works, erected in 1799, to the memory of Samuel Whitbread, Esq., whose family first settled here in 1650, at a house called the Barns. There are places of worship for Independents and Wesleyans, and at Cotton-End one for Particular Baptists. A parochial school is supported by subscription; and there are some almshouses, founded by John Howard and Mr. Whitbread, and endowed with about £30 per annum.
Cardington (St. James)
CARDINGTON (St. James), a parish, in the union of Church-Stretton, hundred of Munslow, S. division of Salop, 4 miles (E. by N.) from Church-Stretton; containing 691 inhabitants. It is romantically situated in a district characterised by bold and picturesque scenery. A species of very fine quartz, considered equal in quality to that brought from Carnarvonshire, for the use of the potteries, is found; and the parish abounds also with clay. The living is a vicarage, valued in the king's books at £6. 2. 6.; net income, £287, arising from 371 acres of land; patron, R. Hunt, Esq.; impropriators, Archdeacon Corbett and others. Edward Hall, serjeant-at-law, in 1720 bequeathed £400, with part of which a school-house was erected adjoining the churchyard, and the remainder was vested in the purchase of lands, producing £45 per annum. Another school is endowed with £5 per annum; and a schoolmistress has a salary of £10, for teaching girls; both arising from a dividend bequeathed by John Russell in 1813. An allotment of 15 acres, on the inclosure of the manors of Lydley and Cardington, was assigned to the parish.
Cardinham (St. Mewbred)
CARDINHAM (St. Mewbred), a parish, in the union of Bodmin, hundred of West, E. division of Cornwall, 3¾ miles (E. N. E.) from Bodmin; containing 802 inhabitants. The parish is situated on the river Fowey, and comprises about 7750 acres, of which 2604 are common or waste. The surface consists of extensive plains, intersected by deep valleys, of which the bottoms are traversed by numerous streams, and the slopes clothed with oak-coppices to the extent of several hundreds of acres: the soil rests principally on slate, and small quantities of copper, tin, and lead, have been found. Towards the north-eastern extremity of the parish are two large granite tors, or groups of rocks; one named St. Bellarmine's Tor, and the other, CornerQuoit Stone. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £24. 17. 8½., and in the presentation of the Vivian family: the tithes have been commuted for £450, and there is a rent-charge of £50 on coppices and other woodlands; likewise a good glebe-house, with nearly 200 acres of land. At a copious spring called Holy Well, and also on Bellarmine's Tor, and at a place named Vale, are remains of ancient chapels. Here was once a castle, the residence of the Dinham family, of which only the circular intrenchment is remaining; and on some high ground is a similar intrenchment, comprehending an area of two acres, called Berry Castle.
Careby (St. Stephen)
CAREBY (St. Stephen), a parish, in the union of Bourne, wapentake of Beltisloe, parts of Kesteven, county of Lincoln, 6 miles (N. E.) from Stamford; containing 73 inhabitants. It was for many generations the property and residence of the family of Hatcher, of whom Sir John Hatcher, the last who bore that title, died in 1640. The parish comprises by measurement 1418 statute acres: there is a quarry of excellent building-stone. The village is small, but delightfully situated, and of pleasingly rural appearance; and there are still some remains of the ancient mansion of the Hatchers, which was a spacious building with extensive pleasuregrounds, fish-ponds, and a park well stocked with deer. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £8. 17. 1., and in the gift of General Birch Reynardson: the tithes have been commuted for £275, and the glebe comprises 46 acres. The altar of the church is embellished with a large painting of the Salvator Mundi, by the Rev. J. R. Deverell, late rector, who also presented a fine toned organ; in the chancel is a monument to Sir John Hatcher, whose statue is beautifully executed in stone. An excellent parsonage-house has been built.
Cargo, or Craghow
CARGO, or Craghow, a township, in the parish of Stanwix, union of Carlisle, Cumberland ward, E. division of Cumberland, 3¼ miles (N. W.) from Carlisle; containing 259 inhabitants.
Carhaise.—See Michael, St., Carhaise.
CARHAISE.—See Michael, St., Carhaise.
Carham (St. Cuthbert)
CARHAM (St. Cuthbert), a parish, in the union of Glendale, W. division of Glendale ward, N. division of Northumberland, 3½ miles (W. S. W.) from Coldstream; containing 1274 inhabitants. This place, according to Leland, was the scene of a sanguinary battle between the Saxons and the Daues, in which eleven bishops and two English counts were killed; and in 1018, a fierce conflict occurred here between the English and the Scots, the latter of whom were victorious: the loss of the English was severe, and this event, according to some writers, made so deep an impression on the mind of Aldun, Bishop of Durham, that he died of a broken heart. In 1296, the Scots, under William Wallace, encamped on a hill in the neighbourhood, since called Campfield, and reduced to ashes an abbey of Black canons, which had been founded at a period unknown, as a cell to the priory of Kirkham, in the county of York. In 1370, a battle took place between the Scots under Sir John Gordon, and the English commanded by Sir John Lelburne; in which, after an obstinate conflict, the former were victorious, and the English general and his brother were made prisoners. The parish is pleasantly situated at the north-western extremity of the county, and is bounded on the north and west by Scotland; it comprises, according to a recent survey, 10,262 acres. The surface, generally undulated, rises in some parts to a considerable elevation; and the scenery is enriched with fine plantations, and enlivened by the river Tweed, on the south bank of which the village is situated. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £233; patrons and impropriators, the heirs of A. Compton, Esq., of Carham Hall. The great tithes of the township of Carham have been commuted for £260, and the incumbent's for £22; the incumbent has 5½ acres of glebe. The church, erected in 1791, is a very neat edifice: in 1832, a porch, and a vestry-room, which is now used for a Sunday school, were added; and in 1839, the whole of the interior was newly arranged and repewed.
Carhampton (St. John the Baptist)
CARHAMPTON (St. John the Baptist), a parish, in the union of Williton, hundred of Carhampton, W. division of Somerset, 1½ mile (S. E.) from Dunster; containing 682 inhabitants. This place, which gives name to the hundred, probably received its appellation from the British saint Carantacus, or Carantac, who was the son of Keredic, Prince of Cardigan, and who retired hither, built an oratory, and spent the remainder of his life in acts of devotion. In the grounds of the vicarage have been found numerous skeletons, and also the foundation of an ancient building, supposed to be the remains of the oratory, which is stated to have been used as the parochial church. The parish is situated on the road between Minehead and Bridgwater, and comprises 5199 acres, of which 599 are common or waste: stone is quarried for the roads. The petty-sessions for the division are held here. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £11. 8., and in the gift of the Luttrell family: the great tithes have been commuted for £505. 10., and the vicarial for £280. 8.; the glebe consists of about 2 acres. There is a handsome screen in the church, separating the nave from the chancel. In addition to the church, is a chapel of ease at Rod-Huish, a hamlet about 2 miles distant. The Wesleyans have a place of worship. Near Dunster Park is an old encampment, in excellent preservation; it is octagonal, with double ramparts and a ditch, and has several outworks in connexion with it. In making a road through the parish, an ancient cairn was removed, when a perfect sepulchre, seven feet long, was discovered, containing a human skeleton.
Carisbrooke (St. Mary)
CARISBROOKE (St. Mary), a parish, in the liberty of West Medina, Isle of Wight division of the county of Southampton, 1 mile (W. S. W.) from Newport; containing with the hamlet of Bowcombe, and part of that of Chillerton, 5613 inhabitants. This parish derives importance from its castle, situated on a commanding conical eminence occupying about twenty acres. Its foundation is very remote: some writers even ascribe its origin to the Romans, as a few of their coins have been discovered in the neighbourhood; but the style of its architecture, especially of the keep, clearly shows that it is principally a Norman erection. The whole was greatly improved in the time of Elizabeth, and surrounded by an extensive fortification, with five bastions and a deep moat, around which is a terrace-walk threequarters of a mile in circuit: these works were raised by the inhabitants, and those who did not labour were obliged to contribute pecuniary aid. The castle was attacked and taken by Stephen, in 1136, when Baldwin, Earl of Devonshire, had taken refuge here, after declaring in favour of the Empress Maud; and, in the reign of Richard II., it successfully resisted an attack of the French, who plundered the island. Carisbrooke Castle is, however, most remarkable as the place in which Charles I. was confined for thirteen months, previously to his being delivered up to the parliamentary tribunal, after having made one or two unsuccessful attempts to escape: his children were also subsequently imprisoned in it. This ancient fortress, a rectangular parallelogram including the keep, an irregular polygon, occupies about an acre and a half of ground; the keep is raised on an artificial mound, to which there is an ascent of 72 steps, and commands from its summit an extensive and beautiful prospect, embracing a great portion of the island, and parts of the New Forest and Portsdown hill opposite. Within the castle, which is considered as the residence of the governor, are the ruins of an ancient guard-house; and also the chapel of St. Nicholas, built in 1738, on the site of a more ancient one, and in which the mayor and high constables of Newport are sworn into office annually: the appointment of a chaplain, whose stipend is £24, is in the Governor of the isle.
The parish is partly bounded on the east by the river Medina, is nearly 20 miles in circumference, and altogether irregular in its outline, encompassing the town of Newport on three sides, and containing about one-fourth part of it; the surface is undulated, the scenery very picturesque, and the soil consists of chalk, marl, and clay. The village is pleasantly situated at the foot of the Castle Hill, on the banks of a rivulet on which are five corn-mills, and which falls into the Medina at Newport. It was of much more consequence formerly than it is at present, having been a markettown, and considered the capital of the island, until superseded by the town of Newport, on account of the more eligible situation of the latter, up to which the river Medina is navigable, and where the nearest wharf is situated. The living is a vicarage, with the livings of Newport and Northwood annexed, valued in the king's books at £23. 8. 1½.; net income, about £1000; patrons, the Provost and Scholars of Queen's College, Oxford; impropriators, several landowners. Opposite to the castle, on a rising ground, stands the church, an ancient structure with an embattled tower, to which was formerly annexed a monastery of Cistercian monks, founded by William Fitz-Osborn, marshal to the Conqueror, who captured the island at the same time that William conquered the kingdom; the remains of the monastery have been converted into a farmhouse, called the Priory. There is a small glebe, comprising, with the site of the vicarage house and garden, nearly 2 acres. A district church, dedicated to St. John, was erected in that part of the parish which adjoins the town of Newport, at an expense of £4000, by the Rev. Dr. Worsley, of Finchley, and endowed with £1000 by Major-Gen. Sir H. Worsley; it was consecrated in 1837, since which period a district has been assigned to it, comprising a population of about 2500. The church is a handsome edifice of stone, in the early English style, containing 830 sittings, of which 230 are free; the tower included in the original design, has not yet been added, for want of funds. The living is in the gift of the Rev. Richard Hollings. There are places of worship for Independents, Baptists, Wesleyans, &c.
CARKIN, a township, in the parish of Forcett, union of Richmond, wapentake of Gilling-West, N. riding of York, 7½ miles (E. by N.) from Greta-Bridge; containing 55 inhabitants. It is set out in farms, and comprises by computation 770 acres of land.
CARLATTON, an extra-parochial liberty, in Eskdale ward, E. division of Cumberland, 9½ miles (E. S. E.) from Carlisle; containing 61 inhabitants, and comprising 1600 acres. Several coins, supposed to be Roman, have been discovered in ploughing a field forming part of the Low Hall estate; and at a farm called Saugh-tree-gate is a cairn.
Carlby (St. Stephen)
CARLBY (St. Stephen), a parish, in the union of Bourne, wapentake of Ness, parts of Kesteven, county of Lincoln, 5 miles (N. by E.) from Stamford; containing 216 inhabitants. It lies near the borders of Rutland, and comprises 1336a. 9p. of land. The village is scattered. The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at £9. 1. 10½.; net income, £195; patrons, the Marquess of Exeter and Sir John Wyldbore Smith, Bart. The tithes were commuted for land and a money payment in 1804: there is a good glebe-house. The church has a tower crowned by a spire.
CARLEBURY, a hamlet, in the parish of Coniscliffe, union of Darlington, S. E. division of Darlington ward, S. division of the county of Durham, 5½ miles (W. by N.) from Darlington; containing 44 inhabitants. Tradition informs us that this and several neighbouring villages were burnt in an incursion of the Scots. At Carlebury hills, in the time of Charles I., a severe battle was fought between the royalists and a party of the parliamentary forces; and some human bones have since been dug up, presumed to have belonged to those who were slain. The hamlet is bounded on the south by the Tees, and contains extensive quarries of limestone, and numerous limekilns.
CARLETON, a township, in the parish of Drigg, union of Bootle, Allerdale ward above Derwent, W. division of Cumberland, 2 miles (N. N. W.) from Ravenglass; containing 143 inhabitants. It is on the road from Ravenglass to Whitehaven.
CARLETON, a township, in the parish of St. Cuthbert, Carlisle, union of Carlisle, Cumberland ward, E. division of the county of Cumberland, 2½ miles (S. E.) from Carlisle; containing 175 inhabitants. At Newlands, in the township, is a quarry of excellent blue freestone, in appearance like marble.
CARLETON, a hamlet, in the parish and union of Penrith, Leath ward, E. division of Cumberland, 1 mile (S. by E.) from Penrith; containing 81 inhabitants. It lies on the north side of the Eamont river. Carleton Hall is a modern edifice, adorned with fine plantations and shady walks, and commanding a delightful view of the vale of Eamont. It was purchased, in 1828, from Lord Wallace of Knaresdale, who was born here, and died in 1844.
CARLETON, a township, in the parish of RedMarshall, union of Stockton, S. W. division of Stockton ward, S. division of the county of Durham, 4 miles (N. W. by W.) from Stockton; containing 157 inhabitants. The township comprises by measurement 1314 acres, of which 1013 are arable, 288 pasture, 7 woodland, and 6 common and roads. The village is situated on the road leading from Darlington to Wynyard, Wolviston, and Hartlepool: the Clarence railway passes through a part of the township. The tithes have been commuted for £187.
CARLETON, a township, in the parish of Poulton, union of the Fylde, hundred of Amounderness, N. division of the county of Lancaster, ¾ of a mile (W. N. W.) from Poulton; containing 378 inhabitants. This place formerly belonged to a family of the same name, of whom mention is made in the reign of Henry III., when Michael de Carleton was fined for marrying Margaret de Winwick without the king's licence. The Sherburns were proprietors here in Henry VIII.'s time, and became possessed at some period of the manor. The township comprises 1979 acres of land. Carleton marsh, reclaimed about 1800, is situated on the coast, and, though it formerly belonged to Great and Little Carleton, is now included with Thornton. The impropriate tithes have been commuted for £328, and the vicarial for £35. In 1697, Elizabeth Wilson endowed a school with £14. 9. 4., which sum has been increased by subsequent benefactions, the annual income amounting to about £23.
Carleton (St. Peter)
CARLETON (St. Peter), a parish, in the union of Loddon and Clavering, hundred of Loddon, E. division of Norfolk, 8½ miles (S. E. by E.) from Norwich; containing 96 inhabitants. The living is a discharged rectory, with that of Ashby united, valued in the king's books at £9; net income, £294; patrons, Sir W. B. Proctor, and Sir C. H. Rich, Barts. The tithes have been commuted for £168. 15., and the glebe consists of 5 acres.
CARLETON, a chapelry, in the parish of Snaith, union of Selby, Lower division of the wapentake of Barkstone-Ash, W. riding of York, 1½ mile (N. by E.) from Snaith; containing 802 inhabitants. It comprises 3788a. 2r. 39p. of land, of a variety of soil, and produces all kinds of grain of excellent quality. An act was passed in 1800 for inclosing 380 acres of waste in the township. There is a wooden bridge across the Aire, on the road to Snaith, built by Thomas Stapleton, Esq., who also, in 1774, greatly improved Carleton Hall, the family seat, in which is a Roman Catholic chapel, and which is now occupied by Lady Throckmorton, lady of the manor, and sister to the late Miles Stapleton, Esq. The village, which is large and well built, is agreeably situated on the north side of the river Aire, and on the road from Snaith to Selby. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £168; patrons, the Trustees of Messrs. J. Day and Cave.
CARLETON, a township, in the parish of Pontefract, Upper division of the wapentake of Osgoldcross, W. riding of York, 1¾ mile (S. by E.) from Pontefract; containing 179 inhabitants. It comprises by computation 620 acres: the village is pleasantly situated in a fertile vale, to the west of the road from Doncaster to Ferry-Bridge. The tithes were commuted for corn-rents, under an act of inclosure, in 1797.
Carleton (St. Mary)
CARLETON (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Skipton, E. division of the wapentake of Staincliffe and Ewcross, W. riding of York, 2 miles (S. W.) from Skipton; containing 1242 inhabitants. The parish comprises 5090a. 3r. 24p., of which 173 acres are arable, about 85 wood, 3517 pasture, and 1250 common or moor; the soil of the lands under cultivation near the river is fertile, but on the high hills poorer. The population is chiefly employed in the worsted and cotton manufactures. The village is pleasantly situated in a picturesque vale, near the confluence of a stream with the river Aire. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £5. 2. 1.; patrons and appropriators, the Dean and Canons of Christ-Church, Oxford. The vicarial tithes have been commuted for £300, and there is a glebe of 65 acres, with an excellent glebe-house; the appropriate tithe rent-charge is £30. The church, rebuilt in the 16th century, is in the later English style, with a square embattled tower, and contains 250 sittings, of which 70 are free; it was repaired, and a new gallery added, in 1841, by the Rev. Walter Levett, vicar, and the principal landowners; and Mrs. Busfield presented a complete set of communion service. A church dedicated to Christ was erected in Lothersdale, in 1838. An hospital was founded for 12 widows of this parish and that of Market-Bosworth, by Ferrand Spence, Esq., who endowed it with property, now producing an income of £280. The free school here was established by Francis Price and Elizabeth Wilkinson, in 1709, and endowed with 99 acres of land, at present worth £120 per annum, of which £55 are paid to a master for teaching boys.
Carleton-Forehoe (St. Mary)
CARLETON-FOREHOE (St. Mary), a parish, in the incorporation and hundred of Forehoe, E. division of Norfolk, 3 miles (N. N. W.) from Wymondham; containing 151 inhabitants. The distinguishing appellation Forehoe is derived from four hills, supposed to have been artificially constructed, and on one of which the court for the hundred was formerly held. The parish comprises about 700 acres, of which 385 are arable, 180 pasture and meadow, and 35 woodland: the road from Norwich to Watton passes through it. The ancient manor-house, which was surrounded with a moat, has long been a ruin. The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at £5. 17. 1.; net income, £120; patron, Lord Wodehouse. The tithes were commuted for land in 1766; the glebe now contains 131 acres, of which 37 were obtained, by purchase, with £200 given in 1724 by the Rev. James Champion, and £200 from Queen Anne's Bounty. The church is a handsome structure in the later English style, with a square embattled tower.
CARLETON-in-Cleveland, a parish, in the union of Stokesley, W. division of the liberty of Langbaurgh, N. riding of York, 3¼ miles (S. S. W.) from Stokesley; containing 259 inhabitants. The parish is about three miles in length from north to south, and two miles broad: the inclosed lands incline gently towards the north, and are in general fertile; the fields are well fenced, and the appearance of the country is highly pleasing. Extensive alum-works were formerly carried on, but since the discovery of richer beds of that mineral on the coast near Whitby, they have been discontinued. The village is situated at the foot of a considerable eminence, about a quarter of a mile south-west of the road leading to Stokesley, Thirsk, and Northallerton; the houses are scattered irregularly on the banks of a small mountain rivulet that runs through the village, and afterwards joins the Leven. The living was, perhaps, once endowed with rectorial rights, but having been given to Whitby monastery, to which it was made appropriate, it was reduced at the Dissolution to a perpetual curacy; it is in the patronage of C. Reeve, Esq., the impropriator, and has a net income of £56. The church is a small modern structure. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans. Various petrifactions of shells and fishes have been found.
CARLISLE, an ancient city and inland port, having separate jurisdiction, and the head of a union, situated in the ward, and E. division of the county, of Cumberland (of which it is the chief town), 302 miles (N. N. W.) from London, on the great western road to Edinburgh and Glasgow; containing 23,012 inhabitants. It was anciently called Caer-Luil, or Caer Leol, signifying "the city of Luil," a British potentate, who is reputed to have been its founder. The Romans, on selecting it for a station, changed the name to Lugovallum, which is probably derived from Lugus or Lucu, a "tower" or "fort," in the Celtic tongue, and Vallum, in allusion to Adrian's vallum, which passed near. From its earliest foundation till the union of the English and Scottish kingdoms, the town suffered those shocks of incursive warfare to which, as a border town, it was peculiarly exposed, and by which it was repeatedly overwhelmed. In the reign of Nero, it is stated, by the Scottish historians, to have been burned by the Caledonians, during the absence of the Romans; who, in the time of Agricola, repaired it and constructed fortifications, as a barrier against the future attacks of the invaders. Soon after the final departure of the Romans, it was probably again destroyed; for, in the seventh century, we find that Carlisle was rebuilt by Egfrid, King of Northumbria, in whose reign it rose into importance. About the year 875, it was demolished by the Danes, and lay in ruins till after the Norman Conquest, when it was restored by William Rufus, who, in 1092, built and garrisoned the castle, and sent a colony from the south of England to inhabit the city, and cultivate the circumjacent lands. The construction of the defensive works, however, advanced but slowly; as, when Henry I. was here, thirty years afterwards, he ordered money to be disbursed for their completion. They were most probably finished by David, King of Scotland, who, in 1135, took possession of Carlisle for the Empress Matilda, and resided here for several years, the entire county having been subsequently ceded to him by Stephen: the Scottish historians attribute the building of the castle and the heightening of the walls to their monarch. After the disastrous battle of the Standard, in 1138, the city was the asylum of David, who occupied it with a strong garrison, and was here joined by his son; and in September of the same year, Alberic, the pope's legate, arrived here, and found him attended by the barons, bishops, and priors of Scotland. This envoy obtained from the king a promise that all female captives should be brought to Carlisle and released before St. Martin's day; and that in future the Scots should abstain from the violation of churches and the perpetration of unnecessary cruelties. In 1149, the city was the head-quarters of David, during the hostilities which he maintained against King Stephen; and in the following year, a league was here entered into against the latter monarch, by David, Henry Plantagenet (afterwards Henry II. of England), and the Earl of Chester; on which occasion Henry was knighted by the King of Scotland, and swore that when he should ascend the throne he would confirm to him and his heirs the territories held by the Scots in England. In 1152, David, and his son Henry, the latter of whom died this year, met John, the pope's legate, at Carlisle; and in the following year, or the next after, the Scottish monarch expired in the city, and was succeeded by his son, Malcolm IV.
The counties of Cumberland and Northumberland having been ceded to Henry II. by Malcolm, in 1157, Carlisle was besieged in 1173, by William the Lion, brother and successor to Malcolm; but on hearing that William de Lucy, the justiciary and regent during the king's absence in France, was advancing with a large army, he abandoned the enterprise. In the following year he again invested the place; and after a siege of several months, the garrison, being reduced to extreme distress, agreed to surrender the castle at a fixed period, if not previously relieved; from which engagement they were released during the interval by the capture of William, at Alnwick. In 1186, King Henry stationed himself at the city, with a strong body of forces, to aid the Scottish king in subduing Roland, a rebellious chieftain of Galloway. In 1216, Carlisle was besieged by Alexander, William's successor, and surrendered to him by order of the barons in rebellion against John; but in the next year, after the accession of Henry III., it was given up to the English. In 1292, a great part of it was destroyed by a conflagration, originating in the vindictive malice of an incendiary, who set fire to his father's house: the priory, the convent of the Grey friars, and the church, were all consumed, the convent of the Black friars escaping. The charters and public records being thus destroyed, the city was taken into the king's hands, and the government vested in justices of assize. In 1296, Carlisle was besieged by the Scottish troops under the Earl of Buchan, who set fire to the suburbs, but, after remaining four days before its walls, were compelled, by the determined valour of the inhabitants of both sexes, to retreat; and in the year following it was summoned to surrender by William Wallace, who, unable to obtain possession, ravaged the surrounding country.
After the battle of Falkirk, in 1298, Edward I. marched with his army to Carlisle, where he held a parliament in September; and two years subsequently, he led his army through this city on a fresh expedition against Scotland. In 1306, that monarch appointed here a general rendezvous of his forces destined against Scotland, under Prince Edward; he arrived in person, attended by his queen, towards the end of August, and remained until September 10th. On March 12th, in the following year, the court was removed to Carlisle, where the parliament was then sitting. The king, though daily declining in health, did not relax in his efforts to subdue the Scots, but ordered all his vassals to assemble at Carlisle on the 8th of July. After celebrating his birth-day, he quitted the city on the 28th of June, being then so weak as to be unable to travel more than two miles a day, and died on the 7th of July, on reaching Burgh-on-theSands. An express having been sent to Prince Edward in Scotland, the new monarch came hither on the 11th of July, and two days afterwards received the homage of nearly all the principal men of the kingdom: he then returned to prosecute his expedition against the Scots, but, relinquishing the vigorous plans proposed by his father, he arrived at this city in the month of September following. In 1315, Carlisle was besieged by Robert Bruce, but was resolutely and successfully defended by its governor, Andrew de Hercla, afterwards Earl of Carlisle. This nobleman, in 1322, being accused of holding a treasonable correspondence with the Scots, was arrested by Lord Lucy, in the castle of which he was governor, degraded from his honours, and executed. In this year also, the Scottish army, commanded by Bruce, encamped for five days near the city, and burned Rose Castle, the episcopal residence. In 1332, Edward Balliol, after having narrowly escaped assassination at Annan, fled to Carlisle, and was hospitably received by Lord Dacre, then governor.
When Edward III. was in Scotland, towards the close of 1334, he sent Balliol and the Earls of Oxford and Warwick to defend Carlisle against the Scots: being joined by large reinforcements from the adjacent counties, they made a successful incursion into Scotland, and returned in triumph to this city, which, in the following year, was visited by the monarch himself, who, on the 11th of July, quitted it with his army for Scotland. In 1337, Carlisle was invested by a Scottish army, which fired the suburbs, burned Rose Castle, and pillaged the surrounding country; and in 1345, the entire city was burned by them, under the command of Sir William Douglas. In 1352, Edward III., in consequence of the importance of Carlisle as a frontier town, and of the numerous calamities it had suffered, renewed its charter, which had been destroyed in the conflagration of 1292. An attempt was made on the city in 1380 by some Scottish borderers, who fired one of the streets by discharging burning arrows, but were compelled to retreat by a report that a numerous army was approaching to its relief. It was attacked without success in 1385, by the united Scottish and French forces; and, two years afterwards, it was again attacked, but with the like want of success. In the year 1461, Carlisle was assailed by a Scottish army in the interest of Henry VI., which burned the suburbs; and this is the only event respecting it that occurred in the war between the houses of York and Lancaster. In 1537, during Aske's rebellion, it was besieged by an army of 8000 insurgents, under Nicholas Musgrave and others, who were repulsed by the inhabitants, and afterwards defeated by the Duke of Norfolk, who commanded seventy-four of their officers to be executed on the city walls: Musgrave, however, escaped. In 1568, Mary, Queen of Scots, in the hope of finding an asylum from the hostility of her subjects, took fatal refuge in the castle. Next year, Lord Scrope, the lord warden, held Carlisle against the Earls of Northumberland and Westmoreland, then in open rebellion; and in 1596, Sir William Scott, afterwards Earl of Buccleuch, attacking the castle before day-break, to rescue a noted borderer celebrated in the ballads of those times as "Kinmont Willie," surprised the garrison, and triumphantly bore him away. In the following year, the city was visited by a pestilence, which destroyed more than one-third of the population, and occasioned great distress among the survivors. On the union of the two kingdoms, and the accession of James to the English throne, the importance of Carlisle as a frontier town having ceased, the garrison was reduced.
At the commencement of the civil war in the 17th century, the citizens embraced the royal cause. In 1644, the city was threatened by a force which had assembled from the circumjacent country, but which, being pursued by the posse comitatûs towards Abbey Holme, quickly dispersed and fled. At this period it afforded an asylum to the Marquess of Montrose and his army, who had retreated before the victorious arms of the Earl of Callendar. After the capture of York in July of the same year, Sir Thomas Glenham, with the garrison of that city, retired to Carlisle, where he assumed the command; and about the end of September, Sir Philip Musgrave and Sir Henry Fletcher, with the remnant of their forces, which had been defeated by the Scots at Salkeld, reached this place with some difficulty, being hard pressed by Gen. Lesley, who, however, did not then stay to invest the city, thus enabling the citizens to make ample preparations for a siege. In October he returned with part of his forces, and besieged the place; but the garrison and inhabitants made a vigorous defence, suffering incredible hardship from the scarcity of provisions: having held out until all hopes of relief were destroyed by the fatal issue of the battle of Naseby, they surrendered on honourable terms, on the 25th of June, 1645. During the siege, one-shilling and threeshilling pieces were issued from the castle, which, though very scarce, are still to be met with in the cabinets of the curious. In October, Lord Digby and Sir Marmaduke Langdale were defeated by Sir John Brown, governor of the city, at Carlisle Sands. On the general evacuation of fortified towns by the Scottish garrisons, this city was relinquished to the parliament, in 1647; but about the end of April, 1648, it was taken by surprise by a royalist force commanded by Sir Thomas Glenham and Sir Philip Musgrave; and soon afterwards, a considerable army was assembled for the king's service, under the command of Sir Marmaduke Langdale, on a heath, five miles from the city: this army retreating towards Carlisle, the citizens, dreading the recurrence of a famine, petitioned the governor, Sir Philip Musgrave, to refuse it admittance. The Duke of Hamilton, arriving with his Scottish army early in July, superseded Musgrave in the command, which he conferred on Sir William Levingston; and the duke's forces, which were quartered in the neighbourhood, having been joined at Rose Castle by those under Langdale, pursued their march southward. Musgrave, returning shortly after with his forces to Carlisle, was refused admittance by the new governor. Towards the close of the war, on the 1st of October, the city was surrendered by treaty to Cromwell, by whom it was garrisoned with 800 infantry and a regiment of cavalry. A garrison of 600 infantry and 1200 cavalry was afterwards established here, for the purpose of suppressing the insurrections of the moss-troopers. A dreadful famine, caused by the consumption of the garrison, in 1650, compelled the inhabitants to petition parliament for assistance. In 1653, the celebrated George Fox, founder of the Society of Friends, was imprisoned in the dungeons of the castle, on account of his religious tenets.
During the rebellion in 1745, the vanguard of the young Pretender's army encamped, on Nov. 9th, within four miles of Carlisle, which was garrisoned by the militia of Cumberland and Westmorland. Being joined on the following day by the main body, they summoned this place to surrender, and on the 13th commenced the siege, which was conducted by a body of forces under the Duke of Perth, who compelled the place to surrender on the 15th, when the mayor and corporation, on their knees, presented to the young Pretender the keys of the city, and proclaimed his father king, and himself regent, with all due solemnity. The rebel army remained here for several days, during which much dissension prevailed among its leaders; and then resumed its march southward, leaving in the castle a garrison of 150 men. But it was compelled to retreat on the approach of the Duke of Cumberland, part retiring into the castle here, and the remainder pursuing its flight across the border; and the duke, having laid siege to the city, forced the garrison to surrender at discretion. The officers of the rebel troops were sent to London, where having suffered death as traitors, their heads were sent down and exposed in the public places of the city. Cappock, whom the Pretender had created Bishop of Carlisle, was hanged, drawn, and quartered; and nine others concerned in the rebellion were executed in the city.
Carlisle is pleasantly situated on a gradual eminence, at the confluence of the rivers Eden and Caldew, which, with the Petterel, almost environ it. The four principal streets diverge from the market-place, and have several minor ones branching from them; they are well paved, and lighted with gas by a company formed pursuant to an act obtained in 1819, who erected works at the cost of £10,000. The houses in general are regular and well built. A very handsome bridge of white freestone was erected over the Eden, in 1812, from a design by R. Smirke, jun., at an expense to the county of about £70,000; it consists of five elliptical arches, and is connected with the town by an arched causeway. Two stone bridges, each of one arch, were built over the Caldew, on the west side of the city, in 1820; and a bridge of three arches over the Petterel, about a mile from the town, was erected a few years since. The Castle is situated at the north-west angle of the city, on the summit of a steep acclivity overlooking the Eden. It is of an irregular form, and consists of an outer and inner ward; the former, two sides of which are formed by part of the city wall, is quadrangular, and contains no buildings of importance, except an armoury, in which 10,000 stand of arms were formerly deposited, and which is now converted into barracks for the infantry of the garrison, the cavalry being quartered on the innkeepers. The inner ward is triangular, and contains the keep, or dungeon tower, into which the armoury has been removed; it is square, and of great strength, having a circular archway leading from the outer into the inner ward, and is, no doubt, that portion of the castle built by William Rufus. The other parts are evidently of later date, and correspond with the times of Richard III., Henry VIII., and Elizabeth, by all of whom the castle was repaired and partly rebuilt: a great part of the buildings erected by Elizabeth has been taken down. It is the head of the ancient royal manor of the soccage of Carlisle, now held by the Duke of Devonshire as grantee of the crown, and which includes part of the city, and 500 acres of land in its immediate vicinity. The environs abound with genteel residences: the view embraces the course of the river Eden, as it winds through a fertile and well cultivated tract of country. In 1818 and 1819, a subscription was begun for the relief of the poor, who by this means were employed in completing and forming various walks near the town, the most interesting of which are, the promenade on the slope and summit of the hill on which the castle stands, a terrace-walk on the opposite bank of the Eden, and a raised walk along the south margin of that river.
A subscription library was established in 1768, and a newsroom has been added to it: in Jan. 1830, some ground was purchased opposite the Bush Inn, for the erection of a new subscription library and newsrooms, which have been since built. A commercial newsroom was opened in 1825; and an academy of arts, for the encouragement of native and other artists in sculpture, painting, modelling, &c., was instituted in 1823; but the latter has been discontinued. A mechanics' institute was established in 1824; and a literary and philosophical society has more recently been formed, for which an appropriate edifice has been erected by a proprietary company. The theatre, which was built about 30 years since, is constantly open during the races, and at other stated periods. The races were commenced about the middle of the last century, and the first king's plate was given in 1763; they continue to be held in the autumn upon a fine course called the Swifts, situated on the south side of the Eden, and are generally well attended.
The trade principally consists in the manufacture of cotton, spinning and weaving being carried on to a considerable extent. There are about 300 power-looms in the town, and from 1600 to 2000 hand-looms in the town and its immediate vicinity, employed in the manufacture of handkerchiefs, checks, and ginghams, of various kinds, not only for the home trade, but for export to nearly all parts of the world. The manufacturers here have also branch establishments for weaving in the other towns of Cumberland, and along the borders of Scotland; some of the larger houses extend their operations even to the north of Ireland and to Lancashire. Altogether there are eight spinning factories, which employ 1400 hands and contain 110,000 spindles: a considerable part of the yarn spun is used by the manufacturers of Carlisle, and some exported. Among the other concerns are, four iron-foundries, four tan-yards, a hatfactory, four whip-manufactories, some extensive marble-works, and three breweries. Here is also one of the largest baking establishments in the world, consisting of a cluster of substantial structures, built of the red sandstone of the district, and surrounding a quadrangular court-yard. A steam-engine of 50-horse power is employed, and the quantity of wheat ground annually produces 157,000 stones of flour, or about 8000 bags, all of which are baked into bread and biscuits on the premises: the number of persons employed is between 80 and 90; and a reading-room, library, schoolroom, and a warm-bath have been fitted up for their benefit. In 1819, a canal was begun from Carlisle to the Solway Firth, at Bowness, a distance of eleven miles, and finished in 1823, at an expense of about £90,000; by means of which, vessels of 100 tons' burthen can come up to the town. Steamers ply regularly between the port and Liverpool and Belfast, conveying the produce of the town and neighbourhood, and bringing in return general merchandise for the use of the inhabitants, and also goods for transit across the island to Northumberland and Durham. The Newcastle and Carlisle railway, 60 miles long, and which cost nearly a million sterling, was opened June 18th, 1838; there is a railway from Carlisle to Maryport and towns beyond, and a line has been opened to Lancaster. The station and depôt of the Newcastle railway are situated about a quarter of a mile to the south of the city, and close to the London road; they are nearly contiguous, and occupy together an area of about six acres. An act was obtained in 1845 for the formation of a railway called the Caledonian, to Glasgow and Edinburgh; and another act was passed in 1846, enabling the company to erect a central station here, for the line, and for the Maryport railway, the Lancaster railway, and, if desired, the Newcastle railway. The market days are Wednesday and Saturday; and fairs for cattle and horses are held on Aug. 26th and Sept. 19th, during the continuance of which all persons in the city are free from arrest under process from the court of record. There are also fairs, or great markets, on the Saturday after Old Michaelmas-day, and on every Saturday following till Christmas; these are held on the sands, near the bridge across the Eden. In April is a great show-fair for cattle, when prizes are distributed by the Agricultural Society. The Saturdays at Whitsuntide and Martinmas are hiring days for servants.
The city is a borough by prescription: it received its first charter from Henry II., and others were subsequently granted previously to that bestowed in the 13th of Charles I., by which the corporation was regulated, till, by the act of the 5th and 6th of William IV., cap. 76, the government was vested in a mayor, ten aldermen, and thirty councillors, and the city was divided into five wards. The mayor is a justice of the peace ex officio for two years, and the total number of magistrates is ten; they meet for business on three days in each week. The freedom of the city is inherited by birth, and acquired by an apprenticeship of seven years to a resident freeman. The citizens first exercised the elective franchise in the 23rd of Edward I., since which time they have regularly returned two members to parliament. The right of election was formerly in the free burgesses previously admitted members of one of the eight fraternities, whether resident or not, in number about 1000; but by the act of the 2nd of William IV., cap. 45, the non-resident voters, except within seven miles, were disfranchised, and the privilege was extended to the £10 householders: the limits of the city, also, were enlarged for elective purposes, from 80 to 1800 acres. The mayor presides at a court of record every Monday, for the recovery of debts to any amount, and at a quarterly court for the recovery of debts under forty shillings; these courts are held in the town-hall, in the centre of the town. The powers of the county debtcourt of Carlisle, established in 1847, extend over the registration-districts of Carlisle, Brampton, and Longtown. There are eight fraternities or companies, viz., Merchants, Tanners, Skinners, Butchers, Smiths, Weavers, Tailors, and Shoemakers; who hold a general meeting on Ascension-day. The assizes for the county, and the Christmas and Midsummer quarter-sessions, are held in the new court-houses, erected in 1810, by act of parliament, at an expense of £100,000, from a design by Robert Smirke, jun., on the site of the ancient citadel that flanked the eastern gate; and consisting of two large circular towers, one on each side of the entrance into the city, in the decorated style of English architecture. From one of the court-rooms is a subterraneous passage, for conducting the prisoners to and from the county gaol and house of correction, a noble pile of building, completed under the same act, in 1827, at a cost of £42,000, and surrounded by a stone wall 25 feet high; it occupies the site of the convent of the Black friars, and serves as a prison both for the city and county. Carlisle is the principal place of election for the eastern division of Cumberland.
The diocese of Carlisle originally formed part of that of Lindisfarn; but the see being removed from the latter place to Durham, and considerable inconvenience being felt on account of the distance of Carlisle from that city, Henry I., in 1133, constituted it a distinct bishopric, and appointed to the episcopal chair Athelwald, his confessor, who was prior of a monastery of Augustine canons founded here in the reign of William Rufus, by Walter, a Norman priest, and completed and endowed by this monarch. By the act of the 6th and 7th of William IV., cap. 77, the Ecclesiastical Commissioners named therein were empowered to carry into effect the report of two bodies of commissioners previously appointed by the crown, by which it had been proposed that the diocese of Carlisle should consist of the old diocese, of those parts of Cumberland and Westmorland which were in the diocese of Chester, of the deanery of Furness and Cartmel, in the county of Lancaster, and of the parish of Alston, then in the diocese of Durham. The bishop, or his chancellor, exercises sole ecclesiastical jurisdiction over the benefices, the powers of the archdeacon having been anciently resigned to him for an annual pension, in consequence of the smallness of the diocese rendering their concurrent jurisdiction inconvenient. The revenue of the priory above mentioned, in the 26th of Henry VIII., was estimated at £482. 8. 1. This monarch dissolved the monastic establishment in 1540, and instituted a dean and chapter, composed of a dean, four prebendaries or canons, and a number of minor canons, and endowed the body with the whole, or the greater part, of the possessions of the dissolved priory, constituting the bishop, by the same charter, visiter of the chapter: he also appointed a subdeacon, four lay clerks, a grammar master, six choristers, a master of the choristers, and inferior officers. The advowson of the canonries has, since 1557, belonged to the bishop, who has also the patronage of the archdeaconry and chancellorship. The dean and four canons compose the chapter, which has the patronage of the minor canonries; the deanery is in the gift of the Crown.
The Cathedral, dedicated to St. Mary, is a venerable structure, exhibiting different styles. It was originally cruciform, but the western part was taken down, in 1641, to furnish materials for the erection of a guardhouse; and during the interregnum, part of the nave and conventual buildings was also pulled down, for repairing the walls and the citadel: it has a square embattled central tower, and the east end is decorated with pinnacles rising above the roof. The interior consists of a choir, north and south transepts, and two remaining arches of the nave, walled in at the west end, and used as a parish church. The choir is of decorated English architecture, with large clustered columns enriched by foliage, and pointed arches with a variety of mouldings; the clerestory windows, in the upper part, are filled with rich tracery, and the east end has a lofty window of nine lights, of exquisite workmanship, exhibiting great elegance of composition and harmony of arrangement, which render it superior to almost every other in the kingdom. The aisles are in the early English style, with sharply pointed windows and slender shafted pillars; the remaining portion of the nave, and the south transept, are of Norman architecture, having large massive columns and circular arches, evidently built in the reign of William Rufus. There are monuments to the memory of some of the bishops, and one to Archdeacon Paley, who wrote some of his works while resident in this city, and who, with his two wives, was buried in the cathedral.
Carlisle is comprised within the two parishes of St. Mary and St. Cuthbert, which respectively contain, including parts without the city, 13,576 and 10,965 inhabitants. The living of St. Mary's is a perpetual curacy; net income, £90; patrons, the Dean and Chapter; appropriators, the Bishop, and the Dean and Chapter. The church is part of the nave of the cathedral. The living of St. Cuthbert's is a perpetual curacy; patrons and appropriators, the Dean and Chapter; net income, £157, with a glebe-house. The church, dedicated to St. Cuthbert, Bishop of Lindisfarn, is a plain edifice, built in the year 1778, at the cost of the inhabitants, upon the site of the ancient structure. Two district churches, namely, Trinity, in the parish of St. Mary, and ChristChurch, in that of St. Cuthbert, were completed in Sept. 1830, at an expense of £13,212, of which £4030 were subscribed by the inhabitants, and the remainder granted by the Parliamentary Commissioners; the first stone of each was laid on Sept. 25th, 1828: they are in the early style of English architecture, each having a tower surmounted by a spire. The patrons of both are the Dean and Chapter. Upperby and Wreay, also, form separate incumbencies. There are meeting-houses for Baptists, the Society of Friends, Independents, Wesleyans, and Presbyterians; and a Roman Catholic chapel. The Grammar School was founded by Henry VIII., on instituting the dean and chapter, and has an endowment of £120 per annum, of which the dean and chapter contribute £20; the remainder arising from an estate in the parish of Addingham, purchased in 1702, with a gift of £500 by Dr. Smyth, a former bishop: the management is vested in the Dean and Chapter. Dr. Thomas, Bishop of Rochester, left £1000 stock, directing the dividends to be applied to the benefit of two sons of clergymen, instructed here, and sent to Queen's College, Oxford; if not claimed by clergymen's sons from this school, they are given to others from St. Bees. Dr. Thomas, Dr. Tully, and the Rev. J. D. Carlyle, a learned orientalist, received the rudiments of their education here; the last is interred in the church of St. Cuthbert. A general infirmary for the county has been erected; and there are various benevolent societies, schools for the poor, and charitable donations. The union of Carlisle comprises 19 parishes or places, and contains a population of 36,084.
Near the city was an hospital dedicated to St. Nicholas, founded prior to the 21st of Edward I., for thirteen leprous persons, and which, at the Dissolution, was assigned towards the endowment of the dean and chapter. In the city walls, near the castle, an ancient vaulted chamber, having a recess at each end, and accessible only by an opening through the wall, has been discovered; it is supposed to have been a reservoir, or fountain, in the time of the Romans. In the reign of William III., a Roman Triclinium, with an arched roof, still existed, which, from an inscription on its front which Camden read "Marti Victori," is supposed to have been a temple in honour of Mars. A large altar was lately found, inscribed Deo Marti Belatucardro; and, a few years since, a præferculum, ten inches and a quarter high, having the handles ornamented in bas-relief with figures sacrificing. In the castle-yard is a bas-relief of two figures hooded and mantled. Carlisle confers the title of Earl on the family of Howard.