A Topographical Dictionary of England. Originally published by S Lewis, London, 1848.
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AMBLECOAT, a hamlet, in the parish of Old Swinford, union of Stourbridge, S. division of the hundred of Seisdon and of the county of Stafford, ½ a mile (N.) from Stourbridge; containing 1623 inhabitants. It is situated on the north side of the small river Stour, and comprises about 600 acres, whereof the surface is undulated. There are fire-clay pits, clayworks, glass-houses, and iron-works, of which last those of James Foster, Esq., of Stourton Castle, are among the largest in the kingdom. The Wolverhampton and Stourbridge road passes through the hamlet. The tithes have been commuted for £220. A district church, erected at a cost of £4300, chiefly raised by subscription, was opened for divine service on 7th August 1842; it is built of fire-brick: the living has been endowed by the Earl of Stamford, and is in his gift. There are places of worship for Wesleyans, and Methodists of the New Connexion; also a national school on the Madras system, with about 350 children; a Church Sunday school, of 300 children more; and two small dissenting schools.
AMBLESIDE, a market-town and parochial chapelry, partly in the parish of Windermere, but chiefly in that of Grasmere, Kendal ward and union, county of Westmorland, 25 miles (W. S. W.) from Appleby, and 274 (N. W. by N.) from London; containing 1281 inhabitants. The name, anciently written Hamelside, is probably derived from the Saxon Hamol, signifying a sheltered habitation. The town is situated near the site of a Roman station of considerable extent, supposed by Horsley to have been the Dictis of the Notitia; the earth-works of the fortress remain, and various Roman relics and foundations of buildings have been discovered. It stands on the acclivity of a steep eminence, near the northern extremity of the lake Windermere, in a district pre-eminently distinguished for the beauty of its scenery; and consists chiefly of one street, lighted with naphtha, but not paved: the houses, though detached and irregular, are well built. Tourists frequently make this their head-quarters, as many delightful excursions may be taken hence, to view the sublimely romantic and richly varied scenery of the lake district. The river Rothay flows in the vicinity, and at the upper extremity of the town is a beautiful waterfall called Stockgill Force. There were until lately a few manufactories for linsey-woolsey, but they have been relinquished; a bobbin-mill only, is at present carried on. Stone and slate are quarried; and a peculiar kind of marble, of a dusky green colour, veined with white, is found. The market, granted in 1650 to the celebrated Countess of Pembroke, is on Wednesday and Saturday; and fairs are held on Whit Wednesday and the 13th and 29th of October, to which a court of pie-poudre is attached: the market-house was built about the year 1796, on the site of the former.
The inhabitants received a charter in the reign of James II., under the authority of which they elect a mayor annually on Christmas-eve; but he does not possess magisterial authority, the town being entirely within the jurisdiction of the county justices, who hold a petty-session every fortnight. The powers of the county debt-court of Ambleside, established in 1847, extend over the sub-registration-districts of Ambleside and Hawkshead. The township comprises 1583 acres, whereof about 800 are common or waste; the soil is of a sandy quality. The living is a perpetual curacy, with a net income of £80; it is in the patronage of Lady Fleming, and the impropriation belongs to Sir R. Fleming, Bart. A rent-charge of £27, of which £14 are payable by Ambleside below Stock, and £13 by Ambleside above Stock, has been awarded to the rector of Windermere, as a commutation in lieu of tithes. The chapel, situated in that part of the town which is in the parish of Grasmere, was made parochial by the Bishop of Chester in 1675, and was rebuilt in 1812; it is a plain edifice. The Independents have a place of worship. The free grammar school was founded and endowed by John Kelsick, in 1721; the annual income exceeds £150. Bernard Gilpin, surnamed "The Northern Apostle," was born at Kentmere, and Judge Wilson at Troutbeck, near the town. The residence of Dove's Nest, on the road to Bowness, was for some time occupied by Mrs. Hemans; and Fox-How, to the west of the town, was the residence of the late Dr. Arnold.
Ambrosden (St. Mary)
AMBROSDEN (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Bicester, hundred of Bullington, county of Oxford, 2½ miles (S. E. by S.) from Bicester; comprising the chapelries of Arncott and Blackthorn, and containing 892 inhabitants, of whom 181 are in the hamlet of Ambrosden. This place is supposed by Bishop Kennet, who was formerly incumbent of the parish, to have derived its name from Ambrosius Aurelius, the celebrated British chief, who encamped here during the siege of Alchester by the Saxons. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £11. 17.; net income, £228; patron, Sir G. O. P. Turner, Bart.; appropriator, the Bishop of Oxford. The tithes were commuted for land, under an inclosure act, in 1814. The church is stated to have been built in the latter part of the reign of Edward I., on the site of the original Saxon, or Norman, edifice, whose northern entrance still remains; it is in the early English style, with an embattled tower, on the east and west fronts of which are some curious devices in plaster, and among the rest one of the paschal lamb.
AMCOTTS, a chapelry, in the parish of Althorp, union of Thorne, W. division of the wapentake of Manley, parts of Lindsey, county of Lincoln, 11¾ miles (E. S. E.) from Glandford-Brigg: containing 417 inhabitants. The chapel is dedicated to St. Thomas à Becket. The tithes were partially commuted for land, under an inclosure act, in 1779; and the impropriate tithes have been recently commuted for £5. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans.
Amersham, or Agmondesham (St. Mary)
AMERSHAM, or Agmondesham (St. Mary), a market-town and parish, and the head of a union, in the hundred of Burnham, county of Buckingham, 33 miles (S. E. by S.) from Buckingham, and 25¾ (W. N. W.) from London; containing 3645 inhabitants. The town is situated in a pleasant valley, through which flows the Misburne, a stream falling into the Colne near Uxbridge; it is surrounded by wood-crowned hills, and consists principally of one street, well paved: there is a plentiful supply of water. In the reign of Henry V. several of the inhabitants were burnt at the stake for professing the tenets of the Lollards; and in that of Mary, many of them suffered a similar fate: a spot of ground, occupying a circle of about 24 feet, is pointed out on the east side of the town as the place on which they suffered, and on which, it was supposed, no vegetation could be matured; but, in 1842, the ground was opened by means of a subscription fund, and found to contain nothing but flints, which served as a sort of drainage, and impeded culture. A manufactory for silk crape has been some time established, and many females are employed in the making of lace and straw-plat; wooden chairs are also made for exportation. The market is on Tuesday; and fairs are held on WhitMonday and Sept. 19th. The town was a borough by prescription, and sent burgesses to parliament from the 28th of Edward I. to the 2nd of Edward II., but made no subsequent return until the 21st of James I., from which time it continued to send two members till it was disfranchised by the act of the 2nd of William IV. cap. 45. A constable and other officers are appointed at the court leet of the lord of the manor. The town-hall, situated in the centre of the town, is a handsome brick edifice resting on piazzas, erected by Sir Wm. Drake: the lower part is appropriated to the market; the upper, which is surmounted by a lantern turret, is used for transacting public business.
The parish contains by measurement 7855 acres of land, in general hilly, and resting upon a sub-soil of chalk, flint, and clay: the hamlet of Coleshill is included in it. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £48. 16. l½., and in the gift of Thos. Tyrwhitt Drake, Esq.: the tithes have been commuted for £1500, and there are about 123 acres of glebe. The church is a spacious edifice of brick coated with stucco; the chancel and an adjoining mausoleum contain several interesting monuments, exhibiting some beautiful specimens of sculpture, by the hand of Bacon. There are two places of worship for Baptists, and one for the Society of Friends. A free grammar school was instituted by Dr. Robert Chaloner, canon of Windsor, who, by his will dated June 20th, 1620, endowed it with £20 per annum, since augmented to more than £80; and in an apartment adjoining the grammar schoolroom is a writing-school, established in 1699, by Lord Cheyne, and endowed with a rent-charge of £20. An almshouse for six aged widows was founded by Sir Wm. Drake, Bart., and endowed by him in 1667: the income, arising from land and property in the funds, was augmented with a bequest of £300 by Wm. Drake, jun., in 1796, and now amounts to about £150. A fund of £87 per annum, arising from land and the three per cents., is applied, under the will of William Tothill, of Shardeloes, in apprenticing children. The union of Amersham comprises 10 parishes or places, and contains a population of 18,207: the workhouse is a good building in the Elizabethan style of architecture, erected at a cost of nearly £7000; it stands on the road to Wycombe, and will accommodate 350 paupers.
AMERTON, a township, in the parish and union of Stowe, S. division of the hundred of Pirehill, N. division of Staffordshire, ¾ of a mile (N. W.) from Stowe; containing 120 inhabitants. It lies on the road from Stafford to Uttoxeter, and has a small village or hamlet, chiefly inhabited by persons engaged in agriculture.
Amesbury (St. Mary and St. Melorius)
AMESBURY (St. Mary and St. Melorius), a town and parish, and the head of a union, in the hundred of Amesbury, S. division of Wilts, 7 miles (N.) from Salisbury, and 78 (W. S. W.) from London; containing 1171 inhabitants. This place was anciently called Ambresbury, and that name is probably derived, not from Aurelius Ambrosius, as hitherto generally supposed, but from the combined appellations of Stonehenge and an ancient camp, both situate in the parish and near the town; viz. Ambres, holy or anointed stones, and burg, or bury, a camp; "the holy stones near the camp." A monastery for 300 monks is stated to have been founded here by Ambruis, a British monk, or, more probably, by Ambrosius; it was destroyed by Gurthurm, or Gurmundus, a Saxon chief. After the conversion of the Saxons to Christianity, a synod was held at Amesbury, in the reign of King Edgar, to adjust the differences that existed between the regular and the secular clergy, which had been previously discussed in an assembly held at Calne. About 980, Elfrida, widow of the same king, founded here a nunnery of the Benedictine order, which she dedicated to St. Mary and to St. Melorius, a Cornish saint, in expiation, it is supposed, of the murder of Edward, her step-son, at Corfe Castle. In 1177, the abbess and nuns were expelled, on the ground of incontinence; and Henry II. made it a cell to the foreign abbey of Fontevrault. Queen Eleanor, widow of Henry III., assumed the veil in this convent, where she died in 1291. It was at length made denizen; and at the Dissolution its revenue was £558. 10. 2.
The manor and principal estates of Amesbury originally appertained to the abbey, and at the Reformation were granted to the Lord Protector Somerset, from whose family they were carried by the marriage of a female descendant into the family of Bruce, subsequently earls of Amesbury. They afterwards passed by sale to Lord Carlton, who left them by will to the Duke of Queensberry, husband to the celebrated duchess; and on the death of the last duke, they descended by entail to Lord Douglas of Bothwell Castle, by whom they were sold to Sir Edmund Antrobus, at whose decease they passed to his nephew, the present baronet. A mansion was built by the Somerset family nearly on the site of the ancient abbey; it has been taken down by Sir Edmund Antrobus, who is replacing it by an extensive and elegant edifice, judiciously preserving the magnificent saloon of the former building. The town is situated in a valley on the banks of the Avon, and consists of two streets; it is neither paved nor lighted, but is well supplied with water. The market, which was on Friday, has been discontinued: fairs are held on May 17th, June 21st, and December 21st.
The parish comprises 5600 acres; the surface is undulated, and the soil a gravelly loam upon a chalky subsoil. The living is a perpetual curacy, in the gift of the Dean and Canons of Windsor, with a net income of £141: about 5 acres of land in the parish of Hungerford, purchased by Queen Anne's Bounty, belong to it. The church, originally of Norman architecture, has recently undergone a thorough repair; it is warmed by two very handsome stoves, which cost £189, and were presented by Sir Edmund Antrobus. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans. In 1677, John Rose bequeathed property for the establishment of a superior and a secondary school, the former for boys, and the latter for boys and girls: the endowment consists of a farm in the parish of Ditchett, county of Somerset, comprising 52½ acres, and of a messuage and garden at Amesbury in the rent-free occupation of the master. Here is also a school founded under the will of Mr. Henry Spratt, in 1708, and endowed with land now let for £50 per annum; other schools are supported by subscription. The poor law union of Amesbury comprises 23 parishes or places, and contains a population of 7698. To the west of the river is an ancient encampment with a vallum and deep fosse, occupying an area of forty acres, commonly attributed to Vespasian, but undoubtedly of British origin: the road from Amesbury to Warminster is cut through its rampart. The poet Gay passed much of his time at Amesbury, under the roof of his generous patrons, the Duke and Duchess of Queensberry.
Amington, with Stony-Delph
AMINGTON, with Stony-Delph, a township, in the parish and union of Tamworth, Tamworth division of the hundred of Hemlingford, N. division of the county of Warwick, 2¾ miles (E.) from Tamworth; containing 276 inhabitants, and comprising 2191 acres. This place is intersected by the river Anker, the Coventry canal, and the road from Tamworth to Ashby-de-laZouch. It was the property of the late C. E. Repington, Esq., for the benefit of whose widow it is now vested in the hands of trustees; on her death it will devolve to Captain E. H. A'Court, R.N.
AMOTHERBY, a chapelry, in the parish of Appleton-le-Street, union of Malton, wapentake of Ryedale, N. riding of York, 3 miles (N. W. by W.) from Malton; containing 239 inhabitants. This chapelry, which is bounded on the north by the river Rye, is situated on the road from Malton to Kirkby-Moorside. The surface is undulated, and the scenery highly picturesque; the soil in the upland parts is rich, and in the valleys inferior; limestone of fine quality is extensively quarried. The tithes were commuted for land and a money payment, in 1776. There is a chapel of ease, and a school is endowed with 20 acres of land.
Amphield, or Anfield
AMPHIELD, or Anfield, a hamlet, in the parish and union of Hursley, hundred of Buddlesgate, Fawley and N. divisions of the county of Southampton, 4 miles (S. S. W.) from Romsey. This pleasant village is situated on the high road to Winchester, and is inhabited by a considerable rural population. A district church has been erected, chiefly at the expense of William Heathcote, Esq.; it is dedicated to St. Mark, and the incumbency is in the gift of the Vicar.
Ampleforth (St. Hilda)
AMPLEFORTH (St. Hilda), a parish, in the union of Helmsley, partly in the wapentake of Birdforth, and partly in that of Ryedale, N. riding of York; containing 446 inhabitants, of whom 207 are in the township of Ampleforth, 4½ miles (S. W. by S.) from Helmsley. This parish, anciently Ampleford, comprises by measurement 2270 acres. The village, which is long, and pleasantly situated, extends into the three hamlets of Ampleforth St. Peter, Ampleforth-Birdforth, and Oswaldkirk-Quarter; it lies at the base of the hill which runs up to Hamilton, and on the south commands a beautiful view of the valley of De Mobray, embracing on the south-east Gilling Castle, and on the south-west Newborough Park, which give to the vicinity a rich and diversified appearance. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £4. 6. 5½.; net income, £261; patron, the Archbishop of York. By an inclosure act in 1806, 199 acres were allotted in lieu of the vicarial tithes of the parish, and of all tithes for the township of Ampleforth. The church is an ancient structure, with a Norman doorway beautifully carved and flowered. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans. At Oswaldkirk-Quarter is Ampleforth College, a Roman Catholic establishment, founded in 1802 by the members of the College of Dieulouard, near Pont à Mousson, in Lorraine, whose property was confiscated in the French revolution; the students, about fifty in number, are instructed in the ancient and modern languages, mathematics, &c. The establishment has been several times enlarged; it is situated in the midst of extensive pleasure-grounds, and commands some beautiful views of the surrounding country. Half a mile north of the village are the remains of a Roman camp; near which was discovered in March 1808, by the Rev. Robert Nixon, a barrow formed by a large circle of stones about ten feet in diameter, in which an urn and several ancient coins were found.
Ampney, or Ashbrook (St. Mary the Virgin)
AMPNEY, or Ashbrook (St. Mary the Virgin), a parish, in the union of Cirencester, hundred of Crowthorne and Minety, E. division of the county of Gloucester, 3½ miles (E.) from Cirencester; containing 121 inhabitants. It is situated on the southern side of the road from Fairford to Cirencester; and has good quarries of limestone for building. The living is a perpetual curacy: net income, £72, derived from 57 acres of land; patron and impropriator, Col. Beach. The church stands at a distance from the village, and is a small structure.
Ampney, or Easington (St. Peter)
AMPNEY, or Easington (St. Peter), a parish, in the union of Cirencester, hundred of Crowthorne and Minety, E. division of the county of Gloucester, 4¼ miles (E. by S.) from Cirencester; containing 196 inhabitants. This parish, which is situated on the London road, is of small extent, comprising by measurement only 533 acres: quarries of stone are slightly worked for mending the roads, and for fences; and some tiles are made here. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £90; patron, the Bishop of Gloucester and Bristol; appropriators, the Dean and Chapter of Gloucester. On Rambury farm are the remains of a Roman camp, called Rambury Ring.
Ampney-Crucis (The Holy Rood)
AMPNEY-CRUCIS (The Holy Rood), a parish, in the union of Cirencester, hundred of Crowthorne and Minety, E. division of the county of Gloucester, 3½ miles (E.) from Cirencester; containing, with the hamlet of Hilcot-End, 591 inhabitants. It comprises by measurement 3088 acres. The soil is various, in some parts of very inferior quality, and in others tolerably fertile; stone suitable for repairing the roads is quarried. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £6. 9. 0½., and in the patronage of the Crown; net income, £84; impropriator, G. G. Blackwell, Esq. The church has an embattled tower, and some portions of ancient architecture, among which is a handsome Norman arch dividing the nave from the chancel. Here is a charity school, endowed in 1719, by Robert Pleydell, Esq., with a rent-charge of £80.
Ampney, Down (All Saints)
AMPNEY, DOWN (All Saints), a parish, in the union of Cirencester, chiefly in the hundred of Crowthorne and Minety, E. division of the county of Gloucester, 4 miles (S. W. by W.) from Fairford; containing 425 inhabitants. A portion of this parish lies in the northern division of the adjoining county of Wilts, and in the hundred of Highworth. The manor-house, a very interesting specimen of ancient architecture, was formerly one of the many seats of the Hungerford family, and is situated precisely on the border line of the two shires. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £10. 5. 8.; net income, £116; patrons and appropriators, the Dean and Canons of Christ-Church, Oxford. The church was built about the year 1260, by the Knights Templars, to whom Edward I. had granted the living; it is chiefly in the early English style, with a tower surmounted by a spire.
Amport (St. Mary)
AMPORT (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Ludgershall, hundred of Andover, Andover and N. divisions of the county of Southampton, 4¼ miles (W. by S.) from Andover; containing, with the tythings of East Cholderton and Sarson, 771 inhabitants, and comprising 3594 acres. The living is a vicarage endowed with the rectorial tithes, with the living of Appleshaw annexed, and valued in the king's books at £25. 7. 11.; patrons, the Dean and Chapter of Chichester. The tithes of Amport have been commuted for £830, and there are 70 acres of glebe. Pursuant to the will of the Rev. Thomas Sheppard, D.D., dated in 1812, a school, and an almhouse consisting of six tenements, were built here by his widow, who vested in trustees the sum of £9000 for the maintenance of six widows, for a schoolmistress's salary, medical attendance, and the repair of the buildings.
Ampthill (St. Andrew)
AMPTHILL (St. Andrew), a market-town and parish, and the head of a union, in the hundred of Redbornestoke, county of Bedford, 7 miles (S. by W.) from Bedford, and 45 (N. W. by N.) from London; comprising by computation 1882 acres, and containing 201 inhabitants. In the reign of Henry VI., Sir John Cornwall, created Lord Fanhope, built a castle on the manor of Ampthill, which, about the year 1530, came into the possession of the crown, and was made the head of an honour by act of parliament. Catherine of Arragon, while the business of her divorce was pending, resided here, where she received the summons to attend the commissioners at Dunstable, which she refused to obey; and in memory of this, the Earl of Ossory, in 1770, erected on the site of the castle a handsome column, with an appropriate inscription by Horace Walpole, Earl of Orford. The modern seat of Ampthill is chiefly remarkable for the number of very ancient oaks which ornament the park. The town, pleasantly situated between two hills, is irregularly built, paved with pebbles, and amply supplied with water; it has been of late considerably improved by the removal of old buildings, and the erection of a good market-house. The Bedford branch of the London and Birmingham railway passes on the north-west. The market is on Thursday; fairs take place on the 4th of May and 30th of November, for cattle. The county magistrates hold petty-sessions for the hundred at this town; and a court for the honour is held in the moot-house, an ancient building, under the lord high steward, by whom constables and other officers are appointed. The county debt-court of Ampthill, established in 1847, has jurisdiction over the registration-district of Ampthill.
The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at £10. 6. 8., and in the gift of the Crown, with a net income of £330: the tithes were commuted for land and corn-rents, under an inclosure act, in 1806. The church is a handsome cruciform structure, in the decorated and later English styles, with a square embattled tower rising from the centre. There are places of worship for Independents, the Society of Friends, and Wesleyans. A school was endowed by Mrs. Sarah Emery, in 1691, with lands producing £30 per annum, half of which is given to the parish of Meppershall. There is also a feoffee charity of about £100 per annum, derived from land and houses, for the benefit of the necessitous and industrious poor; and about a quarter of a mile from the town is an hospital, founded by John Cross, in 1690, which affords a comfortable asylum for nine men and four women, who each receive about £20 per year, with bedding, coal, &c. The union of Ampthill comprises 19 parishes or places, and contains a population of 15,681.
Ampton (St. Peter)
AMPTON (St. Peter), a parish, in the union of Thingoe, hundred of Thedwestry, W. division of Suffolk, 5¼ miles (N. by E.) from Bury St. Edmund's; containing 147 inhabitants. In this parish, which comprises 736a. 3r. 4p., is the seat of Lord Calthorpe, scarcely surpassed for beauty of situation by any mansion or grounds in Suffolk. The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at £5. 2. 1., and in the gift of his lordship: the tithes have been commuted for £120, and the glebe consists of 20 acres. Calthorpe's school, adjoining the churchyard, was founded and endowed in 1705, by James Calthorpe, Esq., and has property in land consisting of about 430 acres, and yielding a rental of £384; in addition to which, Henry Edwards in 1715 bequeathed £100, with which, and other accumulations, £1017 three per cent. consols were purchased, paying a dividend of £30. On Ampton green is an almshouse for four unmarried women, founded under the will of Mrs. Dorothy Calthorpe dated 1693, and endowed with £700 Old South Sea Annuities.
Amwell, Great (St. John the Baptist)
AMWELL, GREAT (St. John the Baptist), a parish, in the union of Ware, hundred and county of Hertford, 1¼ mile (S. E. by S.) from Ware; containing 1545 inhabitants. The parish contains 2443a. 1r. 12p., of which 268 acres are common or waste. It is situated between the river Lea and the road from Cambridge to London; and is supposed to take its name from "Emma's Well," which is now absorbed by the New River. The village of Amwell, particularly that part of it adjacent to the church, is one of the most beautiful in the county; and within the limits of the parish is situated the East India College, founded in 1806, for the education of youths intended for the civil service of the company, and which contains accommodation for 105 students. A pleasure fair is held on Whit-Monday. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £6; patrons, the Rev. Mordaunt Barnard and others; impropriator, E. F. Whittingstall, Esq. The great tithes have been commuted for £418. 11. 6., and the vicarial for £232; the glebe consists of 35 acres, with a house in a fine situation, built in 1840. The chancel of the church is separated from the nave by three very ancient arches, supposed to be Saxon. Hoddesdon chapel, a handsome brick edifice, is in the parish; and among the schools is a national school for girls, endowed about 1820 by Mrs. E. Jones with £40 per annum. The remains of a Roman encampment are visible between the church and the vicarage-house. Amwell has been the residence of some celebrated literary characters, among whom may be named Izaak Walton, the noted angler; Mr. Scott, author of several poems and tracts; and Hoole, the distinguished translator of Tasso, and biographer of Mr. Scott. The remains of Warner, the historian, were interred in the churchyard.
AMWELL, LITTLE, a liberty, in the parish of All Saints, Hertford, union, hundred, and county of Hertford, 1¼ mile (S. E. by S.) from Ware; containing 461 inhabitants. Here is a chapel of ease to the vicarage of All Saints. The New River, which supplies the metropolis with water, has its source in a spring that rises in this liberty, called Emma's Well.
Ancaster (St. Martin)
ANCASTER (St. Martin), a parish, in the union of Grantham, wapentake of Loveden, parts of Kesteven, county of Lincoln, 6¾ miles (N. E.) from Grantham, on the road to Sleaford; containing, with the hamlets of West Willoughby and Sudbrook, 530 inhabitants. This place occupies the site of a Roman station, which Horsley conjectures to have been Causennæ, but the name of which has not been satisfactorily ascertained: it was formerly of much greater extent than it is at present, and various coins, foundations of buildings, vaults, and other relics of the Romans, have been discovered. During the civil war of the seventeenth century, the parliamentarian forces were defeated here by the royalists, under the command of Col. Cavendish. The parish comprises about 3000 acres, of which 2780 are arable, 200 pasture, and 14 woodland; the soil is light, and the surface well wooded. The celebrated "Ancaster" quarries (which are really in the adjoining parish of Wilsford) yield beautiful building-stone. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £6. 13. 4., and in the patronage and incumbency of the Rev. Mr. Warren; net income, £151, arising from 120 acres of glebe. The church is an ancient and handsome building, with a tower surmounted by a tall slender spire; the arches on the north side of the nave are Norman, and those on the south of early English architecture; the font is singularly elegant. There is a place of worship for Wesleyan Methodists. Ancaster formerly gave the title of Duke to the family of Bertie.
ANCROFT, a parochial chapelry, in the union of Berwick-upon-Tweed, Islandshire, N. division of Northumberland, 6 miles (S.) of Berwick; containing 1670 inhabitants, of whom 491 are in the township. It includes the villages of Ancroft, Cheswick, Haggerston, Scremerston, and Greenses, the first of which appears, from the numerous foundations of houses that have been discovered in the adjoining fields, to have been formerly of much greater extent than it is at present. The chapelry comprises 9622 acres, mostly arable, and is rich in mineral produce. Limestone is very abundant, and is quarried to a great extent for the supply of the neighbouring districts; freestone and coal are likewise wrought in considerable quantities. The great road from London to Edinburgh passes through. The scenery is finely diversified, and enlivened with some handsome seats, among which is Ladythorn, in the village of Cheswick, occupying an elevated situation, and commanding a view of Holy Island, the Farn Islands, the coast from Bambrough Castle to Berwick, and the Cheviot hills in the distance. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £131; patrons and appropriators, the Dean and Chapter of Durham. The church, a Norman structure, originally a chapel of ease to Holy Island, but now parochial, was enlarged in 1836, at an expense of £550, raised by subscription: the tower was so constructed that it served as a place of residence for the curate, and afforded him a protection from the Scottish marauders; it was until lately roofless, and an ash-tree, which had its root in the vaulted floor of the first story, spread over its battlements. There is a second incumbency at Scremerston.—See Scremerston and Haggerston.
Anderby (St. Andrew)
ANDERBY (St. Andrew), a parish, in the union of Spilsby, Marsh division of the hundred of Calceworth, parts of Lindsey, county of Lincoln, 4¼ miles (E. by S.) from Alford; containing 243 inhabitants. The parish comprises 1200 acres by computation, and extends to the coast of the North Sea, which bounds it on the east; the village is scattered, and is in the manor of Bilsby, a neighbouring parish. The living is a discharged rectory, with that of Cumberworth united, valued in the king's books at £13. 10. 2½.; net income, £548; patrons, the President and Fellows of Magdalene College, Cambridge. On the inclosure of the parish, a fixed money payment of £65. 7., and 8 acres of land, were assigned to the rector, in lieu of tithes for the portion inclosed. The church is a plain edifice. There is a place of worship for Wesleyan Methodists.
Anderston, or Anderson (St. Michael)
ANDERSTON, or Anderson (St. Michael), a parish, in the union of Blandford, hundred of CoombsDitch, Blandford division of Dorset, 6 miles (S.) from the town of Blandford; containing 43 inhabitants. This parish, which is situated on the river Winterbourne (here a comparatively insignificant stream), comprises by measurement 566 acres, of which 414 are arable, and 152 meadow and pasture. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £6. 19. 1., and in the gift of S. B. Tregonwell, Esq.: the tithes have been commuted for £120, and there are four acres of glebe. The church is an ancient edifice, and the place of sepulture of the Tregonwells, whose former manor-house, a spacious building in the Elizabethan style, and in which is a chamber hung with decayed tapestry, is now the union workhouse.
ANDERTON, a township, in the parish of Great Budworth, union of Northwich, hundred of Bucklow, N. division of the county of Chester, 1¾ mile (N. W. by N.) from Northwich; containing 331 inhabitants. The manor was held at an early period by the family of Lostock, from whom Urian de St. Pierre, who died seised of it in 1286, had obtained it by gift. It afterwards passed to the Cokeseys, Grevilles, and Suttons, and in 1600 was purchased of the last-named family by Sir Peter Warburton, whose daughter and heiress brought it in marriage to the Stanleys, of Alderley. The township comprises 495 acres; the soil is partly clay and partly sand. It is intersected by the river Weaver, on the northern bank of which there is an almost uninterrupted line of salt-works: the Grand Trunk canal also passes through.
ANDERTON, a township, in the district chapelry of Adlington, parish of Standish, union of Chorley, hundred of Leyland, N. division of the county of Lancaster, 4¾ miles (S. E. by S.) from Chorley, on the road from that town to Bolton; containing 339 inhabitants. This place gave name to a family which was seated here at an early period; it comprises about 800 acres, and has coal-mines, and good stone-quarries. The tithes have been commuted for £157.