A Topographical Dictionary of England. Originally published by S Lewis, London, 1848.
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Caston (Holy Cross)
CASTON (Holy Cross), a parish, in the union and hundred of Wayland, W. division of Norfolk, 3½ miles (S. E.) from Watton; containing 513 inhabitants, and comprising about 1600 acres. The living is a rectory, united to the rectories of Rockland All Saints and St. Andrew, and valued in the king's books at £11. 19. 2.: the glebe comprises 59 acres. The church is a spacious edifice in the decorated and later English styles, with a tower; the interior contains a monument of the founder, supposed to be one of the Castons. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans.
Castor, county of Lincoln.—See Caistor.
Castor (St. Keneburgha)
CASTOR (St. Keneburgha), a parish, in the union and soke of Peterborough, N. division of the county of Northampton, 4½ miles (W.) from Peterborough; containing 1313 inhabitants. This village, and the opposite one of Chesterton, occupy the site of the Roman station Durobrivæ, by the Saxons called Dormancester; and a great quantity of coins from Trajan to Valens, fragments of urns, tiles, &c., have been discovered. The Roman Ermin-street commenced here, and, proceeding some distance, branched off into two divisions, the remains of which are still visible; one leading to Stamford, and the other, by Lolham-Bridges, through West Deeping, into Lincolnshire. Lady Keneburgha's way is supposed to have been a paved way from a fortress on the river Nene, which runs through the parish, to a castle on the hill, where the Roman governor resided. The place was destroyed by the Danes. The parish comprises about 3600 acres, and is considerably diversified in its surface, some parts being flat, and others very much elevated. The Northampton and Peterborough railway passes through. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £52. 12. 8½., and held in commendam with the see of Peterborough: there are about 150 acres of glebe, and a glebe-house. The church, dedicated in 1124 to St. Keneburgha, who founded a nunnery here, is a spacious cruciform edifice, with a beautiful Norman tower of two stages, rising from the intersection, and surmounted by a spire. There are chapels of ease at Sutton and Upton, in the parish; a day school, having a master and mistress, is supported by the Earl Fitzwilliam, and a Sunday school, in the same building, by the bishop. John Landen, an eminent mathematician, was born here in 1719. Some tessellated pavement dug up in the parish is now laid down in the dairy at Milton Hall, the residence of Lord Fitzwilliam.
CATCHBURN, a township, in the parish and union of Morpeth, E. division of Castle ward, S. division of Northumberland, 1½ mile (S. by E.) from Morpeth; containing, with Morpeth Castle, Park-House, and Stobhill, 145 inhabitants. At this place, which is situated on the east of the great road, Roger de Merlay, the second, built an hospital dedicated to St. Mary Magdalene, probably for the use of wayfaring people, and which is mentioned in a deed of the year 1282. An inquest taken after the death of Ralph, Lord Greystock, in the 17th of Edward II., enumerates its advowson among his possessions; and John, Lord Greystock, in 1346, ordained by will that it should be given, with all its goods and ornaments, to a chaplain. There are no remains.
CATCHERSIDE, a township, in the parish of KirkWhelpington, union of Bellingham, N. E. division of Tindale ward, S. division of Northumberland, 15 miles (W.) from Morpeth; containing 12 inhabitants. This place, anciently written Calcherside, has been the property of the Fenwicks, Blacketts, and Trevelyans; and, though now still and lonely, appears to have been once of some little importance. Tradition says there was a mill here: the "Scotch street" ran through the place; and in the last century it had an ale-house where carriers stopped, and villagers assembled for rural sports. On Camp Hill were traces of a British camp, which were removed a few years since.
CATCLIFFE, a township, in the parish and union of Rotherham, S. division of the wapentake of Strafforth and Tickhill, W. riding of York, 3 miles (S.) from Rotherham; containing 252 inhabitants. It comprises by computation 930 acres: the village is on a gentle eminence above the river Rother, on its western side. Here is a manufactory for glass, established about the year 1780.
CATCOTT, a chapelry, in the parish of Moorlinch, union of Bridgwater, hundred of Whitley, W. division of Somerset, 7 miles (E. N. E.) from Bridgwater; containing 750 inhabitants. This place is situated on the north side of the Polden hills, within two miles of the Glastonbury and Bridgwater canal: very fine blue lias for building is quarried. The living is a perpetual curacy, in the patronage of Aldborough Henniker, Esq., with a net income of £100: the chapel is a plain edifice, in the later English style, and has a very fine old font. There is a place of worship for dissenters. A bequest of £20 per annum is regularly distributed among poor widows.
Cateby, county of York.—See Cadeby.
Caterham, or Katerham (St. Lawrence)
CATERHAM, or Katerham (St. Lawrence), a parish, in the union of Godstone, Second division of the hundred of Tandridge, E. division of Surrey, 3¼ miles (N. by W.) from Godstone; containing 477 inhabitants. The parish is situated on the road from Croydon to Godstone, and intersected by the London and Brighton railway; and comprises by admeasurement 2386 acres, of which 1462 are arable, 269 meadow and pasture, 175 woodland, and 468 uninclosed common. The surface is hilly, and the soil has several varieties, consisting of chalk, clay, and black mould: building-stone is quarried extensively. A fair for toys is held in July. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £8. 0. 1½.; patron and incumbent, the Rev. James Legrew, whose tithes have been commuted for £400, and who has a glebe of 5 acres. The church was repaired in 1832, and a beautiful monument erected on the north side of the chancel to the memory of Mrs. Elizabeth Legrew. There is an encampment on the top of Whitehill, called the Cardinal's Cap, said to have been formed by the ancient Britons.
Catesby (St. Mary)
CATESBY (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Daventry, hundred of Fawsley, S. division of the county of Northampton, 3¾ miles (S. W. by W.) from Daventry; containing, with the hamlet of Newbold-Grounds, 105 inhabitants. The parish is separated from Warwickshire by the river Leam, which bounds it partly on the north, west, and south; it presents some pleasing scenery, and consists of 1967 acres. Catesby House occupies the site of a priory founded in the reign of Richard I., by Robert de Esseby, for nuns of the Benedictine order, and dedicated to St. Mary and St. Edmund: the revenue, at the Dissolution, was estimated at £145. The dormitory is still carefully preserved in its original style. The living is a donative, valued in the king's books at £10; patron, C. G. P. Baxter, Esq., who appoints without episcopal institution. The church is in ruins, and the parochial duty is performed at Catesby House. The Rev. John Parkhurst, the lexicographer, was born here.
Catfield (All Saints)
CATFIELD (All Saints), a parish, in the hundred of Happing, E. division of Norfolk, 3 miles (S. by E.) from Stalham; containing 655 inhabitants. It is bounded on the west by the river Ant; and comprises by admeasurement 2380 acres, of which about 1500 are arable, 500 pasture, meadow, and marsh, and 300 water forming a lake. The living consists of a discharged rectory and vicarage, valued in the king's books at £7. 10., and in the gift alternately of the Bishop of Norwich and G. Cubitt, Esq.: the tithes have been commuted for £600, and the glebe comprises about 20 acres, with a glebe-house. The church is in the later style, and consists of a nave, a handsome chancel, and aisles, with a square embattled tower; the nave is separated from the chancel by a carved screen, and on the floor is the lid of a coffin, curiously sculptured, removed from Hickling Priory in 1826. Several large paintings in fresco, of the Romish sacraments, of martyrs, and other subjects, have been discovered in the nave, by removing the plaster-work from the upper part of the walls. The Primitive Methodists have a place of worship. At the inclosure, in 1802, 60 acres of heath were allotted to the poor for fuel and pasturage. Cowper, the poet, spent much of his time at the rectory-house, on visits to his uncle, who was incumbent.
CATFOSS, a township, in the parish of Sigglesthorne, union of Skirlaugh, N. division of the wapentake of Holderness, E. riding of York, 9½ miles (N. E. by E.) from Beverley; containing 45 inhabitants. This place, in Domesday book Catefoss, derives its name, of British origin, from "coit," a wood, and "foss," a dyke. At an early period it belonged to the family of de Fauconberg, and in the reign of Edward III. came by marriage to the Constables, from whom it has descended to the Bethell family. The township comprises about 1053 acres of land. Catfoss House, built early in the 17th century, was pulled down about thirty years since.
Cathanger, with Stowey
CATHERINE, ST., a parish, in the union of Bath, hundred of Bath-Forum, E. division of Somerset, 4 miles (N. N. E.) from Bath; containing 159 inhabitants. It is situated in a retired valley, enriched with much picturesque scenery, and comprises by computation 1000 acres. Catherine Court, adjoining the church, was a residence of the abbots of Bath till the dissolution of monasteries, when the manor was granted to the Haringtons. A paper-mill is in operation, giving employment to a few hands. The living is a perpetual curacy, annexed to the vicarage of Bath-Easton: the tithes have been commuted for £50 payable to the incumbent, £31 to the impropriator, and £15 to the Dean and Chapter of Christ-Church, Oxford. In the chancel is a handsome monument to the memory of some of the Blanchard family.
Catherington (St. Catherine)
CATHERINGTON (St. Catherine), a parish, and the head of a union, in the hundred of Finch-Dean, Petersfield and N. divisions of the county of Southampton, 6¾ miles (S. W. by S.) from Petersfield; containing 1003 inhabitants. It comprises by admeasurement 5035 acres, of which 2800 are arable, 1400 pasture, 615 woodland, and 95 common or waste. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £9. 5. 10., and in the gift of J. Hayward, Esq.: the great tithes, belonging to Sir L. Curtis, Bart., have been commuted for £614, and those of the incumbent for £280; there is a glebe of 2 acres. The church, situated on an eminence, has some rich Norman arches, and contains a monument to Nicholas Hyde, chief justice of the court of queen's bench: a gallery was erected in 1834. The poor law union comprises 5 parishes or places, and contains a population of 2356.
Catherston-Lewston (St. Mary)
CATHERSTON-LEWSTON (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Bridport, hundred of WhitchurchCanonicorum, Bridport division of Dorset, 2¾ miles (N. E.) from Lyme-Regis; containing 36 inhabitants. This place was the residence of a branch of the Wadhams, by one of whom, Nicholas Wadham, and Dorothy his wife, Wadham College, Oxford, was founded. The parish is situated on the great road from London to Plymouth, adjoining the post-town of Charmouth, and comprises by measurement 248 acres. The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at £2. 16. 10½.; net income, £67; patrons, the Executors of Jones Ross, Esq. The church, rebuilt lately by subscription of the rector and his friends, is a neat small edifice.
Cathorpe (St. Thomas)
CATHORPE (St. Thomas), a parish, in the union of Lutterworth, hundred of Guthlaxton, S. division of the county of Leicester, 4½ miles (S. by E.) from Lutterworth; containing 167 inhabitants. The parish is situated on the river Avon, and on the road from Rugby to Market-Harborough; and comprises 625a. 10r., of which 462 acres are pasture, and the rest arable: the surface is varied, some parts being flat, and others rising to a considerable elevation; and the soil is chiefly gravel, with a little clay. The Roman Watling-street crosses the south-western extremity. Three-fourths of the population are stocking-frame knitters. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £5. 5. 2½.; net income, £226; patron and incumbent, the Rev. L. Harper. The church is an ancient structure, in the later English style. Dyer, the poet, was for some time incumbent.
Catmore (St. Margaret)
CATMORE (St. Margaret), a parish, in the union of Wantage, hundred of Compton, county of Berks, 3½ miles (W. by S.) from East Ilsley; containing, with the tything of Lilley, 96 inhabitants. It comprises about 720 acres; the surface is elevated, and the soil various, in some parts chalk, and in others clay. Here was formerly a market on Monday, granted in 1306 by Edward I., together with a fair on the festival of St. Margaret. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £5. 5. 7½.; net income, £180; patron, C. Eyre, Esq.: the glebe consists of about 14 acres.
CATON, a parochial chapelry, and a township, in the parish of Lancaster, hundred of Lonsdale south of the Sands, N. division of the county of Lancaster, 5 miles (N. E. by E.) from Lancaster; containing 1195 inhabitants. The manor was a possession of the Gernets, the ancient foresters of Lancaster: there was also here a family named Caton, who held the manor by homage and service; and in connexion with the place, are mentioned, successively, the families of Curwen, Chorley, Stanley, Dalton, Riddell, Rawlinson, and Edmondson. The chapelry comprises four districts or quarters, viz.: Brookhouse, Caton Green, Littledale, and Town-End; and contains by measurement 8373a. 2r. 16p., whereof 600 acres are arable, 3300 meadow and pasture, 400 woodland, and about 4000 moorland. It lies on the road from Lancaster to Hornby, and on the eastern bank of the river Lune, which is here crossed by a bridge, with a road from it leading to Halton. The beauty of the diversified scenery elicited a warm eulogium from the poet Gray, in a letter to Dr. Warton; and Dr. Whitaker, in describing the beauties of the Vale of the Lune, says, "Immediately on approaching Caton, its character as the first of northern valleys is established by the beautiful windings here of the river, the fruitful alluvial lands upon its banks, the wooded and cultivated ridge that bounds it on the north-west, the striking appearance of Hornby Castle in front, and above all the noble form of Ingleborough, presenting an assemblage of features not united to compose any rival scenery in the kingdom." On the top of the moor are several freestone-quarries, and an inferior stone is found on the surface. There are two silk-mills, two cotton-mills, and a flax-mill, in operation, employing in all 400 persons; and at Grassyard Hall is a corn-mill. Scarthwaite, on the bank of the Lune, is the seat of Adam Hodgson, Esq., commanding the whole extent of the vale, and the winding course of the river; the precise spot selected by Mr. Hodgson for his house and terrace, under the auspices of Mr. Gilpin and Sir John Nasmyth, has long been distinguished as "Gray's Station," and shares in all the exquisite scenery that gives celebrity to the vale. The Elms, and the land around it, are the property of John Walmsley, Esq., of Richmond House, near Lancaster, who is also owner of Caton mill. John Edmondson, Esq., is lord of the manor.
The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £140, with a house erected in 1844; patron, the Vicar of Lancaster. The ancient chapel was built about the year 1245; of this structure, the beautiful Saxon gateway and the font alone remain: the present edifice was erected about 300 years ago, and has a square tower. There are places of worship for Wesleyans and Independents; and a national school supported by subscription. The interest of £250 was left in 1838, by Richard Sparling Berry, Esq., for parents who educate their children without parochial relief: four cottages are free of rent for poor persons; and about £5 are annually distributed to the poor. In 1803, a Roman mill-stone, eight feet long, was found in Artle beck, bearing the name of the Emperor Adrian; and subsequently a stone with consonants on it, which, when supplied by the vowel e, form an ingenious monitory couplet.
Catsfield (St. Lawrence)
CATSFIELD (St. Lawrence), a parish, in the union of Battle, hundred of Ninfield, rape of Hastings, E. division of Sussex, 3½ miles (S. W.) from Battle; containing 589 inhabitants. It is intersected by the road from Lewes to Hastings, and comprises 2938 acres, of which 875 are arable, 1447 meadow and pasture, 520 woodland, and 50 acres hops: the surface is alternated with hill and dale, and enriched with woods and plantations. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £7. 9. 4½., and in the patronage of the Earl of Ashburnham: the tithes have been commuted for £370, and the glebe comprises 34 acres, with a glebe-house. The church is a handsome structure, partly in the early and partly in the decorated English style, with a square embattled tower surmounted by a low shingled spire: in the chancel is an elegant monument to the memory of J. Fuller, Esq., by Nollekens. At the gate of the churchyard is a remarkably fine oak, more than 40 feet in girth at a few feet from the ground.
CATSHILL, an ecclesiastical district, in the parish and union of Bromsgrove, Upper division of the hundred of Halfshire, Droitwich and E. divisions of the county of Worcester, 2¼ miles (N.) from Bromsgrove, on the road to Stourbridge; containing about 3000 inhabitants. This district is formed of the north part of the parish, and includes the celebrated Bromsgrove Lickey, from which is a most extensive and diversified prospect. The greater part of the population is employed in the manufacture of nails, and the rest in agriculture. The living is a perpetual curacy, in the patronage of the Vicar of Bromsgrove; net income, £150, including an augmentation from the Ecclesiastical Commissioners. The church, dedicated to Christ, was built in 1838, at a cost of nearly £2000; it is in the early English style, with a tower, and has 546 sittings, whereof 404 are free. There are places of worship for Baptists, Primitive Methodists, and Wesleyans; and a Sunday school in connexion with the church.
CATTAL, a township, in the parish of Hunsingore, Upper division of the wapentake of Claro, W. riding of York, 5¼ miles (N. E. by N.) from Wetherby; containing 193 inhabitants. It is situated on the north of the river Nidd, whose course here is very devious; and comprises by computation 950 acres: the road from York to Knaresborough passes on the north, about two miles distant from the village.
CATTERAL, a township, in the parish and union of Garstang, hundred of Amounderness, S. division of the county of Lancaster, 1¾ mile (S. S. W.) from Garstang, on the road to Preston; containing 1102 inhabitants. The family of Catteral were in possession of this place for a considerable period; from them it passed by marriage to the Sherburnes, and subsequently came to the Banisters, Winckleys, and others. The township is situated at the confluence of the West Calder with the river Wyre, and comprises 1341a. 3r. 4p. of good land; the surface is level, running up by a gradual ascent towards Bleasdale: at the higher end is a good stone quarry. A cotton-mill, belonging to S. L. Behrens, Esq., of Catteral House, employs 438 hands; and there is another cotton-mill, carried on by Messrs. Jackson; also a bobbin-turning manufactory. The Preston and Lancaster railway and canal both pass through the township. There are two places of worship for Wesleyan Methodists.
Catterham, county Surrey.—See Caterham.
Catterick (St. Anne)
CATTERICK (St. Anne), a parish, in the unions of Bedale, Richmond, and Northallerton; comprising, in the wapentake of Gilling-East, the townships of Bolton-upon-Swale, Ellerton-upon-Swale, Kiplin, Scorton, Uckerby, and Whitwell; in the wapentake of Hang-East, those of East and West Appleton, Brough, Catterick, Colbourne, Hipswell, Killerby, Scotton, and Tunstall; and in that of Hang-West, the township of Hudswell; N. riding of York; the whole containing 2965 inhabitants, of whom 600 are in the township of Catterick, 5 miles (S. E.) from Richmond. This is a place of great antiquity, having been the site of the Roman city called Cataractonium, where the Erminstreet branches off in two directions, and in the vicinity of which numerous Roman relics have been dug up at different periods. It also flourished during the Saxon times; but in the devastations of the Danes was utterly destroyed, and is at present of little importance. A large brazen caldron full of Roman coins was discovered about a century ago; and not many years since, a splendid armilla of gold was found in a field near the village: the former is preserved at Brough Hall, and the latter is in the possession of Lady Tyrconnel.
The parish comprises about 21,680 acres, of which 1561a. 6p. are in the township of Catterick: of these latter, 917 acres are arable, 586 meadow and pasture, and the rest wood, roads, &c. At the distance of a mile to the north is Catterick bridge over the river Swale, on which was formerly a chapel; and opposite is a racecourse. The Richmond branch of the York and Newcastle railway has a station at the bridge. The living is a vicarage, valued in the king's books at £25. 2. 1., and has a net income of £678; it is in the patronage of the Crown, and the impropriation belongs to divers persons. The small tithes for the townships of Hipswell and Hudswell were commuted for land in 1807. The church is partly in the early style of English architecture, but chiefly of a later date, and consists of a nave, chancel, aisles, and tower: the contract for its erection, dated 1412, has been published by the Rev. J. Raine. In addition to the church, are three chapels in the parish, in the patronage of the Vicar. A school, and an hospital for six poor widows, were founded in 1658, by Michael Syddall, vicar, and have an endowment now amounting to about £80 per annum. Nelson died in the arms of the Rev. Dr. Scott, vicar of the parish, who was his lordship's chaplain at the battle of Trafalgar, in the year 1805.