A Topographical Dictionary of England. Originally published by S Lewis, London, 1848.
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Caversham (St. Peter)
CAVERSHAM (St. Peter), a parish, in the union of Henley, hundred of Binfield, county of Oxford, 1 mile (N.) from Reading; containing 1642 inhabitants. This place, during the civil wars, was the scene of a sharp skirmish between the royalist and parliamentarian forces; and Charles I., who had fallen into the hands of his enemies, was, for a short time, kept in confinement here. The parish comprises 4490a. 1r. 5p., of which 3191 acres are arable, 702 meadow, 361 wood, and 200 common. The village is pleasantly situated on the northern bank of the Thames, the high grounds commanding a fine view of the town of Reading; and is within a short distance of the Great Western railway, which passes on the opposite bank of the river. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £116; patrons, the Dean and Canons of Christ-Church, Oxford; impropriator, Blackall Simonds, Esq. The church was part of the first endowment of Nutley Abbey, in Buckinghamshire, the society of which here founded a cell, in which was a chapel, where at the time of the Dissolution was preserved a spear-head, said to be that wherewith Our Saviour was pierced on the cross. There is a chalybeate spring at Caversham Hill; and in the grounds of Shatesgrove House, another of similar quality. Caversham gives the inferior title of Viscount to Earl Cadogan.
Caverswall (St. Peter)
CAVERSWALL (St. Peter), a parish, in the union of Cheadle, N. division of the hundred of Totmonslow and of the county of Stafford, 3 miles (E.) from Longton; containing, with the township of WestonCoyney with Hulme, 1505 inhabitants. The parish comprises 5346a. 2r. 11p., of which nearly 3300 acres are meadow and pasture, 1384 arable, 47 common or waste, and a considerable part woods and plantations. Fairs are held on the second Tuesdays in April and October, for horses, black-cattle, and swine. The most remarkable object in the village is a castle, founded by Sir William de Caverswall in the time of Edward II., and rebuilt in that of Elizabeth or James I.; it was garrisoned for the parliament in 1645, and at the commencement of the French revolution, in 1789, was purchased for the English Benedictine nuns of Ghent, about thirty in number, who had been driven from their possessions in Belgium. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £7. 5. 3.; patron and impropriator, T. H. Parker, Esq. The great tithes have been commuted for £200, and the small for £201; the impropriator has a glebe of 25 acres. The church contains several old monuments, and one to the lady of the late Earl St. Vincent. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans; and at Caverswall Castle is a private Roman Catholic chapel. A school, on the national plan, is attached to the church.
Cavil, with Portingten.—See Portingten.
Cawkwell or Calkwell (St. Peter)
CAWKWELL or Calkwell (St. Peter), a parish, in the union of Horncastle, N. division of the wapentake of Gartree, parts of Lindsey, county of Lincoln, 6 miles (S. W. by S.) from Louth; containing 47 inhabitants. This parish is situated on the road from Horncastle to Louth, and consists only of one farm, the produce whereof is chiefly butter and cheese. There are several pits of calx, which is converted into lime for manure. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £4. 8. 6½.; net income, £46, arising from land; patron and impropriator, the Earl of Yarborough. The church is a small neat edifice.
Cawood, Lancashire.—See Arkholme.
Cawood (All Saints)
CAWOOD (All Saints), a parish, in the union of Selby, Lower division of the wapentake of BarkstoneAsh, W. riding of York, 9½ miles (S. by W.) from York, and 187 (N. by W.) from London; containing 1108 inhabitants. This place was given by King Athelstan to the see of York, about 935, in the time of Archbishop Wulstan. The magnificent palace or castle was built in the reign of Henry IV., by Archbishop Bennet; several of the prelates lived in it, and here Cardinal Wolsey resided for nearly a year previous to his arrest on a charge of high treason, by the Earl of Northumberland. The castle was dismantled, and in part demolished, at the conclusion of the parliamentary war; since which time, being abandoned by the archbishops, it has remained in a state of gradual dilapidation: the remains of the great gateway, and some few fragments, are now the only vestiges. The town is pleasantly situated near the western bank of the river Ouse, over which is a ferry: the houses are neatly built, and the inhabitants amply supplied with water. The market, which was on Wednesday, has been discontinued for many years; fairs for cattle are held on May 12th and December 19th. The parish comprises 2000 acres: the surface is flat, and subject to inundation from the river; the soil is chiefly a fertile loam, and the lands are generally in a good state of cultivation. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £120; patron, the Prebendary of Wistow in the Cathedral of York. The tithes were commuted for land and a money payment, in 1776. The church, situated near the Ouse, is a neat structure with a tower. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans. A school for girls was founded in 1731, by the Rev. Samuel Duffield, who endowed it with land now yielding a considerable annual income; and £20 per annum are paid for the instruction of children, out of an estate producing £213 per annum, vested in trustees for the repair of the highways, and the preservation of the embankments. Dr. Harsnett, Archbishop of York, who died in 1631, gave land for teaching poor boys. An almshouse was founded about 1723, by William James, Esq., who endowed it with land worth £76 per annum, for aged persons; and an almshouse for six aged persons of Wistow and Cawood not having received parochial relief, was founded in 1819, by James Waterhouse Smith, Esq.
Cawston (St. Agnes)
CAWSTON (St. Agnes), a parish, in the union of Aylsham, hundred of South Erpingham, E. division of Norfolk, 3¼ miles (E. by N.) from Reepham, and on the road from Norwich to Holt; containing 1130 inhabitants. The manor is held in free socage of the crown, in right of the duchy of Lancaster, in token of which two maces are carried before the lord, or his steward, one bearing a brazen hand surmounted by a ploughshare, and the other a bearded arrow. Fairs are held on Feb. 1st, and the last Wednesdays in April and August, that in August being a large sheep-fair. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £15. 13. 11½.; net income, £808; patrons, the Master and Fellows of Pembroke Hall, Cambridge; the glebe contains 14 acres, with a glebe-house. The church is a handsome cruciform structure with a lofty tower, in the later English style, built by Michael de la Pole, Earl of Suffolk: there is a chapel on its north side, the interior of which is elaborately ornamented. The Independents, and Primitive and Wesleyan Methodists, have places of worship. At the inclosure, in 1802, an allotment of 100 acres was awarded to the poor for fuel.
CAWTHORNE, a chapelry, in the parish of Silkstone, wapentake of Staincross, W. riding of York, 5 miles (W.) from Barnsley; containing 1437 inhabitants. This chapelry, which is chiefly the property of John Spencer Stanhope, Esq., and partly of Thos. Wentworth Beaumont, Esq., lord of the manor, comprises by computation 3440 acres. Coal is abundant; sandstone and gritstone are quarried, and great quantities of limestone, brought up the Barnsley canal, are burnt into lime: there are also some seams of ironstone of excellent quality. The surface is varied, and the lower grounds are watered by several brooks that flow into the river Dearne. Cannon Hall, the seat of Mr. Stanhope, is a spacious mansion, situated in a park which abounds with timber and with beautiful scenery. The village is pleasantly seated on a gentle acclivity forming the southern boundary of a picturesque valley. At Barnby bridge the Barnsley canal terminates in a spacious basin, on the banks of which are wharfs, warehouses, and a wet-dock, with conveniencies for boat-building and limeburning; and from the basin is a railway to the several collieries here and in other parts of the parish. The living is a perpetual curacy, in the gift of the proprietors of certain estates, and is worth £150 per annum. The chapel, dedicated to All Saints, is a neat edifice, in the later English style, with a square embattled tower; a south aisle was added in 1828, when 276 additional sittings were obtained, of which 216 are free. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans. The water of a mineral spring here is slightly impregnated with sulphuretted hydrogen.
Cawthorpe, near Louth, county of Lincoln.—See Covenham (St. Bartholomew).
Cawthorpe, Little (St. Helen)
CAWTHORPE, LITTLE (St. Helen), a parish, in the union of Louth, Marsh division of the hundred of Calceworth, locally in the hundred of Louth-Eske, parts of Lindsey, county of Lincoln, 2¾ miles (S. E. by S.) from Louth; containing 196 inhabitants. It comprises 468a. 20p., chiefly arable land. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £3. 4. 4½.; the rectorial tithes have been commuted for £68. 3. 6., and the rectorial glebe comprises 13 acres.
CAWTON, a township, in the parish of Gilling, union of Helmsley, wapentake of Ryedale, N. riding of York, 5½ miles (S. S. E.) from Helmsley; containing 101 inhabitants. It comprises by computation 1020 acres of land, and contains some beds of excellent limestone. The tithes have been commuted for £190.
Caxton (St. Andrew)
CAXTON (St. Andrew), a market-town and parish, in the union of Caxton and Arrington, hundred of Longstow, county of Cambridge, 10½ miles (W. by S.) from Cambridge, and 49 (N. N. W.) from London; containing 558 inhabitants. This place, which is one of the oldest post-towns in the county, is situated on the Roman Ermin-street: the buildings are in general irregular and of mean appearance, consisting principally of poor cottages and decayed inns, though there are a few good houses. The market, granted to Baldwin Freville in 1247, is on Tuesday; and fairs, principally for pedlery, are held on May 5th, and October 18th. The parish comprises about 2300 acres. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £7. 12. 4.; net income, £80; patrons, the Dean and Canons of Windsor, to whom an allotment of land and a money payment were assigned, in lieu of tithes, by an inclosure act, in 1830: the glebe contains about 9 acres. The living was a rectory previously to 1353, at which time it was appropriated to the chapel royal of Windsor. The church has a piscina in tolerable preservation. There is a place of worship for dissenters. Robert Langwith, in 1581, bequeathed £31. 10. per annum for the benefit of poor housekeepers, and for sermons to be preached quarterly in the church. The union comprises 26 parishes or places, and contains a population of 10,080. Matthew Paris, a Benedictine monk, who flourished in the reign of Henry III., and wrote a history of the world from the creation to the year of his death, which happened in 1259, was a native of the place. It has been stated, also, that Caxton, who introduced the art of printing into England, was born in the parish; but his own memoirs refer his birth and education to the county of Kent.
Caythorpe (St. Vincent)
CAYTHORPE (St. Vincent), a parish, in the union of Newark, wapentake of Loveden, parts of Kesteven, county of Lincoln, 9 miles (N. by E.) from Grantham; containing, with the hamlet of Friston, 821 inhabitants. This parish, which is bounded on the east by the Roman Ermin-street, comprises 4207a. 1r. 35p. The land is in general well wooded; the scenery interesting; and fine views may be obtained of Belvoir Castle, Newark, and Lincoln Cathedral, from the Beacon, an eminence near the road from Grantham to Lincoln, on which the village is situated. There are several beds of limestone, and stones are quarried for the roads. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £20. 11. 10½.; net income, £976; patron, C. J. Packe, Esq. The church is a curious cruciform structure, principally in the decorated English style, and has a very lofty spire rising from the centre, supported by four magnificent arches. It contains two handsome monuments to the Hussey family; and at the east end is a large painting on the plaster, in fresco, representing the Last Judgment, and which was discovered by scraping the wall a few years ago. There are a chapel of ease at Friston, and a place of worship for Wesleyans.
CAYTHORPE, a township, in the parish of Lowdham, union of Southwell, S. division of the wapentake of Thurgarton and of the county of Nottingham, 8¾ miles (N. E. by E.) from Nottingham; containing 315 inhabitants. It comprises about 350 acres of land. The Independents have a place of worship.
Cayton (St. Leonard)
CAYTON (St. Leonard), a parish, in the union of Scarborough, Pickering lythe, N. riding of York, 4 miles (S. by E.) from Scarborough; containing, with the township of Osgodby, 572 inhabitants, of whom 503 are in the township of Cayton. The parish is situated on the road from Scarborough to Bridlington, and is bounded on the north-east by the German Ocean: the soil is chiefly clay, suited to the growth of wheat; and the scenery, which is diversified by a range of lofty hills, is very picturesque. Stone is extensively quarried for building purposes, and for burning into lime. The living is annexed to the vicarage of Seamer: the church is an ancient edifice with a tower. There are places of worship for Primitive and Wesleyan Methodists.
Cerne, or Cerne-Abbas (St. Mary)
CERNE, or Cerne-Abbas (St. Mary), a markettown and parish, and the head of a union, in the hundred of Cerne, Totcombe, and Modbury, Cerne division of Dorset, 8 miles (N. N. W.) from Dorchester, and 120 (S. W. by W.) from London; containing 1342 inhabitants. The name of this place is derived from its situation on the river Cerne, and the adjunct from its ancient abbey. Eadwald, brother of King Edward the Martyr, became a hermit here; and in the reign of Edgar, Ailmer, Earl of Cornwall, began to erect a noble abbey, which he completed in 987, for Benedictine monks, and dedicated to St. Mary, St. Peter, and St. Benedict. It was plundered, or, as some say, destroyed, by King Canute; but was soon restored, and flourished till the Dissolution, when its revenue was estimated at £623. 13. 2. The remains consist principally of the gate-house, a stately square embattled tower of three stages, having two fine oriel windows above the arch, and in front various shields of armorial bearings; also a large stone barn, and a moat with a double intrenchment. In 1644, the Irish troops in the service of Charles I. burnt several houses in the town; and in the following year, Cromwell, having been joined by Col. Holberne and the inhabitants, marched to oppose the king's forces that had advanced within three miles of Cerne, but retired on finding they had been reinforced by the regiments of Colonels Norton and Coke. The town is pleasantly situated in a valley surrounded by lofty hills, and consists of four or five streets, partially paved; the houses are in general ancient, and possess little architectural beauty. The inhabitants are amply supplied with water from a spring, called Augustine's Well, which, as the legend asserts, burst out to provide that saint with water for baptizing his Christian converts. Considerable improvement has lately taken place, including the erection of some handsome buildings, and the formation of a new road through the town from Dorchester to Sherborne. There are manufactories for dowlas, coarse linen, gloves, and parchment; the tanning trade is carried on to a considerable extent, and many women and children are employed in winding silk. The market, granted in the 15th year of the reign of John, is on Wednesday; the fairs are on WhitMonday, April 28th, and October 2nd, and are for cattle. The petty-sessions for the Cerne division of the county are held here.
The parish comprises 2812a. 4p. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £8. 16.; net income, £81; patron and impropriator, Lord Rivers, who receives a tithe rent-charge of £152. The church, supposed to have been erected on the site of the ancient hermitage, by one of the abbots of the monastery, in the fifteenth century, is a fine spacious structure in the later English style, with a square embattled tower ornamented by octagonal turrets at the angles; it was repewed in the year 1819. There is a place of worship for a congregation of Independents. The poor law union of Dorchester and Cerne comprises altogether fifty-nine parishes or places, and contains a population of 23,380. On the southern declivity of a steep chalk-hill called Trendle Hill, to the north of the town, a gigantic figure has been traced, representing a man holding a knotted club in his hand, and extending his left arm. It is 180 feet high, and well executed; the outlines are two feet broad, and two feet deep: between the legs is an illegible inscription, and above, the date 748. By some antiquaries it is referred to the Saxon times, and supposed to represent one of the Saxon deities; by others it is thought to be a memorial of Cenric, son of Cuthred, King of the West Saxons, who was slain in battle: according to vulgar tradition, it was cut to commemorate the destruction of a giant who ravaged this part of the country, and was killed by the peasants. The figure is occasionally repaired by the inhabitants of the town.
CERNE, NETHER, a parish, in the union of Dorchester and Cerne, hundred of Cerne, Totcombe, and Modbury, Cerne division of Dorset, 5¾ miles (N. N. W.) from Dorchester; containing 71 inhabitants. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £60; patrons, the Sheridan family.
CERNE, UPPER, a parish, in the union of Dorchester and Cerne, hundred of Sherborne, Sherborne division of Dorset, 9 miles (N. N. W.) from Dorchester; containing 107 inhabitants. This place was for some time the property of Sir Walter Raleigh: there are still remains of the ancient manor-house. The parish is watered by a branch of the river Cerne, and comprises by computation 1200 acres. The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at £5. 18. 4., and in the patronage of John White, Esq.: the tithes have been commuted for £160; the glebe comprises 15 acres, with a glebe-house. The church is a very old structure, and contains a font of large dimensions.
Cerney, North (All Saints)
CERNEY, NORTH (All Saints), a parish, in the union of Cirencester, hundred of Rapsgate, E. division of the county of Gloucester, 4 miles (N.) from Cirencester; containing, with the tythings of Calmsden and Woodmancote, 668 inhabitants. It comprises 3931a. 2r. 24p., the principal part of which is arable. Races are annually held. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £21. 10. 7½., and in the patronage of University College, Oxford: the tithes have been commuted for £730, and the glebe comprises 104 acres, with a glebe-house. The Roman Fosse-way traces the eastern boundary of the parish, in which may also be seen vestiges of a Roman fortress, with circumvallations.
Cerney, South (All Hallows)
CERNEY, SOUTH (All Hallows), a parish, in the union of Cirencester, hundred of Crowthorne and Minety, E. division of the county of Gloucester, 3¾ miles (S. E. by S.) from Cirencester; containing 1077 inhabitants. It comprises by measurement 2924 acres; limestone abounds, and is quarried for manure. The Thames and Severn canal passes through the parish, and the Cheltenham branch of the Great Western railway through a parish adjoining. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £6. 16. 8.; net income, £231; patron and appropriator, the Bishop of Gloucester and Bristol. The tithes were commuted for land and corn-rents in 1808. The church is a fine specimen of Norman architecture, with later additions, and consists of a nave, chancel, north aisle, and north transept, with a low central tower and spire: at the south porch is a beautifully enriched arch ornamented with grotesque heads terminating the mouldings. Between the nave and the chancel is a pointed arch rising from slender columns, the capitals of which are decorated with foliage; the chancel, with a fine east window of three lights, is of later date than the other parts of the edifice. There is a place of worship for Primitive Methodists; and a national school has been established, chiefly through the munificence of Mrs. Ann Edwards, who gave £1500 for its foundation and endowment, and £1000 more for building houses for the master and mistress. Mrs. Edwards, in 1834, bequeathed the residue of her property in trust to the charity for the support of widows and orphans of clergymen of the diocese; in 1837, one-half of the bequest was appropriated to the erection of an asylum, and a very handsome edifice has been built, called Edward's College, on a site given for the purpose by a near relative of the deceased, for the reception of distressed families of clergymen.
CHACEWATER, an ecclesiastical district, partly in the parish of Kenwyn, and partly in that of St. Kea, union of Truro, W. division of the hundred of Powder and of the county of Cornwall, 5 miles (W. by S.) from Truro. This place is situated on the road from Truro to Penzance, and in the heart of a district abounding with mineral wealth. In the neighbourhood are several rich tin and copper mines, from the workings of the latter of which, near the surface, silver has been extracted in quantities greater than was anticipated. A considerable customary market for provisions is held on Saturday. The living is a perpetual curacy; patron, the Vicar of Kenwyn; net income, £150. The church, a handsome edifice, dedicated to St. Paul, in the later English style, with a lofty tower, was erected in 1828, the Parliamentary Commissioners granting £2000. There are places of worship for Baptists, Bryanites, and Primitive and Wesleyan Methodists.
CHACKMORE, a hamlet, in the parish of Radclive, union, hundred, and county of Buckingham, 1½ mile (N. N. W.) from Buckingham; containing 238 inhabitants. The tithes were commuted for land in 1773. Here was formerly a chapel of ease.
CHAD, ST., a chapelry, in the parish of Malpas, union of Wrexham, Higher division of the hundred of Broxton, S. division of the county of Chester, 2¾ miles (E. by S.) from Malpas, and on the road between Tushingham and Hampton. This place, called in Webb's Itinerary Chad-wick, had, probably, a chapel at a very ancient date, for the Chapel-field is mentioned in a deed of 1349: the present structure was built in 1689, principally by a benefaction of John Dod, mercer and citizen, of London. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £144; patron, the Rector of Malpas.
CHADBURY, a tything, in the parish of Norton, union of Evesham, Lower division of the hundred of Blackenhurst, Pershore and E. divisions of the county of Worcester, 3 miles (N. by W.) from Evesham; containing 28 inhabitants.
CHADDERTON, a township, in the parish of Prestwich cum Oldham, union of Oldham, hundred of Salford, S. division of the county of Lancaster, 7 miles (N. E. by N.) from Manchester; containing 5397 inhabitants. This place is chiefly distinguished for its two ancient mansions, Fox-Denton Hall and Chadderton Hall, and for the families by whom they were occupied. Both mansions were possessed by the Traffords, in the reign of John; Geoffrey de Trafford assumed the name of Chadderton, and Margaret, his great-granddaughter, being married to John de Radcliffe, of Radcliffe Tower and Fox-Denton, the manor passed as a dowry into that family. Chadderton Hall was the birthplace of Dr. Laurence Chadderton, an eminent divine at the period of the Reformation, of which he was a zealous promoter; he lived to the great age of 103 years, and died at Cambridge on the 16th November, 1640. The township is situated to the west of Oldham, and forms a right angle with the township of Royton. The spinning of cotton, weaving of silk, and manufacture of hats, are carried on; and coal abounds, which, by means of a branch of the Ashton canal, is conveyed to Manchester, Stockport, and other towns in the vicinity. The township is also intersected by the Rochdale canal, the Manchester and Leeds railway, and the Oldham and Middleton road. At Hollinwood, a large manufacturing village in the township, about two miles from Oldham, is a chapel dedicated to St. Margaret, the living of which is a perpetual curacy, with a net income of £150, and a house; patron, the Rector of Prestwich. In 1845 two districts or ecclesiastical parishes were formed under the 6th and 7th Victoria, cap. 37: the church of St. John, to which one of these districts has been assigned, is in the early English style; the other church is dedicated to St. Matthew. The livings of both are in the patronage of the Bishop of Chester and the Crown alternately; net income of each, £150. To each church are attached schools; and at Hollinwood is a school, endowed by the Rev. John Darbey with £8 per annum in 1808, and £7 by another benefactor. The tithes have been commuted for £120. On the lawn in front of Chadderton Hall is a tumulus, on lowering which, at different periods, relics of antiquity have been discovered.