A Topographical Dictionary of England. Originally published by S Lewis, London, 1848.
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Chaddesden (St. Mary)
CHADDESDEN (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Shardlow, hundred of Appletree, locally in that of Morleston and Litchurch, S. division of the county of Derby, 2½ miles (E.) from Derby; containing 472 inhabitants. Among the families who were anciently seised of this manor were the Grenes, Plumptons, Cliffords, and Newtons; and the Wilmot family have had their seat here for many generations. The parish is intersected by the road from Derby to Nottingham; and the Derby canal also passes through. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £89; patron, Sir H. S. Wilmot, Bart.; impropriator, the Duke of Devonshire. In the church are some memorials to the Wilmot family. In 1638 an almshouse for six persons was founded and endowed by Edward Wilmot; and in 1813 John Berrysford left property, now producing £16. 4. per annum, to be distributed amongst widows and orphans.
Chaddesley-Corbett (St. Cassyon)
CHADDESLEY-CORBETT (St. Cassyon), a parish, in the union of Kidderminster, Lower division of the hundred of Halfshire, Kidderminster and W. divisions of the county of Worcester, 4½ miles (S. E. by E.) from Kidderminster; containing 1434 inhabitants. It comprises 5908a. 3r. 14p., of which 252 acres are woodland; and is intersected by the roads from Stourbridge to Stourport and from Kidderminster to Bromsgrove, which cross each other at the western extremity of the parish. Winterfold House, surrounded with 600 acres, is the property and residence of the Rev. Thomas Harward; in the grounds are some fine elms and oaks, and some deer. The living is a vicarage, valued in the king's books at £17. 3. 4.; patron, the Crown; impropriators, the Corporation of Warwick. The tithes were commuted for land and a money payment in 1797; and under the late act, the impropriate tithes have been commuted for a rent-charge of £760: the impropriate glebe contains 36a. 2r. 21p., and the vicarial 70a. 1r. 23p., with a glebe-house. The church is a spacious edifice, with a beautiful spire; it is of red freestone, combining different styles of English architecture, with some Norman portions, of which latter the font is a fine specimen. Here is a free school, endowed with land out of the annual produce of which about £170 are applied towards the support of the poor. An almshouse for five aged widows was erected by Mrs. Margaret Delabere, and, in compliance with her will, endowed by her subsequent husband, Sir Neville Pool, in 1637, with £200, which sum was invested in land, now let for £312 per annum, part of which is distributed among poor families. At the hamlet of Harvington, in the parish, is a Roman Catholic chapel, the rebuilding of which was completed in 1825, by subscription; the late Sir George Throckmorton, Bart., being the chief contributor. Sir George also founded a school, and endowed it with a rent-charge upon the Harvington estate.
Chaddleworth (St. Andrew)
CHADDLEWORTH (St. Andrew), a parish, in the union of Wantage, hundred of Kintbury-Eagle, county of Berks, 6½ miles (W. S. W.) from East Ilsley; containing, with the tything of Woolley, 481 inhabitants, and comprising 3306a. 33p. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £9. 4. 7.; patrons and appropriators, the Dean and Chapter of Westminster: the great tithes have been commuted for £547, and those of the vicar for £268. 3.; there are 23½ acres of glebe, of which nearly 4 belong to the Dean and Chapter. In 1720, a school was founded and endowed by Mr. William Saunders, of which the income is £40 per annum: Mrs. Susannah Wynne gave an annuity of £10 for teaching children, and others are paid for by private individuals. In 1160, a priory for Regular canons of the order of St. Augustine was founded at Poughley, which was dissolved by Cardinal Wolsey, when its revenue amounted to £71. 10. 7.
Chadkirk, county of Chester.—See Romily.
CHADLINGTON, EAST, a chapelry, in the parish of Charlbury, union of Chipping-Norton, hundred of Chadlington, county of Oxford, 3 miles (S. S. E.) from Chipping-Norton; containing 206 inhabitants. The chapel, dedicated to St. Mary, is a beautiful structure in the early English style.
CHADSHUNT, a chapelry, in the parish of Bishop'sItchington, union of Southam, Kington division of the hundred of Kington, S. division of the county of Warwick, 2¼ miles (N. E. by N.) from Kington; containing 36 inhabitants. It comprises by computation 1335 acres, the surface of which is in general uneven, and the soil a strong clay: a part is detached, and situated about three miles distant, in the parish of Radway. The living is a perpetual curacy, annexed to the vicarage of Bishop's-Itchington: the great tithes have been commuted for £183, and the vicarial for £115. 10. The chapel is dedicated to All Saints. The inhabitants of Gaydon marry and bury at Chadshunt, which obtained a separate register in 1813, having previously been included in Bishop's-Itchington. In the burial-ground of the chapel was anciently an oratory, containing an image of St. Chad, to which numerous pilgrimages and offerings were made.
Chadwell (St. Mary)
CHADWELL (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Orsett, hundred of Barstable, S. division of Essex, 2 miles (E. by N.) from Grays; containing 236 inhabitants. It comprises 1753 acres, chiefly arable, and is bounded on the south by the river Thames: the soil is generally deep and heavy, the surface considerably elevated above the marshes, and the surrounding lands abound with chalk. At the time of the Norman survey, the parish belonged principally to the Bishop of London, and some portions to Odo, Bishop of Bayeux, and others. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £17. 13. 4.; patron and incumbent, the Rev. J. P. Herringham, whose tithes have been commuted for £480: the glebe contains 40 acres. The church is pleasantly situated on the brow of a hill. In a wood near the highway leading to Stifford, are several ancient excavations, termed Danes' Holes.
CHADWELL, a chapelry, in the parish of Rothley, union of Melton-Mowbray, hundred of East Goscote, N. division of the county of Leicester, 5 miles (N. N. E.) from Melton-Mowbray; containing, with the hamlet of Wycombe, 118 inhabitants, of whom 60 are comprised in Chadwell. The chapel is dedicated to St. Mary.
CHADWICK, a hamlet and manor, in the parish and union of Bromsgrove, Upper division of the hundred of Halfshire, Droitwich and E. divisions of the county of Worcester, 3½ miles (N. by E.) from Bromsgrove, on the road to Birmingham. This place comprises about 1500 acres, mostly arable, with a good deal of coppice wood; the surface is undulated, the soil gravelly, and the scenery picturesque. The population is estimated at about 1000, chiefly nailers and agricultural labourers. Woodrow, with about 400 acres of land, is freehold, and occupied by George Francis Iddins, Esq.; the Manor Hall is the property of Francis T. Rufford, Esq., who is the chief proprietor, under the Dean and Chapter of Christ-Church, Oxford, who are lords of the manor. There are a Wesleyan and a Primitive Methodist place of worship. Here was formerly a chapel, now in ruins.
Chaffcombe (St. Michael)
CHAFFCOMBE (St. Michael), a parish, in the union of Chard, hundred of South Petherton, W. division of Somerset, 3¼ miles (S. by W.) from Ilminster; containing 288 inhabitants. The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at £9. 10. 2½., and in the patronage of Earl Poulett: the tithes have been commuted for £155, and the glebe consists of 28 acres.
Chagford (St. Michael)
CHAGFORD (St. Michael), a market-town and parish, in the union of Oakhampton, hundred of Wonford, Crockernwell and S. divisions of Devon, 15 miles (S. W. by W.) from Exeter, and 186 (S. W.) from London; containing 1836 inhabitants. This place, originally held by Dodo, a Saxon, was given by William the Conqueror to the Bishop of Constance, and in 1328 was made one of the stannary towns by Edward III., who invested the lords of the manor with the power of inflicting capital punishment. In 1643, an action took place between the royalists and the parliamentarians, in which Sidney Godolphin was killed; and in the same century a fire occurred, when the charter for holding the market, and other records, were destroyed. The town is pleasantly situated near the river Teign, and sheltered by hills of romantic form; the houses are irregularly built: the environs abound with picturesque scenery. On the banks of the Teign is a large woollenmanufactory. The market is on Thursday; and there are fairs on the last Thursday in March, the first Thursday in May, and the last Thursday in September and October. The stannary court, in which the principal business of the mines is transacted, is held here. The parish comprises by measurement 8000 acres, of which 1200 are commons; two-thirds of the remainder are arable, and the rest pasture and woodland. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £39. 0. 10., and in the patronage of Mrs. Grace Hames; net income, £442. The church is a handsome structure, and contains a richly-executed monument to the memory of Sir John Widdon, chief justice of the court of king's bench in the reign of Mary. At the hamlets of Great Weeke and Teigncombe, in the parish, are the remains of ancient chapels, and there was a chapel also at Rushford.
Chaigeley, or Chaigley
CHAIGELEY, or CHAIGLEY, with Aighton and Bailey, a township, in the parish of Mitton, union of Clitheroe, Lower division of the hundred of Blackburn, N. division of the county of Lancaster, 5 miles (W. by N.) from Clitheroe; containing 1798 inhabitants, of whom 266 are in the hamlet of Chaigeley. Of this place, anciently St. Chad's Ley, little appears in early records in an authentic form. In the reign of James I., Thomas Osbaldeston, who was accounted a felon for having slain his brother-in-law, forfeited his possessions here. Among other proprietors, were the Holdens, whose family were long owners; and the Sherburnes. Chaigeley stretches from the east-north-east brow of Longridge Fell, to the banks of the Hodder, and to Bowland, in Yorkshire; the river here separating the counties of Lancaster and York. The surface of the land is undulating, the scenery woody and picturesque, and from the higher grounds are extensive views: there are good limestone and freestone quarries. Of the chief proprietors are, the Earl of Derby, and William Winstanley, Esq., M.D., the latter of whom is lord of the manor, and holds 1200 acres in the hamlet, his son residing at the Manor House. Chaigeley Hall, a plain stone edifice, was the seat of the Holdens. The Independents have a chapel; with a school attached, endowed with £65 per annum, derived from a farm in the township, money in the funds, and houses in Ribchester. Two mineral springs here are resorted to by invalids. Within the last sixty years were standing the ruins of an ancient chapel; and some fields near the place are still called St. Chad's meadows.—See Aighton and Bailey.
Chailey (St. Peter)
CHAILEY (St. Peter), a parish, and the head of a union, in the hundred of Street, rape of Lewes, E. division of Sussex, 6½ miles (N. by W.) from Lewes; containing 1064 inhabitants. It is situated on the road from London to Lewes, and comprises 5889 acres, of which 828 are common or waste: sandstone of good quality is found, and quarried for building purposes; the soil is generally fertile, and about 20 acres of land are under cultivation for hops. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £9. 4. 2., and in the patronage of Mrs. Hepburn and Mrs. R. W. Blencowe: the tithes have been commuted for £682. 10.; the glebe comprises 5 acres. The church is a neat edifice, chiefly in the early English style, with a square embattled tower surmounted by a spire; the rectory-house is a very ancient building, surrounded by a moat. There are several chalybeate springs.
CHALBURY, a parish, in the union of Wimborne and Cranborne, hundred of Badbury, Wimborne division of Dorset, 5 miles (N. by E.) from WimborneMinster; containing, with the tything of Didlington, 152 inhabitants. It comprises by measurement 1355 acres, of which about 584 are arable, 274 down, pasture, and meadow, 176 woodland, and 279 common. The village is situated on rising ground, commanding a fine view of the Needles and the British Channel. A particular sort of fine sand, used by founders, is obtained. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £7. 10. 2½., and in the gift of the Earl of Pembroke: the tithes have been commuted for £180, and the glebe contains about 30 acres, with a glebe-house. At Didlington was a chapel, now a farmhouse, near which foundations of houses are often discovered in turning up the ground. There is a chalybeate spring.
Chalcombe, or Chacombe (St. Peter and St. Paul)
CHALCOMBE, or Chacombe (St. Peter and St. Paul), a parish, in the union of Banbury, hundred of King's Sutton, S. division of the county of Northampton, 3¾ miles (N. E. by E.) from Banbury; containing 488 inhabitants. This parish, which is bounded on the north and west by a portion of Oxfordshire, comprises 1641a. 1r. 8p.; the arable lands are rich, the dairyfarms well managed, and butter is sent in considerable quantities to the London market. The manufacture of lace and silk-stockings, and the weaving of shag, are carried on; but the trade is gradually declining. Freestone of tolerable quality is found, and the quarries have furnished materials for most of the houses in the parish. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £7. 17.; patron, C. Wykeham Martin, Esq.: impropriators, the landowners. The great tithes have been commuted for £199. 16., and the vicarial for £240; the glebe comprises 7¼ acres, with a house, repaired in 1843. The church is a plain structure in the decorated English style, with a square tower. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans.
Chaldon (St. Peter and St. Paul)
CHALDON (St. Peter and St. Paul), a parish, in the union of Reigate, First division of the hundred of Wallington, E. division of Surrey, 5 miles (N. E. by E.) from Reigate; containing 197 inhabitants. It comprises 1653a. 1r. 10p., of which upwards of 1000 acres are arable, 104 meadow, 347 wood, and 84 common; the surface is diversified throughout by depressions and elevations, and the leading soil is chalk, with occasional admixtures of gravel resting upon a substratum of chalk. Here are some quarries of a soft species of stone, not much used. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £7. 10. 7½.; patron and incumbent, the Rev. James Legrew, whose tithes have been commuted for £335. 11. 3., and who has a glebe of 31 acres, with a glebe-house. The church, occupying a slightly-elevated site, with the command of agreeable scenery, is believed to have been founded at least eight centuries ago: a tower and spire were added in 1843.
Chaldon-Herring (St. Nicholas)
CHALDON-HERRING (St. Nicholas), a parish, in the union of Wareham and Purbeck, liberty of Bindon, Wareham division of Dorset, 8¼ miles (S. E.) from Dorchester; containing 285 inhabitants. It is bounded by the English Channel on the south, and consists of 3012a. 3r. 23p., the greater part pasture land. A coast-guard station has been established. The living is a vicarage, valued in the king's books at £8. 0. 10.; patron and impropriator, Joseph Weld, Esq.; net income, £62: the great tithes have been commuted for £5, and the vicarial for £9. The village called ChaldonBoys, or West Chaldon, now comprising only one farm with four or five cottages, was formerly a manor and a distinct parish; the church having become a ruin, the living, a rectory, was consolidated with the vicarage of Chaldon-Herring, in 1446.
Chale (St. Andrew)
CHALE (St. Andrew), a parish, in the liberty of West Medina, Isle of Wight division of the county of Southampton, 8½ miles (S. S. W.) from Newport; containing 610 inhabitants. This parish is situated on the coast, and at the head of a bay to which it gives name. The surface is strikingly varied, rising into hills of great elevation, of which St. Catherine's Hill, the loftiest in the island, is 850 feet above the level of the sea; a chapel was erected on its summit, in 1323, and dedicated to that saint, and the lower part of the building still serves as a landmark to mariners. The land and sea views from this eminence are remarkably fine; and on its south-western declivity is a rugged chasm, called Black Gang Chine, which, viewed from the shore, has a very striking effect. The district abounds with stone of excellent quality for building, which is extensively quarried; and a vein of white sand, admirably adapted for the making of glass, has been discovered. The village is neatly built, and pleasantly situated; and on Chale Common, several handsome mansions and some pleasing villas have been erected. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £14. 3. 11½.; net income, £334; patrons, the Trustees of the late Rev. C. Richards. The church is at the base of St. Catherine's Hill. A parochial school is endowed with a rentcharge of £16. 14. 6., purchased with the sum of £150, bequeathed by Robert Weeks, Esq., and others. About half-way between the village and Niton, at Sand Rocks, is an aluminous chalybeate spring, discovered in 1809.
Chalfield, Great (St. Catherine)
CHALFIELD, GREAT (St. Catherine), a parish, in the union and hundred of Bradford, Westbury and N. divisions, and Trowbridge and Bradford subdivisions, of Wilts, 3½ miles (W.) from Melksham; containing 18 inhabitants. It comprises 698a. 1r., of which 376 acres are meadow and pasture, 321 arable, and one woodland. The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at £6, and in the patronage of Lady Neale: the tithes have been commuted for £164. A building now converted into a farmhouse, is supposed to have been a monastery.
CHALFIELD, LITTLE, an extra-parochial liberty, locally in the parish of Great Chalfield, union and hundred of Bradford, Westbury and N. divisions, and Trowbridge and Bradford subdivisions, of Wilts, 3¾ miles (W.) from Melksham; containing, with Cottles, 41 inhabitants.
Chalfont (St. Giles)
CHALFONT (St. Giles), a parish, in the union of Amersham, hundred of Burnham, county of Buckingham, 3¾ miles (S. E.) from Amersham; containing 1228 inhabitants. The ancient manor of Vach, in this parish, is said to have been King John's dairy-farm, which he made a resting-place on some occasions. The parish comprises about 3600 acres; the surface is undulated, and the soil, consisting of chalk, gravel, and clay, is considered poor. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £19. 9. 4½., and in the gift of the Bishop of Lincoln: the tithes have been commuted for £790, and the glebe comprises 54½ acres, with a glebehouse. The church is of very great antiquity. Here are places of worship for the Society of Friends and Independents, in the cemetery attached to the former of which lie the remains of William Penn, founder of the colony of Pennsylvania. A school, now conducted on the national system, has been endowed by Sir Hugh Palliser with £30 per annum, and by Mrs. Molloy with £20 per annum; and there are eight almshouses. During the plague that raged in London in 1665, Milton resided at this place, where he completed his celebrated poem of Paradise Lost; the house in which he lived is now occupied by a poor family. Here are the remains of a monastery, whose chapel is attached to the mansion of Vach, which appears to have been so named from the manor, shortly after the Conquest; and in the park is a monument erected by the late Sir Hugh Palliser to the memory of Capt. Cook, the circumnavigator, upon which is a long inscription composed by Admiral Forbes.
Chalfont (St. Peter's)
CHALFONT (St. Peter's), a parish, in the union of Amersham, hundred of Burnham, county of Buckingham, 1½ mile (N. N. E.) from Gerrard's-Cross; containing 1483 inhabitants. The rectory, the manor, and 1147 acres of land, belonged to Missenden Abbey; and were sold, at the Dissolution, to Sir Robert Drury and others, from whom they passed into the Bulstrode family. The parish is intersected by a tributary stream of the Colne, called Missbourne, upon which there is a silk-mill, affording employment to about fifty women. It comprises about 4564 acres, of which 4100 are arable, 292 wood, and 178 uninclosed common: the surface is irregular; the soil on the higher grounds is gravel, with a clayey tenacious subsoil, and the lower grounds are covered with a thin coat of alluvial bog earth. The pettysessions for the division are holden here. The living is a vicarage, endowed with part of the rectorial tithes, and valued in the king's books at £15. 17. 1.; net income, £600; patrons, the President and Fellows of St. John's College, Oxford. The remainder of the great tithes belongs to three proprietors of land. The church, rebuilt in 1726, is a plain brick edifice, with an embattled tower seventy feet high, containing a peal of six well-toned bells; the quoins and window and door cases, of stone, were brought from the ruins of the Roman station of Verulam, now St. Alban's.
CHALFORD, a hamlet, in the union of Stroud, partly in the parish and hundred of Bisley, and partly in the parish of Minchinhampton, hundred of Longtree, E. division of the county of Gloucester, 4 miles (S. E. by E.) from Stroud. This populous and thriving place is situated in a rich and fertile vale, abounding with pleasing scenery, and is intersected by the river Froome, which pursues a beautifully winding course through luxuriant meadows, and here separates the two parishes in which Chalford is situated. The manufacture of woollen-cloth, still carried on to a great extent, was introduced at an early period; and in the reign of Anne there were three mills in the hamlet, that retained exclusively the use of some advantageous discovery in the process of the manufacture. The road from Stroud to Cirencester, and the Thames and Severn canal, pass through the village; and the vicinity is thickly studded with the dwellings of persons employed in the factories. A district church, situated in the vale, and dedicated to Christ, was consecrated in September, 1841: net income of the incumbent, £150; patron, the Archdeacon of Gloucester. There are places of worship for Baptists, Independents, and Wesleyans. At St. Mary's Mill, in the hamlet, was a chapel or religious house, in which, according to Camden, Friar Bacon was educated; it has given place to a modern building, but a room in the present house, called Bacon's room, is supposed to have been the study of that learned monk.
CHALFORD, a township, in the parish of AstonRowant, union of Thame, hundred of Lewknor, county of Oxford, 2 miles (E. S. E.) from Tetsworth; containing 58 inhabitants. This place formed part of the possessions of the monastery of St. Alban's, and on the Dissolution was granted by Henry VIII., for the sum of £413. 17. 6., to Bartholomew Piggot, from whom it passed to various families.
Chalgrave (All Saints)
CHALGRAVE (All Saints), a parish, in the union of Woburn, hundred of Manshead, county of Bedford, 3¾ miles (N. by W.) from Dunstable; containing, with the hamlets of Tebworth and Wingfield, 818 inhabitants. The living is a discharged vicarage, united in 1772 to the rectory of Hockliffe, and valued in the king's books at £12; the impropriation belongs to Trinity Hall, Cambridge. The church is a venerable edifice in the ancient English style, and contains two antique tombs with statues of knights in armour. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans at Tebworth; where was formerly a chapel, endowed with 36 acres of land. The parish contains endowed almshouses for six maidens, and two for six widows.