A Topographical Dictionary of England. Originally published by S Lewis, London, 1848.
This free content was digitised by double rekeying. All rights reserved.
PENALTH, a parish, in the division of Trelleck, hundred of Raglan, union and county of Monmouth, 1¾ mile (S. E. by S.) from Monmouth; containing 533 inhabitants. It is situated on the right bank of the river Wye, and contains about 2000 acres. The living is a vicarage, endowed with the rectorial tithes, and annexed to that of Trelleck. The church is an ancient structure, on the slope of a hill overlooking the Wye.
PENBIDDLE, a hamlet, in the parish of Llanvihangel-Crucorney, union and division of Abergavenny, hundred of Skenfreth, county of Monmouth; containing 94 inhabitants.
PENCOMBE, a parish, in the union of Bromyard, hundred of Broxash, county of Hereford, 4 miles (W. by S.) from Bromyard; containing 410 inhabitants, of whom 383 are in the township of Pencombe. The parish comprises 3955a. 39p.; it abounds in buildingstone of ordinary quality. A court leet is held once in three years; and by ancient custom, the lord of the manor claims a pair of gilt spurs whenever a mayor of Hereford dies while in office. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £13. 6. 8., and in the gift of the family of Arkwright: the tithes have been commuted for £470, and the glebe comprises 119 acres. There is also an endowed chapel, of which the living is a perpetual curacy, in the patronage of the Rector.
Pencoyd (St. Denis)
PENCOYD (St. Denis), a parish, in the union of Ross, Upper division of the hundred of Wormelow, county of Hereford, 4 miles (W. N. W.) from Ross; containing 225 inhabitants. It comprises 860 acres, and is intersected by the road from Hereford to Ross; the soil is productive, and inferior sandstone is obtained. The living is a perpetual curacy, united to that of Marstow, and endowed with the vicarial tithes, the rectorial being in the hands of the Dean and Chapter of Hereford: there are about 14 acres of rectorial glebe.
PENDEEN, an ecclesiastical district, in the parish of St. Just, union of Penzance, W. division of the hundred of Penwith and of the county of Cornwall, 6½ miles (N. W.) from Penzance; containing 2700 inhabitants. This district lies on the north-west coast of the county, and is partly bounded by Pendeen cove; westward it is bounded by the sea. It extends two miles and a quarter from north to south, and two miles and a half from east to west; and is a dreary, treeless tract, disfigured by mining operations. There are several tin and copper mines, of which the principal are Levant and Botallack. The district was constituted in January 1846, under the act 6th and 7th Victoria, cap. 37: the church has not yet been built. The dissenters have six places of worship. At Pendeen is an extensive cave, to which the Britons probably retired as a place of security, with their property, from the assaults of the Saxons or piratical Danes; and in different parts of the district are cairns and ancient circles. Dr. William Borlase, author of the Natural History and Antiquities of Cornwall, was born here.
PENDEFORD, an ancient prebend, in the parish of Tettenhall, union of Seisdon, S. division of the hundred of Seisdon and of the county of Stafford, 4¼ miles (N. N. W.) from Wolverhampton; containing 328 inhabitants. This place, now commonly called Penford, is a hamlet of 1868 acres, near the source of the river Pent. Pendeford Hall, a neat mansion, is surrounded by picturesque and well-wooded scenery.
Pendle Forest, in the county of Lancaster.—See Newchurch-in-Pendle.
PENDLE FOREST, in the county of Lancaster.— See Newchurch-in-Pendle.
PENDLEBURY, a township, in the parish of Eccles, union and hundred of Salford, S. division of Lancashire, 4¼ miles (N. W. by W.) from Manchester; containing 2198 inhabitants. Mention of the local family of Pendlebury occurs as early as the time of Henry I. The Longleys or Langleys subsequently held lands here; of this family was Cardinal Thomas Langley, son of Sir Thomas, who flourished at the beginning of the 16th century. The manor passed by marriage to Sir Edward Coke's fifth son, and was sold by the late Earl of Leicester, when Mr. Coke, to the Drinkwater family. Agecroft Hall, a fine large wood-and-plaster mansion principally of the age of Elizabeth, stands on an eminence overlooking the course of the river Irwell; it was successively the residence of the Langley and Dauntesey families, and at the end of the last century came into the possession of the Rev. Richard Buck. The windows are ornamented with stained glass, exhibiting the armorial bearings of John of Gaunt, emblems of Henry II., and arms and crests of the Langleys: the apartment now used as a library, was a domestic chapel in the reign of Elizabeth, at which time there was a moat in front of the Hall. The Bolton and Bury canal and the Manchester and Bolton railway run through the township, as does the road from Manchester to Bolton. The population is chiefly employed in the manufacture and printing of cotton. St. John's church, here, is a plain square-built Norman structure, without a chancel, erected by the Manchester and Eccles Church-Building Society. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £200; patrons, Trustees. There is a place of worship for Independents, and on the road to Bolton are schools in connexion with the Church.
PENDLETON, a chapelry, in the parish of Eccles, borough, union, and hundred of Salford, S. division of Lancashire, 2½ miles (W. by N.) from Manchester; containing 11,032 inhabitants. This place, anciently called Pen-hulton, was held by the Hultons, of Hulton, at first under the earls Ferrers, but afterwards in chief of the king. The lands have been subsequently in the possession of various families. The chapelry is situated on the Irwell, and at the junction of the Liverpool and Bolton roads to Manchester: the Bolton and Bury canal, and the Manchester and Liverpool, and Manchester and Bolton railways, also pass through it. In 1780 the village was little more than a cluster of cottages, with its maypole and its green; it is now an opulent and extensive suburb of Salford, abounds in mansions, and contains large cotton-mills, and dyeing, printing, and bleaching establishments, affording, with handicraft trades, and collieries, employment to its large population. A small library was established in 1829, and a dispensary in 1831. The living is a perpetual curacy, in the patronage of the Vicar of Eccles; net income, £344. The chapel, rebuilt at the joint expense of the inhabitants and the Parliamentary Commissioners, was consecrated in October, 1831. It is a conspicuous and ornamented structure in the pointed style, and contains 1520 pew-sittings, of which 700 are free, exclusively of several hundred free seats on forms: in front of the altar is a splendid picture by Paul Veronese, representing the Taking Down of Christ from the Cross, liberally presented by John Greaves, Esq., of Pendleton. The cost of the re-erection of the chapel was £7505. There are places of worship for Independents, Wesleyans, and Methodists of the New Connexion. Hylewood, an oblong hillock in the chapelry, was supposed to exhibit marks of a Roman camp; but subsequent examination, in digging the foundation of Hylewood Tower, has shown that this eminence consists merely of the red rocky sandstone of the district.
PENDLETON, a township, in the parish of Whalley, union and parliamentary borough of Clitheroe, Higher division of the hundred of Blackburn, N. division of Lancashire, 2¼ miles (S. S. E.) from Clitheroe; containing, with the hamlet of Sabden, 1469 inhabitants. "Peniltune" is found in the Domesday survey, from which it appears that Edward the Confessor held half a hide of land here. At the Conquest it passed to the Lacys, from whom it was inherited by the house of Lancaster. Henry, "the Good Duke," gave some possessions here to the monks of Whalley, to support two recluses and their women servants in a hermitage. The Clyderows had lands in Pendleton; and in the 10th of Henry V., Sir Henry Hoghton is recorded to have levied a fine on the manor, having married the daughter of Richard Radcliffe, who inherited from the Clyderows. Charles Aspinall, with whose family the Hoghtons intermarried in the reign of Elizabeth, died seised of lands in Pendleton, 17th Charles I. The township is large, stretching along Pendle Hill, which rises 1803 feet above the level of the sea and commands a most extensive prospect: in a deep dale is the thriving village of Sabden. About 1000 of the population are employed in calico-printing. The Clitheroe and Blackburn road passes through the township. A church, a chaste and beautiful structure in the pointed style, built at the sole expense of Mrs. Blegborough, late Miss Aspinall, was consecrated in 1847; it stands at the upper end of the village of Pendleton, and attracts deserved admiration for the elegance of its architecture. There are places of worship for Baptists and Presbyterians, the latter an ancient building; and a national school, endowed with £12 per annum.
PENDOCK, a parish, in the union of Tewkesbury, Lower division of the hundred of Oswaldslow, though locally in the Lower division of that of Pershore, Upton and W. divisions of the county of Worcester, 6 miles (W.) from Tewkesbury; containing 270 inhabitants. The parish is situated on the road from Tewkesbury to Ledbury, and comprises 1168a. 2r. 29p., of which about two-thirds are arable, and nearly one-third meadow and pasture, with 35 acres of woodland; the soil is a red marl. The Malvern hills form a grand object in the scenery. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £11. 2. 11.; net income, £300, with a glebehouse; patrons, the family of Symonds. The church is an ancient and neat building of stone, containing 140 sittings. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans.
PENDOMER, a parish, in the union of Yeovil, hundred of Houndsborough, Berwick, and Coker, W. division of Somerset, 4½ miles (S. W. by S.) from Yeovil; containing 81 inhabitants. In 659, Kenwalk, the West Saxon, defeated the Britons here, and pursued them to Pedridan, now Petherton, about eight miles distant. Stone for roads and for building is obtained. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £3. 4. 4½., and in the gift of William Helyar, Esq.: the tithes have been commuted for £177, and there are 77 acres of glebe. The church is a neat structure in the early English style of architecture, and contains a monument of a Knight Templar.
PENGE, a hamlet, in the parish of Battersea, union of Croydon, E. division of the hundred of Brixton and of the county of Surrey, 3¾ miles (N. N. E.) from Croydon; containing 270 inhabitants. The London and Croydon railway crosses the hamlet, near which one of its stations is situated. Land was assigned to the vicar of Battersea, in lieu of tithes here, under an inclosure act in the 7th and 8th of George IV. A small church was built in 1838. Almshouses were opened in 1841, for the reception of poor, aged, and married freemen of the company of watermen and lightermen of the river Thames, their wives, and the widows of freemen; the houses are above thirty in number, and built on about two acres of freehold land given by Mr. Browne. Among the contributors to their erection were, the Queen Dowager, who presented 100 guineas; the late Alderman Lucas, £100; Mr. Browne, £430; and the company, 1000 guineas.
Penhow (St. John the Baptist)
PENHOW (St. John the Baptist), a parish, in the union of Newport, division of Christchurch, hundred of Caldicot, county of Monmouth, 5½ miles (E. by S.) from Caerleon; containing 252 inhabitants. The parish comprises about 1600 acres, of which 600 are wood, and the remainder arable and pasture; the soil is calcareous, adapted for corn, and the grazing-land in some places, especially near the village, is very good. The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at £5. 4. 9½.; patron, John Cave, Esq.: the tithes have been commuted for £180, and the glebe consists of 28 acres. Some remains still exist of Penhow Castle, which belonged to the illustrious family of Seymour, who came over to England about the time of the Conquest; the situation is exceedingly picturesque, on an eminence above the road from Chepstow to Newport.
PENHURST, a parish, in the union of Battle, hundred of Netherfield, rape of Hastings, E. division of Sussex, 4 miles (W. by N.) from Battle; containing 103 inhabitants. Ironstone abounds, and here was formerly a large furnace. The living is a discharged rectory, annexed to the vicarage of Ashburnham, and valued in the king's books at £3. 18. 4.: the tithes have been commuted for £125. 15., and there are 50 acres of glebe. The church is principally in the later English style, with a square tower at the west end.
Penistone (St. John the Baptist)
PENISTONE (St. John the Baptist), a markettown and parish, in the union of Wortley, wapentake of Staincross, W. riding of York; containing, with the chapelry of Denby, and the townships of Gunthwaite, Hunshelf, Ingbirchworth, Langsett, Oxspring, and Thurlestone, 5907 inhabitants, of whom 738 are in the township of Penistone, 8 miles (W. S. W.) from Barnsley, and 177 (N. N. W.) from London. The town is situated on the south bank of the river Don, and consists of four streets diverging at right angles; the houses are in general well built. A few families are employed in the weaving of linen by hand-looms. Here is a station of the Manchester and Sheffield railway, 28 miles from Manchester; and 13 from Sheffield. The market is on Thursday, and principally for cattle and sheep; fairs take place on the Thursday before Feb. 28th, the last Thursday in March, May 12th, and the Thursday before October 10th. The parish comprises by measurement 21,338 acres; about 2000 acres are moorland, 100 wood and plantations, and of the remainder about onethird is arable, and two-thirds are pasture. The substratum contains coal, which is wrought to a limited extent; and there are quarries of good stone, of which large quantities are sent to London, chiefly consisting of flags for pavements. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £16. 14. 2.; net income, £147, with a glebe-house; patron, Alexander W. R. Bosville, Esq. The church is a neat structure, with a tower, and from its elevated situation forms a conspicuous feature in the landscape. At Denby is a separate incumbency. There are places of worship for the Society of Friends, Independents, and Wesleyans. The free grammar school was founded in 1604, and has been endowed by several benefactors with houses, lands, and rent-charges, now producing £100 per annum.
PENKETH, a township, in the chapelry of Great Sankey, parish of Prescot, union of Warrington, hundred of West Derby, S. division of Lancashire, 3½ miles (W.) from Warrington; containing 652 inhabitants. The Penketh family were connected with this township from a very early period. Thomas Penketh, who was bred an Augustinian in Warrington, and a doctor of divinity in Oxford, was, says Fuller, "a great Scotist, and of prodigious memory; he was called to be a professor at Padua, and, returning to England, became provincial of his order. By his last act, in bastardizing the issue of King Edward IV., he stained his former life, and disgraced his order, which afterwards daily decayed, and finally dissolved in England." The family held the lordship until Margaret, heiress of Richard Penketh, married Richard Ashton, whose posterity made it their seat. In the 15th of Charles I., the manor was vested in the Irelands, of Bewsey, from whom it passed to the Athertons, now represented by Lord Lilford. The township is bounded on the south by the Mersey river, and is intersected by the road from Warrington to Liverpool; it comprises 1048a. 8p., of which 105 acres are common or waste land, known as Greyston Heath. The vicarial tithes have been commuted for £40; and the impropriate for £99. 9. 5., payable to King's College, Cambridge. There are places of worship for Wesleyans and the Society of Friends; that of the latter is one of the most ancient meeting-houses in the kingdom.
PENKHULL, a township, in the parish and union of Stoke-upon-Trent, N. division of the hundred of Pirehill and of the county of Stafford; containing 7947 inhabitants. This township includes the whole town of Stoke, with the exception of a small portion, which is in Fenton-Vivian; it includes also the villages or hamlets of Basford, Trent-Vale, and Hartshill, with numerous handsome mansions and villas. The large village of Penkhull covers the heights above the town, and appears to be one of the oldest seats of the earthenware manufacture in the neighbourhood, as, so early as 1600, it had three coarse brown-ware potteries. In the township are, a good stone-quarry, large earthenware and china manufactories, and several brick and tile yards. A district church, dedicated to St. Thomas, was built in 1842; it is a cruciform structure in the early English style, with a spire, and contains 450 sittings. The living is a perpetual curacy, in the patronage of the Rev. T. W. Minton, M.A., by whom it has been endowed with £1000.—See Stoke.
Penkridge (St. Michael)
PENKRIDGE (St. Michael), a parish, and the head of a union, partly in the W., but chiefly in the E., division of the hundred of Cuttlestone, S. division of the county of Stafford, 6 miles (S.) from Stafford, and 128 (N. W.) from London; containing, with the chapelries of Coppenhall, Dunston, and Stretton, 3129 inhabitants, of whom 2488 are in the township of Penkridge. This place is of great antiquity, and is supposed by Camden to have been the Roman Pennocrucium. Part of its modern name is evidently deduced from the river Penk, on which it stands; but whether the remainder denotes the bank of this stream, or is a corruption of bridge, is a matter of conjecture. The town consists chiefly of two streets. The Bull bridge, which here crosses the Penk by several small arches, was erected a few years ago; and about half a mile higher up the river is the ancient Cuttlestone bridge, which gives name to the hundred. There are some iron-works. The Staffordshire and Worcestershire canal passes to the east; and here is a station of the Liverpool and Birmingham railway, which crosses the Penk by a noble viaduct of six arches. The market, held on Tuesday, is now disused; but fairs take place on April 30th, Sept. 2nd, and Oct. 10th, the first of which is said to be one of the greatest marts for cattle in the kingdom, and the second is a noted horsefair. Races are held in September, upon a course on the north side of the town. The petty-sessions for the east and west divisions of the hundred are occasionally held here. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £189; patron and impropriator, Lord Hatherton, whose tithes in Penkridge township have been commuted for £532: the incumbent has a glebe of one acre, and a new house in the cottage style. The church is principally in the later English style, with an east window of decorated character; it was made collegiate by King John, and given by him to the see of Dublin, the archbishop being dean, with thirteen prebendaries, whose revenues, at the Reformation, were valued at £106. 15. 1. In each of the three chapelries is a separate incumbency. Here is a place of worship for Methodists. In 1731, Francis Sherratt gave land for the education of boys, producing, with other bequests, £36 per annum; and in 1819, schoolrooms were built by Lord Hatherton, in which children are instructed at his expense on the national system, aided by the endowment. The poorlaw union of Penkridge comprises 21 parishes or places, and contains a population of 16,074. Congreve, a hamlet in the parish, long the seat of an ancient family of the same name, is the birthplace of the learned divine and critic, Dr. Richard Hurd, Bishop of Worcester, who died in the year 1808.
PENMAEN, an ecclesiastical district, in the parish of Mynyddyslwyn, union of Newport, Lower division of the hundred of Wentlloog, county of Monmouth, 12 miles (N. W.) from Newport; containing 2474 inhabitants. This district was constituted in March 1846, under the provisions of the act 6th and 7th Victoria, cap. 37. It is five miles in length and two in breadth, and is bounded by the Sirhowy river on the west, the Ebbw on the east, and the parish of Bedwelty on the north; on the south is the road from Pont-y-Pool to MerthyrTydvil. The district is agricultural, but ill-cultivated; the surface is hilly, in some parts woody, but having in other parts a barren appearance. Collieries are in operation. The living is a perpetual curacy, in the patronage of the Crown and the Bishop of Llandaff, alternately. A well-built school-house is licensed by the bishop for divine service: the school affords accommodation for 400 children, and is supported by Sir Thomas Phillips. There is a place of worship for Independents.
Penn (Holy Trinity)
PENN (Holy Trinity), a parish, in the union of Amersham, hundred of Burnham, county of Buckingham, 3 miles (N. W. by N.) from Beaconsfield; containing 1040 inhabitants. It comprises 3889 acres, of which 380 are common or waste. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £9. 13. 4.; patron and impropriator, Earl Howe. The great tithes have been commuted for £371. 12., the vicarial for £338. 13., and the glebe comprises 42 acres. There are places of worship for Baptists and Wesleyans; also a school, founded in 1750, by Sir Nathaniel and Eleanor Curzon.
Penn (St. Bartholomew)
PENN (St. Bartholomew), a parish, in the union, and N. division of the hundred, of Seisdon, S. division of the county of Stafford; containing 942 inhabitants, of whom 716 are in the liberty of Upper Penn, and 226 in Lower Penn, the former situated 2 miles (S. W. by S.) from Wolverhampton. The parish comprises 3985a. 2r. 13p., of which 1900 acres are in Lower Penn: the substratum belongs to the new red-sandstone formation; the land is mostly arable, the soil generally good, and the scenery very beautiful. Among the gentlemen's seats are, Penn Hall; The Lloyd, the residence of the Rev. W. Dalton, A.M., with a fine park; the seat of Wm. Thacker, Esq., with 80 acres of land attached; and the villa of Thomas Moss Philips, Esq. The Wolverhampton canal skirts the west end of the parish, and the village is seated on the road between Wolverhampton and Himley. Locks, keys, coffee-mills, nails, &c., are made for the warehouses in Wolverhampton. A manorial court is held by the Duke of Sutherland's agent, to decide upon encroachments on Penn-Wood common. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £4. 5. 10., and in the gift of the Bishop of Lichfield: the tithes have been commuted for £895, of which £170 are payable to the vicar, and £37. 10. to the Duke of Cleveland; there are 53 acres of vicarial glebe. The church, a brick building with a square tower, was enlarged (a second time) in 1844, by the erection of an aisle, and has also been repewed and beautified. The Rev. Charles Wynn in 1699 gave a messuage, with a rent-charge of £6, in support of a free school, in aid of which Dr. Sedgewick in 1747 gave an annuity of £10; the income is now nearly £105, and the school is open to all the parish. An almshouse was founded in 1761, by Ann Sedgewick, for five aged women; it is endowed with £25 per annum.
Pennard, East (All Saints)
PENNARD, EAST (All Saints), a parish, in the union of Shepton-Mallet, hundred of Whitestone, E. division of Somerset, 5¾ miles (S. S. W.) from Shepton-Mallet; containing 657 inhabitants. The living is a discharged vicarage, with the living of West Bradley annexed, valued in the king's books at £7. 4. 9½.; net income, £190; patron and appropriator, the Bishop of Bath and Wells. The Roman Fosse-way bounds the parish on the south-east.
Pennard, West (St. Nicholas)
PENNARD, WEST (St. Nicholas), a parish, in the union of Wells, hundred of Glaston-Twelve-Hides, E. division of Somerset, 3½ miles (E. by S.) from Glastonbury; containing 819 inhabitants. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £102; patron and appropriator, the Bishop of Bath and Wells, whose tithes have been commuted for £310, and who has an acre of glebe. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans; and a school is endowed with £10 per annum.
Pennington (St. Michael)
PENNINGTON (St. Michael), a parish, in the union of Ulverston, hundred of Lonsdale north of the Sands, N. division of Lancashire, 1½ mile (W. S. W.) from Ulverston; containing 388 inhabitants. This place, which in Domesday book is styled "Pennigetun," belonged to a local family, one of whom, Gamel de Pennington, was a very considerable person at the time of the Conquest. From him descended Sir John Pennington, who commanded the left wing of the army in an expedition into Scotland under the Earl of Northumberland; Sir John was much attached to Henry VI., and gave him a secret asylum at Muncaster (the family seat in Cumberland), for some time, in his flight from his enemies. The grandson of this knight distinguished himself at the battle of Flodden; and was ancestor of William Pennington, who was created a baronet in June 1676: the fifth baronet of the family was elevated to the peerage in 1783, by the title of Baron Muncaster. This is one of the smallest parishes in the county, and contains fewer streams than any parish in North Lonsdale; the waters are small rills, and for the most part nameless. The area is 1632a. 2r., of ancient inclosure, and 1122 acres of common inclosed by an act obtained in 1821: most of the cultivated land is arable; about onefourth only consists of pasture. Iron-ore and blue slate abound. The living is a vicarage, in the patronage of the Crown in right of the duchy of Lancaster; net income, £150; impropriator, the Arabic Professor in the university of Oxford. The church is an edifice of modern style, devoid of ornament, erected by subscription in 1826, at a cost of about £550, of which George IV. contributed £50, and the Incorporated Society £100.
PENNINGTON, a township, in the parish and union of Leigh, hundred of West Derby, S. division of Lancashire; containing 3833 inhabitants. This place gave name to a family who were probably under the barons of Warrington, the original lords of the manor; the property subsequently came into the possession of the Bradshaws, of Aspull. Richard Bradshaw, living in 1683, left issue John Bradshaw, whose daughter and sole heiress, Margaret, married into the Faryngton family, by whom the manorial rights were sold to the Athertons: Lord Lilford is the present lord. The township includes part of the market-town of Leigh (which see), and comprises 1395 acres, whereof 300 are arable, 1085 meadowland, and 10 wood. The surface is level, the soil generally fertile, and the scenery tolerably pleasing: a brook, and a rich belt of alluvial soil, run through the middle of the township. The road from Leigh to Newton-inMakerfield passes through; and facility of communication is also afforded by the Leigh and Kenyon railway, and the Duke of Bridgewater's canal. The population is chiefly employed in the hand-loom weaving of silk. Pennington Hall is the residence of James Pownall, Esq.; and Fairfield, that of William Hayes, Esq. There are places of worship for Independents, and Primitive and other Methodists.
PENNINGTON, an ecclesiastical district, in the parish of Milford, union of Lymington, hundred of Ringwood, Lymington and S. divisions of the county of Southampton; containing 731 inhabitants. The church, dedicated to St. Mark, was erected by subscription in 1839; it contains 330 sittings, 160 of which are free. The living is a perpetual curacy, in the gift of the Vicar, with a net income of £100.