A Topographical Dictionary of England. Originally published by S Lewis, London, 1848.
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HORBURY, a chapelry, in the parish and union of Wakefield, Lower division of the wapentake of Agbrigg, W. riding of York, 3 miles (S. W. by W.) from Wakefield, on the road to Huddersfield; containing 2683 inhabitants. This place is of ancient date, having been known previous to the Domesday survey. The chapelry comprises by measurement 1162 acres, of arable and pasture land in nearly equal portions; and includes the greater part of the village of Horbury-Bridge, where are several extensive coal-wharfs. Many of the inhabitants are engaged in the spinning of yarn and manufacture of cloth. The Calder and Hebble navigation, which has been much improved, affords facility of conveyance; and the Manchester and Leeds railway has a station here. The living is a perpetual curacy: net income, £225; patron, the Vicar of Wakefield. The present chapel, dedicated to St. Peter, is a handsome edifice in the Grecian style, erected in 1791, by Mr. J. Carr, architect, a native of this place, and alderman of York, at an expense of £8000, defrayed by himself. There are places of worship for dissenters. A school for boys is endowed with £30 per annum, from the town lands and other sources.
Hordle (All Saints)
HORDLE (All Saints), a parish, in the union of Lymington, hundred of Christchurch, Lymington and S. divisions of the county of Southampton, 4 miles (W. S. W.) from Lymington; containing, with the tything of Arnwood, 845 inhabitants, of whom 302 are in the tything of Hordle. The parish is washed on the south by the English Channel, and comprises by measurement 3879 acres, of which 2181 are arable, 1056 pasture, 107 woodland, 120 garden-ground, and the remainder waste. Of the cliffs that bound this part of the coast, Hordle cliff is among the highest, and forms a down of considerable extent and beauty, commanding a fine view of the Needles; the substratum is composed of various beds of blueish clay, thickly imbedded with fossils, and of layers of sand and gravel. Hurst Castle, which is described in the article on Lymington, is within the limits of the parish. The living is annexed to the vicarage of Milford: the tithes of Hordle have been commuted for £118 payable to the impropriators, and £77 payable to the vicar, who has also 32 acres of glebe. The church was rebuilt in 1830, at an expense of £1200, raised by subscription, aided by a grant of £200 from the Incorporated Society; it is a neat structure in the early English style, and contains 390 sittings. There is a place of worship for Baptists.
Hordley (St. Mary)
HORDLEY (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Ellesmere, hundred of Pimhill, N. division of Salop, 3 miles (S. S. W.) from Ellesmere; containing 308 inhabitants. The parish is bounded on the west by the river Perry, which flows into the Severn; and a branch from the Ellesmere canal passes on the southeast. It consists of 2512a. 7p., all arable and pasture, with the exception of about 700 acres of moorland, which afford excellent pasture, and 30 of wood; the soil comprises light, gravelly, and sandy earth, and the surface is in general level. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £3. 19. 2.; net income, £330; patron, Sir J. R. Kynaston, Bart.
HORFIELD, a parish, in the union of Clifton, Lower division of the hundred of Berkeley, W. division of the county of Gloucester, 2½ miles (N.) from Bristol; containing 620 inhabitants. It comprises by measurement 1268 acres, of which 830 are pasture, 385 arable, 19 woodland, and the remainder common. The new Barracks here, the foundation stone of which was laid in June 1845, have just been completed, and occupy four sides of a spacious square, on a slope towards the east, and in a most healthy situation, commanding an extensive prospect over a rich country. At the upper part of the square are day-rooms for cavalry and infantry officers; at the lower part are stables, with men's dormitories over; and the sides are occupied with various departments, officers' sleeping-rooms, &c. The area furnishes a spacious exercising or parade ground. The living of Horfield is a perpetual curacy; net income, £91; patron, the Bishop of Gloucester and Bristol. The church, with the exception of the tower, has been rebuilt, by subscription, aided by a grant of £130 from the Incorporated Society. There are some mineral springs.
Horham (St. Mary)
HORHAM (St. Mary), a parish, in the union and hundred of Hoxne, E. division of Suffolk, 2 miles (S. W.) from Stradbroke; containing 442 inhabitants, and comprising 1443 acres by measurement. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £12. 7. 1., and in the gift of the Rev. William Mack: the tithes have been commuted for £445, and the glebe comprises 23 acres. The church is a handsome structure in the early English style, with a lofty embattled tower, and a rich Norman arch at the south entrance; the pulpit and the cover of the font are richly carved. There is a place of worship for Baptists.
Horksley, Great (All Saints)
HORKSLEY, GREAT (All Saints), a parish, in the union of Lexden and Winstree, Colchester division of the hundred of Lexden, N. division of Essex, 4 miles (N. by W.) from Colchester; containing 730 inhabitants. This parish, which is bounded on the north by the river Stour, is pleasantly situated, and comprises 3083 acres, whereof 2592 are arable, 258 meadow and pasture, and 134 woodland. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £15, and in the gift of Earl de Grey: the tithes have been commuted for £989. 17. 6., and the glebe contains 46 acres. The church consists of a nave, south aisle, and chancel, with a handsome embattled tower. There are remains of an ancient chantry (now converted into two cottages), apparently of a date not long subsequent to the time of Edward III.; in old documents it is called the Lady chapel.
Horksley, Little (St. Peter and St. Paul)
HORKSLEY, LITTLE (St. Peter and St. Paul), a parish, in the union of Lexden and Winstree, Colchester division of the hundred of Lexden, N. division of Essex, 1½ mile (S. W. by S.) from Nayland; containing 206 inhabitants. The parish is bounded on the north by the navigable river Stour, and comprises by measurement 1002 acres, of which the greater portion is arable, and the remainder, with the exception of a few acres of woodland, meadow and pasture: the soil is of a mixed quality, producing average crops. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £69; patron and impropriator, the Rev. J. C. Warren. The church is a handsome structure, consisting of a nave, south aisle, and chancel, and containing several interesting monuments. Here was a priory of Cluniac monks, subordinate to the monastery of Thetford, in Norfolk, founded in the reign of Henry I. by Robert Fitz-Godebold and Beatrix his wife, and valued at the Dissolution at £27. 7. 11.
Horkstow (St. Maurice)
HORKSTOW (St. Maurice), a parish, in the union of Glandford-Brigg, N. division of the wapentake of Yarborough, parts of Lindsey, county of Lincoln, 4 miles (S. W. by W.) from Barton-upon-Humber; containing 228 inhabitants. The parish is intersected by the river Ancholme, which is here navigable, and crossed by a handsome suspension-bridge, built by Adam Smith. It comprises by measurement 2020 acres, in equal portions of arable and pasture, with some grounds thickly wooded with old timber; on the higher lands is a light, and on the lower a heavy loamy soil: an inferior kind of chalk-stone is quarried for the roads. The village is beautifully situated under a hill, by which it is sheltered on the east and north-east; and the surrounding scenery is richly wooded. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £4. 18. 4., and in the gift of the Earl of Yarborough, whose great tithes have been commuted for £228, and the vicarial tithes for £255. The church is a very ancient structure, with a square tower, and contains a family vault for the Darells, formerly owners of property in the parish, and a monument to Admiral Shirley. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans. A commandery of Knights Hospitallers of the order of St. John of Jerusalem, existed here; and in 1796, fragments of three tessellated pavements were discovered near Horkstow Hall, the largest of which is divided into three compartments, one of them exhibiting a curious representation of a chariot race. Roman coins have also been found.
Horley (St. Ethelreda)
HORLEY (St. Ethelreda), a parish, in the union of Banbury, hundred of Bloxham, county of Oxford, 4 miles (N. W.) from Banbury; containing 425 inhabitants. It comprises by admeasurement 1200 acres, about equally divided between arable and pasture land. The living is a vicarage, with that of Horton united, valued in the king's books at £16. 13. 4., and in the patronage of the Crown. The church is principally of the 14th century, with a square tower rising from between the chancel and the nave; the west window is of the date of Elizabeth or James: there is a beautiful piscina of early English character. The edifice was repaired in 1841, when 145 free sittings were added. Here is a place of worship for Wesleyans. A free school was endowed by Michael Harding, in the reign of Charles I., with houses and land; the income is £44 per annum.
Horley (St. Bartholomew)
HORLEY (St. Bartholomew), a parish, in the union, and First division of the hundred, of Reigate, E. division of Surrey, 5¾ miles (S. S. E.) from Reigate; containing 1583 inhabitants. The manor belonged to the monastery of Chertsey, and after the Reformation was held, among others, by Sir Nicholas Carew, who was attainted in 1539: in 1602 the Crowmer family gave it to Christ's Hospital. The parish comprises by measurement 7050 acres, and is intersected by the London and Brighton railway. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £14. 1. 0½.; net income, £325; patrons and impropriators, the Governors of Christ's Hospital. The church is in the later English style: in some of the windows are remains of stained glass, and the edifice contains the effigy of a man in armour, in a recumbent position, his feet resting on a lion; also an ancient brass effigy, under a pointed arch, to the memory of Joanna Fenner. There is a mineral spring.
Hormead, Great (St. Nicholas)
HORMEAD, GREAT (St. Nicholas), a parish, in the union of Buntingford, hundred of Edwinstree, county of Hertford, 3 miles (E.) from Buntingford; containing 595 inhabitants. The parish was inclosed in 1823, and comprises by admeasurement 1705 acres, about 1480 of which are arable, 150 pasture, and 75 woodland; the soil is chiefly clay and marl, and the surface is hilly. Sandstone and granite are found, and large quantities of amygdaloid; also a great variety of fossils, comprising shells, bones, &c. There are two small pleasure-fairs. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £6. 3. 9.; net income, £121; patrons, the Master and Fellows of St. John's College, Cambridge; impropriators, the families of Stables and Eyre. The tithes were commuted for land and a money payment in 1814.
Hormead, Little (St. Mary)
HORMEAD, LITTLE (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Buntingford, hundred of Edwinstree, county of Hertford, 2 miles (E. by S.) from Buntingford; containing 121 inhabitants. It comprises by computation 972 acres, of which 796 are arable, 152 pasture, and 19 woodland. The scenery is rendered picturesque by a hilly surface, interspersed with copses of elm and oak, and enlivened by the stream of the Quin, running along the west of the parish; the soil has the several varieties of clay, gravel, and chalk, and the chief produce is wheat. Granite, sandstone, and jasper are found. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £10, and in the gift of St. John's College, Cambridge: the tithes have been commuted for £260, and the glebe contains 82 acres, 16 of which are in the parish of Great Hormead. The church is an extremely ancient building, the nave being of Saxon or Norman architecture, and the chancel in the early English style. A large block of granite, standing on the west side of the turnpike-road, is supposed by some to be a Roman milestone, the Ermin-street having passed near to it.
Hornblotton (St. Peter)
HORNBLOTTON (St. Peter), a parish, in the union of Shepton-Mallet, hundred of Whitestone, E. division of Somerset, 4½ miles (N. W. by W.) from Castle-Cary; containing 104 inhabitants. The living is a rectory, consolidated with that of Alford under an act passed in 1836, and valued in the king's books at £7. 2. 1.: the tithes have been commuted for £205, and the glebe comprises 106 acres. The old Roman Fosse-way skirts the north-western boundary of the parish.
HORNBY, a township and chapelry, and formerly a market-town, in the parish of Melling, hundred of Lonsdale south of the Sands, N. division of Lancashire, 9 miles (N. E.) from Lancaster; containing 318 inhabitants. This place is distinguished for its castle, which stands on the site of a Roman villa, on the summit of a bold rock of conical form, in many parts shrouded by trees, and washed by the Wenning at its base. The castle was originally founded soon after the Norman Conquest, and was subsequently the residence of the Stanleys, lords Monteagle, to one of whom the mysterious letter was sent which led to the discovery of the Gunpowder plot. It consists of two parts, of which the ancient part is in a neglected state. The foundations of two round towers, which may have been built by the Nevilles in the reign of Edward I., were removed some years ago; and a wall thirty-six feet in thickness, supposed to be the base of an ancient tower, was taken up not long since. The large square tower, or keep, the erection of Edward, first lord Monteagle, is the only part of the castle remaining: the modern restorations are in front of, and conceal, the ancient portions. Here are also the ruins of a fortress ascribed to the Saxons; and some remains of a priory, dedicated to St. Wilfrid, which was a cell to the Præmonstratensian abbey of Croxton, and the revenue of which at the Dissolution was valued at £26.
The township lies on the road from Lancaster to Kirkby-Lonsdale; the scenery is very beautiful, embracing the picturesque and fertile vales of the Lune and Wenning, and in the distance are seen the hills of Ingleborough, Whernside, and Pennigant. The former market on Friday is disused, but a market for cattle, held every alternate Tuesday, is well frequented; and there is likewise a cattle-fair on the 30th of July. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £92; patron, Pudsey Dawson, Esq., the owner of Hornby Castle. The chapel, St. Margaret's, has an octagonal tower with pinnacles, which, with the chancel, was built in 1514 by Edward, Lord Monteagle, on the site of a previous building, in fulfilment of a vow he had made at the battle of Flodden-Field: the body was erected in 1817. In the chapel is a fine painted window representing the Ascension of Our Saviour, and containing the armorial bearings of the owners of the castle. There is a Roman Catholic chapel, of which the historian, the Rev. John Lingard, D.D., has been the officiating priest for thirty-six years.
HORNBY, a township, in the parish of Great Smeaton, union of Northallerton, wapentake of Allertonshire, N. riding of York, 7¾ miles (N.) from Northallerton; containing 278 inhabitants. It is on the north of the Wiske, equidistant from that river and the Tees, and comprises about 2050 acres of land. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans.
Hornby (St. Mary)
HORNBY (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Leyburn, wapentake of Hang-East, N. riding of York; containing, with the townships of Ainderby-Myers with Holtby, and Hackforth, 309 inhabitants, of whom 87 are in the township of Hornby, 5 miles (S. S. W.) from Catterick. The parish comprises by estimation 4175 acres; the soil is gravelly, and the surface and scenery are richly embellished. Hornby Castle, anciently the seat of the family of St. Quintin, and now belonging to his Grace the Duke of Leeds, is a spacious mansion in different styles of architecture, containing superb apartments, and commanding a fine view of the valley of Bedale. The living is a discharged vicarage, in the patronage of the Dean and Chapter of York (the appropriators), valued in the king's books at £6. 15. 6.; net income, £135. The great tithes of the township of Hornby have been commuted for £626, and the small for £93: the Dean and Chapter have a glebe of 67 acres. The church, supposed to have been built about the 13th century, is partly in the Norman style.
Horncastle (St. Mary)
HORNCASTLE (St. Mary), a market-town and parish, and the head of a union, in the soke of Horncastle, parts of Lindsey, county of Lincoln, 21 miles (E.) from Lincoln, and 134 (N.) from London; containing 4521 inhabitants. From its situation, and the circumstance of a very extensive castle having been erected here, a portion of the remains of which is still visible, this place has, with great probability, been considered the Bannovallum of the Romans, mentioned by the geographer of Ravenna. Its present name is evidently a corruption of Hyrncastre, as it was denominated by the Saxons; from hyrn, an angle or corner (the town being situated within an angle formed by the confluence of the rivers Bane and Waring), and castrum, a fort or castle. The vallum, or fortification constructed by the Romans, having been considerably strengthened by Horsa soon after the arrival of the two Saxon brothers, was demolished by Vortimer, the brave king of the Britons; and the castle, also, was taken and destroyed after a victory obtained by one of his generals over the Saxon prince, at the adjacent village of Tetford. At the period of the Norman survey, the manor and soke belonged to the king; previously to which they had formed part of the possessions of Editha, Queen of Edward the Confessor. It does not appear at what time the manor came into private hands, but after several grants and reversions, it was sold in the reign of Henry III. to Walter Mauclerke, Bishop of Carlisle, to whom that monarch granted three charters, conferring various immunities on the inhabitants of the town and soke. Horncastle, from an insignificant village, now became the general mart for the surrounding district; and for many years continued to advance, under the immediate patronage of the bishops: Bishop Aldrich died here in 1555, and the episcopal residence was not demolished until 1770.
The town, which is neat and well built, and lighted with gas, occupies a low but pleasant situation at the foot of the Wolds. From a plan made by Dr. Stukeley in 1722, it seems to have been scarcely half so large as it is at present; and the houses, then built with clay walls, and covered with thatch, have been succeeded by respectable brick edifices. The general appearance of the neighbourhood, also, has been greatly improved by the inclosure of lands, under the authority of an act procured in 1803. Here is a subscription library, formed in 1790, and containing about 1000 volumes; and the clerical library, in High-street, comprises some respectable standard works. A mechanics' institute was erected in 1836. Formerly, many of the inhabitants were employed in tanning leather, but about 80 years ago this branch of trade experienced a rapid decline, and there are now only two tanyards remaining. The prosperity of the town, however, was in a great degree advanced by an act obtained in 1792, under the powers of which a canal was constructed, communicating with the river Bain, which was thus made navigable to the Witham; and by this means a junction was formed with the Trent and its numerous ramifications. Since the completion of the undertaking, in 1801, considerable commerce has been carried on in corn and wool; about 30,000 quarters of the former, and 3000 packs of the latter being annually sent from this place to different parts of England. The market is on Saturday. The fairs are, one concluding on the 22nd of June, which lasts about three days; another, which terminates on the 21st of August (having continued for about ten days), and which is the largest fair for horses in the kingdom, many thousands being exhibited for sale during its continuance, and the fair being resorted to by dealers from all parts of the country, from the continent, and from America; and a third, held on October 28th and 29th, which was removed hither from Market-Stainton, in 1768, for a consideration of £200, paid to the lord of that manor. The powers of the county debt-court of Horncastle, established in 1847, extend over the greater part of the registration-district of Horncastle. The charter granted by Henry III. to the bishop, as lord of the manor, gave authority to try felons and hold a court leet, and exempted the inhabitants from toll and several other payments and services, besides protecting them from arrest by the officers of the king or the sheriff; but these manorial rights and privileges, except the court leet, have been long disused. On the eastern boundary of the parish is a spot called Hangman's Corner, where criminals capitally convicted in the court of the manor were executed.
The parish comprises by measurement 2000 acres, chiefly arable land. The living is a vicarage, valued in the king's books at £14. 4. 2.; net income, £612; patron and appropriator, the Bishop of Carlisle: the tithes were commuted for land and a money payment in 1803. The church appears, from the few remaining portions of the original edifice, to have been erected about the time of Henry VII.: it comprises a north and south aisle, continued on each side of the chancel; the aisle north of the chancel was rebuilt in 1820, and part of the aisle south of the nave in 1821. The interior is exceedingly neat, and contains several interesting monuments to members of the family of Dymoke, of Scrivelsby, in which is vested the office of hereditary champion of England. The Baptists, Wesleyans, Independents, and Primitive Methodists, have each a place of worship. The free grammar school was founded by Edward, Lord Clinton and Saye, lord high admiral of England, by virtue of letters-patent granted in 1562; and is endowed with about £200 per annum, under the control of a body corporate possessing a common seal. There is also a charity school founded by Mr. Richard Watson, in 1784. The poor-law union of Horncastle comprises 68 parishes or places, and contains a population of 23,222. The remains of the ancient fortress of Horncastle merely serve to exhibit its form and magnitude. A little south-westward from the town, near the union of the rivers, was one of those labyrinths common to Roman stations, called the Julian Bower; and many urns, coins, fibulæ, and other vestiges of the Romans, have been discovered in the immediate neighbourhood at different periods.
Hornchurch (St. Andrew)
HORNCHURCH (St. Andrew), a parish, within the liberty of Havering-atte-Bower, union of Romford, S. division of Essex, 14¼ miles (E. N. E.) from London; containing 2399 inhabitants. The parish extends from the road between Romford and Brentwood on the north, to the Thames on the south; and the Eastern-Counties railway crosses the northern part of it. An ironfoundry has been established, and there is also a brewery. A small fair is held on Whit-Monday. The living is a donative not in charge; net income, £740; patrons and impropriators, the Warden and Fellows of New College, Oxford. A priory, dedicated to St. Nicholas and St. Bernard, and forming a cell to the hospital of Monte Jovis, in Savoy, was instituted here about the reign of Henry II., and was purchased in that of Richard II. by William of Wykeham, for his foundation of New College.
HORNCLIFFE, a township, in the parish of Norham, union of Berwick-upon-Tweed, N. division of Northumberland, 5 miles (W. S. W.) from Berwick: containing 322 inhabitants. It is situated on the Tweed, and comprises about 840 acres of land. From Horncliffe Hall is a fine prospect of the extensive plain of Merse, and the luxuriant banks of the Tweed. The tithes have been commuted for £151. 3., payable to the Dean and Chapter of Durham.
HORNDEAN, a village and post-town, in the parish and union of Catherington, hundred of Finch-Dean, Petersfield and N. divisions of the county of Southampton, 8 miles (S. S. W.) from Petersfield. This thriving village is pleasantly situated on the road from Portsmouth to London; the scenery is beautifully diversified, and in the neighbourhood are several handsome seats. A national school was built in 1827.