A Topographical Dictionary of England. Originally published by S Lewis, London, 1848.
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WHITTINGHAM, a township, in the ecclesiastical parish of Goosnargh, parish of Kirkham, hundred of Amounderness, N. division of Lancashire, 5¾ miles (N. N. E.) from Preston; containing 691 inhabitants. Warin de Whitington, who lived in the reign of John, held lands in the township, and his descendants held the manor in the reign of Edward II. The family long continued connected with the place; and a Richard Whittingham, who had two sons and a daughter, was living in the middle of the last century. The estate passed by sale to the Pedders, of Preston. Whittingham Hall is now the property of James Pedder, Esq., of Ashton Lodge; and Gingle or Chingle Hall, for many generations the seat of the Singletons, now belongs to Richard Newsham, Esq. In the township are 245 acres of arable, 1460 of pasture, and 10 of waste land, customary measure. The Wesleyans have a place of worship here.
Whittingham (St. Bartholomew)
WHITTINGHAM (St. Bartholomew), a parish, in the union of Rothbury, N. division of Coquetdale ward and of the county of Northumberland; containing, with the townships of Callaley with Yetlington, Glanton, Lorbottle, Great Ryle, Little Ryle, and Shawdon, 1896 inhabitants, of whom 681 are in Whittingham township, 8½ miles (W.) from Alnwick. This parish, which is in the beautiful vale of the Aln, is about seven miles in length, and from four to five in breadth. The soil varies from a deep rich loam in the centre of the vale to a light sand on the sides and acclivities of the hills by which it is inclosed; a great portion of the land is open, but that under cultivation is fertile and productive. The vale forms a division between the sandstone rock in the south, and the porphyritic hills in the north, which compose the range of Cheviot. The whole district abounds in freestone excellent for building; there is also a limestone-quarry of moderate quality, and, to the north, whinstone in abundance. Coal of an inferior kind exists, but it has never been profitably worked. In the parish are several large family mansions, beautifully situated, which, with their groves, plantations, and extensive pleasure-grounds, give a rich appearance to the vale: Eslington House, seated on the bank of the river, is the residence of the Hon. Henry T. Liddell. The road from Newcastle to Edinburgh, by Wooler, formerly passed through the village, which is on the banks of the Aln; it now crosses the lower part of the parish by a stone bridge over the river. A fair for cattle held on August 24th, was some years ago of great resort. The living is a vicarage, valued in the king's books at £12. 11. 3., and in the patronage of the Dean and Chapter of Carlisle, who are the appropriators; net income, £600. The church, a handsome structure situated in the heart of the vale, has lately been enlarged, and the upper part of the tower, which, though of more modern date, had become dangerous, rebuilt. A Roman Catholic chapel is maintained by the ancient family of Clavering, and there is a place of worship for Presbyterians. In the village is a vaulted tower that often afforded refuge and defence to the inhabitants during the border warfare.
Whittington (St. Bartholomew)
WHITTINGTON (St. Bartholomew,) a parish, in the union of Chesterfield, hundred of Scarsdale, N. division of the county of Derby, 2¼ miles (N.) from Chesterfield; containing 751 inhabitants. A former public-house here is distinguished by the name of the Revolution House, from the adjournment to it of a select meeting of friends to liberty and the Protestant religion, held on Whittington moor early in 1688, at which the Earl (afterwards Duke) of Devonshire, the Earl of Derby (afterwards Duke of Leeds), Lord Delamere, and Mr. John D'Arcy, eldest son of the Earl of Holderness, attended. When the centenary anniversary of that event was commemorated in Derbyshire, in 1788, the committee dined on the preceding day at this house; and on the anniversary, a sermon was preached in the parochial church by Dr. Pegge, the celebrated antiquary, then rector, before the descendants of those illustrious persons, and a large assemblage of the most distinguished families of the county, who afterwards went in procession to take refreshment at the Revolution House, and then proceeded to Chesterfield to dinner. The house, with the venerable chair which has stood in the "Plotting Parlour" since 1688, and which was occupied by the Earl of Devonshire during the memorable conference, was recently sold for £725. The building is in a most dilapidated state, and has long ceased to be available for an inn; its sign is now borne by a substantial newly-built house adjoining. The parish comprises 1573a. 2r. 25p., a considerable portion being uninclosed moor, on which the Chesterfield races are held; potters' clay of good quality is found, and the manufacture of earthenware is carried on to a considerable extent. The Chesterfield canal and the Midland railway pass through the parish. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £7. 10. 10.; net income, £302; patron, the Bishop of Lichfield. The tithes were partly exchanged for corn-rents, under an act of inclosure, in 1821, and the remainder have been lately commuted for a rentcharge of £183. 6.; the glebe comprises 33 acres. The church is an ancient structure; the chancel was rebuilt in 1827. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans. A free school was founded in 1674, by Peter Webster, who in 1678 gave £200 to purchase land for it; and Joshua Webster, in 1681, gave some land for teaching ten children: the total income is £73. A chalybeate spring here was formerly much resorted to.
WHITTINGTON, a parish, in the union of Northleach, hundred of Bradley, E. division of the county of Gloucester, 4½ miles (E. S. E.) from Cheltenham; containing 231 inhabitants. It lies near the road from Cheltenham to Northleach, and comprises 1429a. 2r. 1p. The soil in the lower lands is a clay marl, and on the hills a thin loose mould abounding with clay-stone; the surface is boldly undulated, and the lower grounds are watered by a stream called the Colne, which has its source in the adjoining parish of Sevenhampton. Stone is quarried to a considerable extent, and many of the houses in Cheltenham have been built with it. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £13. 6. 8., and in the patronage of R. J. Nevill, Esq.: the tithes have been commuted for £305. 14., and the glebe comprises 97 acres. The church is an ancient structure. A parochial school is supported by a bequest of £1000 by Mrs. Lightbourne, of Sandy well Park.
WHITTINGTON, a parish, in the union of Lancaster, hundred of Lonsdale south of the Sands, N. division of Lancashire, 2 miles (S. W. by S.) from KirkbyLonsdale; containing 425 inhabitants. This is the Witetvne of the Saxon era, and was anciently of considerable extent. William de Coucy in the 14th of Edward III. had a grant of free warren here; and in the 49th of the same reign, Sir John de Coupeland, successor of de Coucy, owned a third of the manor: the manor was therefore held in portions, but when they were united does not appear. In the reign of James I., the lord of Hornby claimed Whittington as a mesne manor. The family of Bordrigge are said to have been lords in the last century: an heiress of this family married Richard North, Esq., a descendant of the Norths of Docker.
The parish comprises 4322a. 1r. 38p.; upwards of two-thirds of the cultivated land are arable, about 1000 acres meadow and pasture, 153 old woodland, and 100 in new plantations. The surface is undulated, terminating in naked heights, or declining into small fertile flats on the banks of the Lune. The farmers are extensive cultivators of potatoes, with which the neighbouring markets are supplied; the soil is various, much of it of good quality. Limestone is wrought; and thin veins of coal exist, but they are not at present worked. The Lune flows along the whole eastern side of the parish; and the fishery in the Whittington part, valuable on account of its salmon, is claimed by the owners of the estates that adjoin the stream. The Keer takes its rise from several little brooks in the hollows beneath Docker, and becomes a limit between this parish and the parish of Burton-in-Kendal. Whittington Hall was rebuilt in 1840, by Thomas Greene, Esq., M.P. for Lancaster, the present owner. The village is beautifully situated, overlooking the vale of Lune. A court baron is occasionally held.
The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £13. 9. 9½.; net income, £415; patron, E. Hornby, Esq., of Dalton Hall, near Burton-in-Kendal. The church is named in the Valor of Pope Nicholas, in 1291; it was partly rebuilt in 1716, and is a plain specimen of the late pointed style, consisting of a tower, nave, aisles, and a chancel separated from the nave by a screen of not much elegance. The name of the saint to whom it is dedicated is unknown. William Margison, in 1762, left £1000 for building and endowing a school; and there are a few minor charities. Micaceous earth has been detected in the strata underneath Whittington Hall, similar to that which is met with on Ingleborough. Fossil ferns occur at Docker; and the parish contains two small chalybeate springs.
WHITTINGTON, a hamlet, in the parish of Northwold, union of Thetford, hundred of Grimshoe, W. division of Norfolk; containing 178 inhabitants.
Whittington (St. John the Baptist)
WHITTINGTON (St. John the Baptist), a parish, in the hundred of Oswestry, N. division of Salop, 3 miles (E. N. E.) from Oswestry; containing 1919 inhabitants. Lloyd, in his Archæologia, imagines this place to have been celebrated, under the name Drêv Wen, or the White Town, by Llywarch Hen, a noble British bard, who flourished about the close of the 6th century. He also describes it as the spot where Condolanus, a British chieftain, was slain, in an attempt to expel some Irish invaders. According to the bards, it was subsequently the chief residence of Tudor Trevor. After the Conquest it was given to Roger, Earl of Shrewsbury; and on the defection of his son Earl Robert, and the confiscation of that nobleman's immense estates, in the reign of Henry I., the castle and barony were granted to the Peverells, from whom they passed to the illustrious race of Fitz-warine, who were lords of the place for nearly 400 years. The castle was a border fortress, and the neighbourhood the frequent scene of battle between the lords retainers and the Welsh; the remains consist of one tower, with traces of four others, and the exterior gateway, which is inhabited by a farmer.
The parish comprises by measurement 8158 acres. The soil is various, in some districts a strong clay, in others a loose gravel, and in parts sand and peat-moss. The village is pleasantly situated near the Ellesmere canal, on the road from Shrewsbury to Holyhead; and is watered by a brook which, rising in a neighbouring mountain, and flowing underground for about a mile, re-appears near the castle, and runs through the village into the river Perry, which falls into the Severn near Shrewsbury. The grant of a weekly market and an annual fair, was obtained by Fulk Fitz-warine, lord of the manor in the reign of Henry II.; both have been long discontinued. A court leet and baron is annually held in a modern portion of the castle, built a few years ago by William Lloyd, Esq., lord of the manor. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £25. 4. 2., and in the gift of the Lloyd family: certain impropriate tithes have been commuted for £285, and the incumbent's for £1041. 8.; the glebe comprises 58 acres. The church was originally built in the reign of Henry II., by Fulk Fitz-warine; the tower was rebuilt in 1740, the chancel in 1785, and the nave and other parts in 1806: the structure is of red brick. There is a chapel at Frankton, about three miles from the village; and the Brownists and Bryanites have places of worship. Sir Richard Whittington, mayor of London, is by some supposed to have been a native of the parish.
Whittington (St. Giles)
WHITTINGTON (St. Giles), a parish, in the union of Lichfield, N. division of the hundred of Offlow and of the county of Stafford, 2½ miles (E. by S.) from Lichfield; containing 799 inhabitants. It comprises 2921 acres, of which 463 are common or waste; the cultivated land is mostly arable, and of level surface. The manufacture of paper is carried on upon a small scale. The Coventry canal passes through the village. The living is a perpetual curacy, in the gift of John Levett, Esq., of Wichnor Park, chief owner of the parish: the great tithes have been commuted for £382. 10., and the small tithes for £159; the glebe comprises 46 acres. The church has a square tower, surmounted by a lofty spire; the body was rebuilt in 1762. About £8 per annum were left for education by an ancestor of Mr. Levett's.
WHITTINGTON, a hamlet, in the parish of Grendon, union of Atherstone, Tamworth division of the hundred of Hemlingford, N. division of the county of Warwick, 2 miles (N. W.) from Atherstone; containing 109 inhabitants. The river Anker and the Coventry canal pass in its vicinity.
WHITTINGTON, a chapelry, in the parish of St. Peter, Worcester, union of Pershore, Lower division of the hundred of Oswaldslow, Worcester and W. divisions of the county of Worcester, 2½ miles (S. E. by E.) from Worcester; containing 282 inhabitants. It comprises 941 acres of land. The hill of Cruckbarrow, here, is of an elliptical form, and measures 512 yards in circumference within the ring-fence at its base; it was probably used in very early times for purposes of worship, and is partly artificial. The chapel, dedicated to St. Philip and St. James, an ancient structure of wood, with some curious tracery in the windows, was taken down, and a new edifice erected, of which the first stone was laid on 25th July, 1842.
WHITTINGTON, GREAT, a township, in the parish of Corbridge, union of Hexham, E. division of Tindale ward, S. division of Northumberland, 7 miles (N. E.) from Hexham; containing 200 inhabitants. The township is the property of various persons. The tenants are bound to pay tithe of geese, pigs, &c, or sixpence each in lieu, to the lord of the manor, and to provide six mowers and twelve reapers for one day in each year, to cut the lord's hay and corn, pursuant to the ancient custom of bondage service. The village is situated about a mile and a half east of the Corbridge and Bingfield road.
WHITTINGTON, LITTLE, a township, in the parish of Corbridge, union of Hexham, E. division of Tindale ward, S. division of Northumberland, 6½ miles (N. E.) from Hexham; containing 19 inhabitants. It lies a short distance north of the Roman wall, and consists of two farmholds and a few cottages. The vicarial tithes have been commuted for £7. 10.; and the appropriate for £16, payable to the Dean and Chapter of Carlisle.
WHITTLE, a hamlet, in the district of New-Mills, parish of Glossop, union of Hayfield, hundred of High Peak, N. division of the county of Derby; containing 2284 inhabitants.—See New-Mills.
WHITTLE, a township, in the parish of Shilbottle, union of Alnwick, E. division of Coquetdale ward, N. division of Northumberland, 5 miles (S.) from Alnwick; containing 56 inhabitants. It lies a little east of the road between Morpeth and Alnwick, and is divided into High and Low Whittle. The great tithes have been commuted for £67, and the small for £9.
WHITTLE, a township, in the parish of Ovingham, union of Hexham, E. division of Tindale ward, S. division of Northumberland, 11 miles (W.) from Newcastle; containing 31 inhabitants. It is the property of Greenwich Hospital, and is situated above a mile north-by-west from Ovingham, upon a stream the water of which, being peculiarly soft and clear, is excellent for whitening linen-cloth. This stream, which in parts runs between woody banks, joins the Tyne east of Ovington; the scenery near it is romantic, and the glen along which it flows is celebrated for the number of its wild flowers. In the vicinity of Whittle is a strong sulphureous spring.
WHITTLE-LE-WOODS, a township, in the parish and hundred of Leyland, union of Chorley, N. division of the county of Lancaster, 2 miles (N.) from Chorley, on the road to Preston; containing 2295 inhabitants. One-half of the manor was granted about the reign of Henry I. to Gilbert de Witul, a descendant of whom in the reign of Henry III. gave it to Richard le Butler; and by marriage with the heiresses of John Butler, it came to the families of Standish of Duxbury, and Anderton of Clayton: the descendants of the latter sold their portion to the Crokes, in the reign of Charles II. The other half of the manor was given by the second baron of Penwortham to Richard Fiton, from whom it passed to the Lees, and, by marriage with the daughter of Sir Henry Lee, to Sir Richard Hoghton. The manor is now possessed jointly by the descendant of the Croke family, and the heir of the Standishes of Duxbury.
The township comprises about 1300 acres, of which the surface is undulated, and the soil chiefly a stiff clay, with sand and rock in the higher parts. The scenery is beautiful and romantic: from the hills are extensive views of the surrounding country, including the town of Preston, the rich lowlands of the entire hundred, and the river Ribble, which is seen winding towards its estuary at Lytham; while the coast and the Irish Sea bound the horizon. Shaw-Hill, on the west side of the Preston turnpike-road, the property of Thomas Bright Crosse, Esq., is a large mansion, remodelled in 1845, after the designs of Mr. Charles Reed, of Birkenhead. It possesses a distinctive architectural character; on the north a colonnade of the Roman-Doric order extends the whole length, and on the west side are terraces commanding fine prospects of the well-planted vicinity. A park of about 100 acres adjoins the house. Gorse Hall, the seat of John Heys, Esq., situated on the road to Blackburn, is a substantial stone structure, with 60 acres of land attached. Whittle-le-Woods is celebrated for its malt, for which there are two large kilns, in constant operation, belonging to Mr. Edward Craven, of Dalton Lodge, and his partners. A cotton-mill, established in 1838, and employing 150 hands, belongs to Mr. Edward Leese, jun., who has a neat cottage-residence close by; and near the Leeds and Liverpool canal, which runs through the township, are the chemicalworks and mordaunt manufactory of Mr. Thomas Coupe, of Oak-Vale cottage. There are also extensive quarries, producing an abundance of millstones for grinding, which are sent to Sheffield and other districts.
A church, dedicated to St. John, was built in 1830, by a grant from the Parliamentary Commissioners, aided by private subscription, at an expense of £2756; it is a handsome edifice in the later English style, from designs by Rickman. A district has been assigned to it, including the townships of Clayton and Whittle-le-Woods. The living is a perpetual curacy, in the patronage of the Vicar of Leyland; net income, £150, with a house; impropriators, Robert Townley Parker, Esq., and the family of Silvester. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans, built in 1840; and at South-Hill is a Roman Catholic chapel, belonging to the Jesuits, erected in 1791. A school was endowed in 1769, by Samuel Crooke, with the interest of £220: the school-house was rebuilt in 1813. Ten almshouses were founded in 1842, by Lady Hogbton, for the poor of Chorley.
In 1836 an alkaline spring was discovered, when boring for coal, at a depth of 75 yards, on the estate of Mr. Heys. The water contains carbonate of soda and carbonic acid, and is almost free from earthy substances; it is particularly efficacious in bilious attacks, dyspepsia, &c., and its properties have been found, by a late analysis by Mr. Davies, the eminent chemist, to be fully equal to those of the best alkaline waters. The grounds around are tastefully laid out, and appropriate buildings have been erected, with every convenience for the numerous persons resorting to the spot. Plunging-baths, one for gentlemen, one for ladies, and two for other patients, have just been completed, and the number of visiters increases daily. On the same estate is a mineral spring, similar in its properties to the waters of Harrogate. Fossils are frequently met with in the sandstone in the township. In 1846, when sinking the foundations for the alkaline well, a Roman silver coin of the Emperor Valerian, and one of Philip the Elder, were discovered.
WHITTLE, WELSH, a township, in the district chapelry of Coppull, parish of Standish, union of Chorley, hundred of Leyland, N. division of the county of Lancaster, 3 miles (S. W.) from Chorley; containing 149 inhabitants. This township, under the name of Walsewythull, was held of the earls of Lincoln by the Banastre family in the reign of Henry III. In that of Edward III., Sir William Careles held the manor, so called, of Walshwittell. In 1707 it was forfeited by the treason of William Dickenson, then owner, but, owing to legal technicality, the manor was not seized by the crown; and the Dicconsons, his descendants, have since been the principal proprietors. Welsh-Whittle Hall has long been the property of the Harveys. The road from Preston to Wigan passes through the northeastern part of the township. The tithes have been commuted for £84. 12. 10.
Whittlebury (St. Mary)
WHITTLEBURY (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Towcester, hundred of Greens-Norton, S. division of the county of Northampton, 3¾ miles (S. by W.) from Towcester; containing 748 inhabitants. It is situated on the road from Towcester to Buckingham, and comprises about 3400 acres, of which 600 are arable, nearly 800 meadow and pasture, and the remainder forest and woodland. The soil is partly gravelly, and partly clay; the chief crops, wheat and beans; and the principal timber, oak. Lord Southampton is owner of the district, and has a mansion here. The living is annexed, with that of Silverstone, to the rectory of Greens-Norton: the tithes were commuted for land and corn-rents in 1797. The church, an ancient structure in the early English style, has been recently restored and repewed, and contains about 500 sittings, of which 260 are free. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans; also a national school endowed with land producing £14 per annum. Some Roman tiles and ornaments were found in a field belonging to Mr. Cooke, adjoining the churchyard, in 1822; and Roman coins have also been found, in high preservation.
WHITTLESEY, a village, and district comprising the parishes of St. Andrew and St. Mary, which form a union, in the hundred of North Witchford, Isle of Ely, county of Cambridge, 6 miles (E. by S.) from Peterborough; containing 6874 inhabitants. This place, called Witesie in Domesday book, is supposed to have been a Roman station from the traces of a military way, and the numerous relics of antiquity discovered in the neighbourhood. The village or town, which is bounded on the north and south by branches of the river Nene, is large and respectable, though its market, held on Friday, has been for some years disused: the markethouse still remains. There is a fair for horses on June 13th; and at the Falcon, the principal inn, courts leet and baron occur twice a year. A public library and newsroom have been established by subscription. Adjoining Whittlesey, but in the county of Huntingdon, is an expanse of water termed Whittlesey Mere, abounding with a variety of fish. This lake is 8¾ miles in circumference, and is fed by the waters of a large tract of country: its antiquity and importance are shown in Domesday book, and by its having been granted, so early as 664, by the King of Mercia, to his new monastery of Medeshamsted, now Peterborough. In 870, it reverted to the crown; several grants were made of it by different kings, and in 1662 Charles II. conferred on Edward, Earl of Sandwich, the office of keeper of Whittlesey Mere. Near the village is a station of the Ely and Peterborough railway. An act for inclosing waste lands was passed in 1840.
The living of St. Andrew's is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £4. 13. 4., and in the patronage of the Crown; net income, £62. The church is a handsome structure, with a stately tower crowned by turrets. The living of St. Mary's is a discharged vicarage, valued at £19. 13. 9.; net income, £222. The church is a fine edifice, with a lofty tower of peculiar elegance, surmounted by a slender enriched spire of good proportions. Another church has been erected, at an expense of £1400, by Her Majesty's Commissioners, on a site given by the Childers family. There are places of worship for Baptists, Independents, Wesleyans, and Calvinistic Methodists; also two endowed schools, one founded in 1735 by Adam Kelfull, and endowed with £27 per annum; and the other in 1815 by John Sudbury, with £20 a year. William de Whittlesey, Archbishop of Canterbury, was born here in 1367. MajorGeneral Sir Harry Smith, the hero of Aliwal, is also a native of Whittlesey, where he was publicly received on his return from the East Indies.
Whittlesford (St. Mary and St. Andrew)
WHITTLESFORD (St. Mary and St. Andrew), a parish, in the union of Linton, hundred of Whittlesford, county of Cambridge, 7 miles (S. by E.) from Cambridge; containing 579 inhabitants. The parish comprises about 1800 acres, of which 250 are meadow and pasture, 100 woodland, and the remainder arable. It had formerly a market and a fair. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £10; net income, £169; patrons, the Master and Fellows of Jesus College, Cambridge; impropriator, H. J. Thurnall, Esq. The tithes were commuted for land and a money payment in 1809. William Westley, in 1723, bequeathed lands now let for £50 a year, for teaching children. At Whittlesford bridge are the remains of an hospital said to have been founded before the time of Edward I., by William Colvill, and which was dedicated to St. John the Baptist.