A Topographical Dictionary of England. Originally published by S Lewis, London, 1848.
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Houghton (All Saints)
HOUGHTON (All Saints), a parish, in the union of Stockbridge, partly in the hundred of King's-Sombourn, but chiefly in that of Buddlesgate, Romsey and S. divisions of the county of Southampton, 1½ mile (S. W. by S.) from Stockbridge; containing, with the tythings of Houghton-Drayton and North Houghton, 458 inhabitants. The parish comprises by admeasurement 2519 acres, of which 190 are common or waste. Here was Stockbridge race-course, considered to be one of the finest in the kingdom, but now broken up and under cultivation, a new course having been formed on the same down at a short distance from it: on the down are extensive training-stables. Courts leet and baron are held annually. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £28. 2. 8½., and in the patronage of the Bishop of Winchester: the tithes have been commuted for £615, and the glebe comprises 52 acres. The church was repaired and repewed in 1834, at the expense of the Rev. J. B. Burnett, the rector; it contains a beautiful font. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans.
HOUGHTON, a parish, in the hundred of Bury, rape of Arundel, W. division of Sussex, 4 miles (N. N. E.) from the town of Arundel; containing 177 inhabitants. The parish is situated on the road from Chichester to Storrington, and on that from London to Arundel and Bognor; it is bounded on the east by the river Arun, over which is a very ancient bridge, with a causeway adjoining it. The number of acres is computed at 2000; the soil is chalk, alternated with alluvial clay, and the arable and pasture lands are both productive. The living is a vicarage, united in 1700 to that of Amberley: the endowment is £16 per annum, paid by the Duke of Norfolk, who is impropriator. The church is in the early English style. On the downs are some earthworks.
Houghton, Yorkshire.—See Sanction.
Houghton-Conquest (All Saints)
HOUGHTON-CONQUEST (All Saints), a parish, in the union of Ampthill, hundred of Redbornestoke, county of Bedford, 2¼ miles (N. by E.) from Ampthill; containing 746 inhabitants. This place derives the adjunct to its name from the family of Conquest, lords of the manor prior to the thirteenth century, whose mansion, ornamented with grotesque carvings, is now a farmhouse: here James I. sojourned two days, in 1605, on a visit to Sir Edmund Conquest. Houghton Park House, now destroyed, was a celebrated seat of the family of Bruce, earls of Elgin and Ailesbury. The living is a rectory, with that of Houghton-Gildable united in 1637, valued together in the king's books at £35. 18. 4., net income, £599; patrons, the Master and Fellows of St. John's College, Cambridge. The church contains several monuments to the Conquest family, and one to Dr. Zachary Grey, incumbent here, and editor of Hudibras. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans. A free school and some almshouses were founded and endowed by Sir Francis Clerke, in 1632.
HOUGHTON, GLASS, a township, in the parish of Castleford, Upper division of the wapentake of Osgoldcross, W. riding of York, 2¾ miles (N. W.) from Pontefract; containing 436 inhabitants. The township comprises 1017a. 2r. 18p., of which 700 acres are arable, 260 meadow and pasture, and 55 woodland. Here are coal-mines and lime-works; and a remarkably fine kind of sand is found, much used in the manufacture of glass, from which circumstance, or from some works formerly existing here, the place is supposed to have derived the prefix to its name.
Houghton, Great (St. Mary)
HOUGHTON, GREAT (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Hardingstone, hundred of Wymmersley, S. division of the county of Northampton, 2¼ miles (E. S. E.) from Northampton; containing 332 inhabitants. The parish is situated on the right bank of the navigable river Nene, and comprises 1783a. 11p., of which 341 acres are arable; the soil is gravelly, with a clay substratum, and of a highly productive quality. The road from Northampton to Bedford passes at the bottom of a lane leading up to the village, and the Northampton and Peterborough railway runs parallel with the road through part of the parish. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £22, and in the gift of Magdalen College, Oxford: the tithes have been commuted for a rent-charge of £620, and there are 41 acres of glebe, and a rectory-house. The church, erected about 120 years ago, is a neat edifice in the Grecian style, with a spire.
HOUGHTON, GREAT, a township, in the parish of Darfield, N. division of the wapentake of Strafforth and Tickhill, W. riding of York, 7½ miles (E. by N.) from Barnsley; containing 348 inhabitants. The township comprises 1617 acres, of which 54 are common or waste. It was for many ages the residence of the Rhodes and Milnes families, and is still to some extent the property of R. P. Milnes, Esq., who is lord of the manor; but the most considerable portion of the land belongs to Earl Fitzwilliam. The ancient Hall is now a farmhouse; the village, which is well built, is situated on a lofty ridge commanding an extensive view. Tithe rent-charges have been awarded amounting to £271, payable in moieties to the rector, and Trinity College, Cambridge. Within the confines of the old Hall is an episcopal chapel, formerly a Presbyterian place of worship, where divine service is regularly performed.
HOUGHTON, HANGING, a hamlet, in the parish of Lamport, union of Brixworth, hundred of Or-Lingbury, N. division of the county of Northampton, 8 miles (N.) from Northampton; containing 107 inhabitants. It consists of 1271 acres of a productive soil, and is situated on the road between Northampton and Harborough. Here was anciently a chapel.
Houghton-in-the-Hole (St. Giles)
HOUGHTON-IN-THE-HOLE (St. Giles), a parish, in the union of Walsingham, hundred of North Greenhoe, W. division of Norfolk, ¾ of a mile (S. W.) from Little Walsingham; containing 242 inhabitants. The parish comprises 973a. 3r. 11p., of which nearly 869 acres are arable, 76 pasture, and 13 in plantations: the road from Fakenham to Walsingham runs through the village. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £8; net income, £148; patron and impropriator, the Rev. D. H. Lee Warner. The great tithes have been commuted for £182. 8., and the vicarial for £134. 7.; the glebe contains upwards of 5 acres. The church is chiefly in the early and decorated styles, and contains the remains of a beautifully carved screen, the lower compartments of which are ornamented with paintings of saints, &c. On the west side of the dale through which the river Stiffkey runs was a chapel, now a barn, supposed to have been an appendage to Walsingham Abbey.
HOUGHTON-LE-SIDE, a township, in the parish of Gainford, union of Darlington, S. E. division of Darlington ward, S. division of the county of Durham, 6¼ miles (N. W. by N.) from Darlington; containing 130 inhabitants. The vill was a portion of the inheritance of the early lords of Raby, and was granted by Robert Fitz-Mildred to the Springs, of whom Sir John Spring was, in 1312, murdered in his manorhouse here by Robert Lascelles, of Yorkshire. In 1403, the Nevills, of Raby, were still the superior lords; and in 1687 the freeholds were held by the families of Bellingham, Hobson, Denham, and Richmond. The township comprises 1031 acres, exclusively of 29 acres of waste land: the hamlet is situated on a lofty brow of limestone, to the north of Denton, and commands a full view over the vale of the Tees. The impropriate tithes have been commuted for £84, payable to Trinity College, Cambridge, and the vicarial for £51.
Houghton-Le-Spring (St. Michael)
HOUGHTON-LE-SPRING (St. Michael), a town and parish, and the head of a union, in the N. division of Easington ward and of the county of Durham, 6½ miles (N. E.) from Durham, and 266 (N. N. W.) from London; containing 16,833 inhabitants, of whom 2084 are in the town. This place, which takes its name from a family to whom it belonged soon after the Conquest, is one of the great manors of the see of Durham. It is beautifully situated in a luxuriant vale, sheltered on the north and east by a lofty chain of hills, and opening towards the south and west into an extensive and richly cultivated plain, interspersed with large tracts of majestic woods, and abounding with romantic scenery. The town has been increasing within the last twenty years, and contains numerous spacious and handsome houses, inhabited by opulent families; nearly in the centre of it is Houghton Hall, the ancient mansion of the family of Hutton, now extinct, a plain edifice of the 16th century, of which the exterior has been lately much improved. The trade arises chiefly from the numerous coal-mines in the neighbourhood; and nearly adjoining the place are an iron-foundry and forge, in which a large number of persons are employed. A fair is held on the Sunday after New Michaelmas-day, and continues for the two following days, when there are horse-races and various other amusements. The seneschal of the Bishop of Durham holds a halmote court twice in the year, for the recovery of debts not amounting to 40s.; and petty-sessions for the division are held every alternate week by the county magistrates. The parish, which is bounded on the north by the river Wear, comprises the townships of South Bidick, Bourn-Moor, Cocken, Great and Little Eppleton, East and Middle Herrington, West Herrington, Hetton-le-Hole, Houghton-le-Spring, Moorhouse, Moorsley, Morton-Grange, Newbottle, Offerton, Painshaw, East and West Rainton, and Warden-Law. It contains about 14,600 acres, and in the township of Houghton are 1475a. 14p.; of the latter, 893 acres are arable, 554 grass-land, 10 wood, and 17 waste. Freestone and limestone are quarried; and coal of the best quality is sent in large quantities to the London market, where it commands the highest prices: the greater part is conveyed by railway to the ports of Sunderland and Seaham.
The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £124; net income, according to the return made in 1835, £2157; patron, the Bishop. The tithes of Houghton township have been commuted for £261, and the glebe consists of 343 acres. The church, situated in the centre of the town, is an ancient cruciform structure in the early and decorated English styles, with a massive central tower, which was originally only about half its present height. The nave is divided from the aisles by ranges of clustered columns; and from the area beneath the tower, which is supported on four massive clustered columns, lofty pointed arches lead into the transepts and the choir: the east and west windows, of five lights, are of large dimensions and of elegant design. In the south transept are, a recumbent effigy of an armed knight, and an altar-tomb to the memory of the venerable Bernard Gilpin, many years rector of the parish. It may be noticed as a singular instance of longevity connected with this church, that in the year 1841, the rector was in his 78th year, the clerk in his 80th, the sextoness in her 86th, and the youngest of the attendant officers in the 76th year of his age. At Painshaw, Hetton-le-Hole, and other places, are additional churches. There are meeting-houses for Baptists, Independents, and Wesleyans, and a Roman Catholic chapel.
The Kepier Free Grammar school, situated at the north-east angle of the churchyard, was founded by letters-patent of Queen Elizabeth, in 1574, and endowed by Bernard Gilpin, and John Heath, Esq., of Kepier, near Durham, for the education of youth in the classics and higher departments of learning. The funds were augmented by Sir Geo. Wheler and the Rev. H. Bagshaw, subsequent rectors of the parish. The whole endowment, including a house with ample accommodation for 70 boarders, is now about £200 per annum; and attached to the school is an exhibition to any one of the Universities of Oxford, Cambridge, or Durham. Among the many eminent men educated in the establishment, over which the original founder himself, to a certain extent, presided, giving personal instruction in his own study to several of the pupils, have been Hugh Broughton, a distinguished Hebrew scholar, and Dr. George Carleton, Bishop of Chichester, the biographer of Gilpin. The Blue-coat school was founded by the Rev. Sir George Wheler, who bequeathed for its endowment £600, which sum was invested in land, producing an income of £80 per annum. An hospital originally founded by Bernard Gilpin, for six aged people, was rebuilt and endowed by George Lilburne, Esq., and the Rev. George Davenport, formerly rector of the parish; the buildings are situated near the grammar school, and consist of a centre and two wings, each containing two tenements. The union workhouse is a substantial stone building: the union comprises 15 townships in the parish, and the township of Silksworth in the adjoining parish of Bishop-Wearmouth, and contains a population of 16,067. Dr. Samuel Ward, an eminent divine, and master of Sydney-Sussex College, Cambridge, who died in 1643, was a native of the parish.
Houghton, Little (St. Mary)
HOUGHTON, LITTLE (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Hardingstone, hundred of Wymmersley, S. division of the county of Northampton, 3½ miles (E. by S.) from Northampton; containing 566 inhabitants. This parish consists of 1626 acres, and is situated on the right bank of the navigable river Nene, and intersected by the road from Northampton to Bedford. The Peterborough railway also runs through. The living is a vicarage, with that of Brafield-on-the-Green annexed, valued in the king's books at £6. 9. 2.; net income, £285, derived from land; patron, Samuel Percival, Esq.; impropriator, the Rev. Christopher Smyth, the present vicar. The church is a very ancient edifice in the early English style, with a square tower. The Wesleyans have a place of worship. Robert Ward in 1665 bequeathed £200, the interest to be appropriated to apprenticing children; and William Ward in 1673 assigned a rent-charge of £8, for the endowment of a school. The premises were rebuilt at the expense of the late Christopher Smyth, who added £13 per annum to the endowment, on condition that the master should teach eight boys of Little Houghton, four of Great Houghton, and eight of Brafield.
HOUGHTON, LITTLE, a township, in the parish of Long Houghton, union of Alnwick, S. division of Bambrough ward, N. division of Northumberland, 3¾ miles (N. E. by E.) from Alnwick; containing, with the hamlet of Little Mill, 136 inhabitants. It is situated to the west of Howick Park, and about two miles north-west of the village of Long Houghton. Coal was wrought here upwards of a century ago, and more recently a species of coal adapted for lime-kilns; but the works have been long discontinued. Lead is found in small quantities.
HOUGHTON, LITTLE, a township, in the parish of Darfield, N. division of the wapentake of Strafforth and Tickhill, W. riding of York, 6½ miles (E.) from Barnsley; containing 108 inhabitants. The township comprises by computation 1100 acres: the village is situated on an acclivity, and the surrounding scenery is pleasingly diversified. Rent-charges amounting to £157 have been awarded in lieu of tithes.
Houghton, Long (St. Peter)
HOUGHTON, LONG (St. Peter), a parish, in the union of Alnwick, S. division of Bambrough ward, N. division of Northumberland; containing, with the townships of Little Houghton and Boulmer with SeatonHouse, 772 inhabitants, of whom 483 are in the township of Long Houghton, 3¾ miles (E. N. E.) from Alnwick. The parish comprises 3835 acres by computation: the soil is generally a strong loam; the surface is diversified with hills. Coal, whinstone, and lime are obtained. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £9. 9. 4.; net income, £162; patron, the Duke of Northumberland; impropriators, Earl Grey, and James Murray and W. Hindmarsh, Esqrs. The church, a plain structure, has a fine old tower with a beautiful Norman arch. A little westward of the village, is a romantic eminence called Ratcheugh Cray.
Houghton, New, or Houghton-by-Harpley (St. Martin)
HOUGHTON, NEW, or Houghton-by-Harpley (St. Martin), a parish, in the union of Docking, hundred of Gallow, W. division of Norfolk, 7 miles (N. by W.) from Rougham; containing 303 inhabitants. The parish comprises by computation 1495 acres, of which about 715 are arable, 30 pasture, and the rest comprehended within the park and plantations of Houghton Hall, the seat of the Marquess of Cholmondeley, situated on a gentle eminence. This mansion, which is one of the finest in the county, was begun by Sir Robert Walpole, in 1722, and finished in 1735, and is a magnificent structure of freestone, consisting of two principal fronts, connected with their respective wings by balustraded colonnades: the interior contains numerous apartments splendidly fitted up, and a large collection of statues and paintings of the first order. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £5; patron and impropriator, the Marquess: the vicarial tithes have been commuted for £108. 17., and the glebe contains 4 acres. The church is chiefly in the early English style; in the nave is an ancient stone coffin, on the lid of which is sculptured, in basrelief, a priest in full dress.
Houghton-on-the-Hill (St. Catherine)
HOUGHTON-ON-THE-HILL (St. Catherine), a parish, in the union of Billesdon, hundred of Gartree, S. division of the county of Leicester, 6½ miles (E. by S.) from Leicester; containing 451 inhabitants. This parish, according to the award at the time of the inclosure act, in 1765, comprises 1800 acres, of which the greater portion is pasture, and the remainder good arable land; the soil is a stiff clay, resting in some parts on gravel, and the grounds are watered by numerous small streams. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £16. 1. 0½.; net income, £262; patron, T. Freer, Esq. The tithes were commuted for land in 1765; the glebe altogether comprises 180 acres, with a house. The church is of the Norman style, and contains a piscina, and a font of very large dimensions. There is a place of worship for Baptists.
Houghton-on-the-Hill (St. Mary)
HOUGHTON-ON-THE-HILL (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Swaffham, hundred of South Greenhoe, W. division of Norfolk, 4¼ miles (N. W.) from Watton; containing 41 inhabitants. It comprises 601a. 29p., of which 458 acres are arable, and 92 pasture and meadow. The living is a rectory, united to that of North Pickenham, and valued in the king's books at £4. 18. 9. The church is an ancient structure with a tower, and is situated on an eminence.
Houghton-Regis (All Saints)
HOUGHTON-REGIS (All Saints), a parish, in the union of Luton, hundred of Manshead, county of Bedford, 1¾ mile (N.) from Dunstable; containing 1661 inhabitants. This place, as its name imports, was formerly held in royal demesne. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £11. 3. 4.; net income, £212; patron, the Duke of Bedford; impropriator, H. Brandreth, Esq.: the tithes were commuted for land and a money payment in 1796. The church contains an ancient monument with the figure of a man in armour, beneath a highly decorated arch, in the early English style. A school was endowed in 1654, by Thomas Whitehead, with an estate and £250.
HOUGHTON, WEST, a chapelry, in the parish of Deane, union of Bolton, hundred of Salford, S. division of Lancashire, 4 miles (W. S. W.) from Bolton, on the road to Wigan; containing 4527 inhabitants. From the period of the Reformation, when the possessions of the abbey of Cockersand were confiscated, the manor of West Houghton has been in the hands of the king; and Lord Skelmersdale now holds it in fee from the crown, receiving the small chief-rents. The chapelry comprises 4460 acres, of which the surface is level but elevated, and the soil a heavy clay: several collieries are in operation. The population is chiefly engaged in the hand-loom weaving of silk, and muslins and jaconets. The cotton-mill of Peter Ditchfield, Esq., employs 250 hands; it stands on the site of one of the first powerloom factories ever established, built by Messrs. Wroe and Duncuft in 1812, and destroyed by the Luddites in the same year. The fate of this early factory presents a feature somewhat remarkable in the history of the cotton manufacture. The outrages of the Luddites in Nottingham and Yorkshire occurring at that period, rendered it an unpropitious time for the introduction of machinery; and when the attacks upon obnoxious property of this description extended to this neighbourhood, Messrs. Wroe and Duncuft's factory was burnt to the ground. Their violence, however, had not the effect that the incendiaries anticipated. On the contrary, the manufacture, by power-loom process, was transferred to the then almost unknown locality of Stalybridge, where new works continually sprang up, and caused the prosperity of that place. An episcopal chapel, dedicated to St. Bartholomew, existed in West Houghton in 1662, when it had a roof of thatch, and stood in the midst of moors; the edifice was rebuilt in 1731, under the patronage of the vicar of Deane, and is now dedicated to St. Mary. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £150; patron, the Vicar. There are places of worship for Independents, Wesleyans, and the Society of Friends. A school was built by subscription in 1742, and enlarged in 1784; the income is about £20 per annum. In this township, at a place called Drake-Lane brook, is a strong sulphureous spring.
Hound (St. Mary)
HOUND (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of South Stoneham, hundred of Mansbridge, Southampton and S. divisions of the county of Southampton, 3 miles (S. E. by E.) from Southampton; containing, with the chapelry of Bursledon, and the tythings of Netley and Sholing, 1008 inhabitants, of whom 127 are in the tything of Hound with Satchell. The parish is situated on the verge of Southampton Water, and comprises by computation 3662a. 2r. 10p. About 485 acres, called Netley-Grange, are tithe-free; of the rest 1440 are arable, 256 meadow and pasture, 335 woodland, and about 1100 acres common, over which all the tenants of the manor of Hound have an unlimited right of pasturage. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £5. 4. 7.; patrons and impropriators, the Warden and Fellows of Winchester College. The great tithes have been commuted for £345. 6. 8., and the vicarial for £172. 13. 4.; the glebe contains nearly 15 acres. There is a chapel of ease at Bursledon. At a short distance from the bank of the Southampton Water, and surrounded by well-wooded and gentlyrising grounds, are the celebrated ruins of Netley Abbey, founded in 1239, for monks of the Cistercian order, and the revenue of which was valued at the Dissolution at £160. 2. 9. The site and remains were granted to the Marquess of Winchester, and in 1560 Queen Elizabeth was entertained within the walls by the Earl of Hertford, its proprietor at that time. The remains of the chapel, which is cruciform, are particularly beautiful: here is also an ancient crypt, commonly called the Abbot's Kitchen; and the other ruins are, parts of the chapterhouse and refectory, the richly ornamented east window, with a circular compartment, an arch of the west window mantled with ivy, and the south transept. Near the abbey, are the remains of a small fort called Netley Castle, erected by Henry VIII.
HOUNSLOW, a district chapelry, and formerly a market-town, partly in the parish of Isleworth, but chiefly in that of Heston, union of Brentford, hundred of Isleworth, county of Middlesex, 9½ miles (W. S. W.) from London; containing 3097 inhabitants, of whom 1666 are in the Isleworth portion. This place, anciently called Hundeslawe, is situated on the principal road to the west of England, and consists chiefly of a long street, extending from east to west, irregularly paved, and lighted with gas; the inhabitants are well supplied with water. A priory of friars, of the order of the Holy Trinity, was founded here in the thirteenth century, the revenue of which, at the Dissolution, was £80. 15. 0¼. In 1296, a charter was granted to the prior for a market on Thursday, and an annual fair; the former has been long discontinued, but fairs are held on Trinity Monday and Tuesday, and the Monday following Michaelmas-day, for the sale of horses, cattle, &c. Adjoining the town, on the west, was formerly an extensive heath, the site of ancient encampments, and at different periods a military station, or place of rendezvous for troops, especially in the reigns of Charles I. and James II. On this heath are barracks for cavalry, which afford accommodation for 360 men with their horses. The heath has been inclosed, in pursuance of an act of parliament passed in the 53rd of George III., since which many buildings have been erected here. About two miles to the south-west of Hounslow are the extensive gunpowder-mills of Messrs. Curtis and Harvey, which have been very much improved within the last few years, and where a curious pump, worked by wind-sails, raises from thirty to fifty tons of water in a minute. Here are also another gunpowder-mill, and a mill for dressing flax. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £125; patron, the Bishop of London. The ancient chapel of the priory, which, after the Reformation, was used as a chapel of ease to Heston, was taken down, and the erection of a new church on its site was completed in Dec. 1829, at an expense of £5310, defrayed partly by the Parliamentary Commissioners, and partly by subscription; it is a fine edifice, in the later English style, with two turrets surmounted by dwarf spires. There are places of worship for Independents and Wesleyans.
HOUSHAM, a township, in the parish of Cadney, union of Glandford-Brigg, S. division of the wapentake of Yarborough, parts of Lindsey, county of Lincoln, 4 miles (S. E. by E.) from the town of Glandford-Brigg; containing 263 inhabitants.
Hove (St. Andrew)
HOVE (St. Andrew), a parish, in the union of Steyning, hundred of Preston, rape of Lewes, E. division of Sussex; adjoining the town of Brighton on the west, and containing 2509 inhabitants. This place till lately constituted the endowment of two prebends in the cathedral of Chichester, called respectively Hova Ecclesia and Hova Villa. The village was of considerable extent for a long time subsequently to the Norman Conquest, but is now almost swallowed up by the encroachments of the sea, though it still has a few fishingboats, bathing-machines, and lodging-houses. A portion of the more respectable part of Brighton, including Adelaide-crescent, Brunswick-terrace, and Brunswicksquare, is in the parish. The road from Brighton to Portsmouth, and a branch of the London and Brighton railway, pass through the parish, which comprises 2500 acres, whereof 30 are common or waste. The living is a vicarage not in charge, united to that of Preston: the impropriate tithes have been commuted for £220, and the vicarial for £93. 10.; there are nearly 2 acres of glebe. The church is a modern edifice. In the Brighton part of the parish is a chapel dedicated to St. Andrew, containing 500 sittings: the living is in the gift of the Proprietors.