A Topographical Dictionary of England. Originally published by S Lewis, London, 1848.
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Wincanton (St. Peter and St. Paul)
WINCANTON (St. Peter and St. Paul), a market-town and parish, and the head of a union, in the hundred of Norton-Ferris, E. division of Somerset, 34 miles (E.) from Taunton, and 108 (W. by S.) from London; containing 2296 inhabitants. This place, which is of great antiquity, was anciently called Wyndcaleton, and derived that name from its situation on the windings of the river Cale, by which it is bounded on the west. It was the scene of many sanguinary conflicts between the Britons and the Saxons, and subsequently of numerous encounters between the latter and the Danes, who made frequent irruptions into this part of the country. During the parliamentary war, some of the earliest engagements between the contending parties took place in the immediate vicinity of this town; in which, according to Burnet's History of his own Times, was shed the first blood in the Revolution of 1688, though some state this to have occurred at Cirencester. In 1747, a considerable portion of the town was destroyed by fire, to which may be attributed the uniform appearance it afterwards assumed.
The town is pleasantly situated on the declivity of a hill rising gently from the river Cale, and consists principally of four regular streets, containing some well-built houses. The environs abound with interesting scenery, and on the south is an uninterrupted view of the fine Vale of Black more, extending for many miles: the land is extremely fertile, and within a short distance of the town are several gentlemen's seats. The manufacture of linen and bed-ticking was formerly carried on to a considerable extent, but within the last few years has greatly declined: a branch of the silk manufacture has been introduced. The market is on Wednesday, and is well supplied with corn, cattle, cheese, and butter; the fairs are on Easter-Tuesday and September 29th. The town is divided into the Borough and the Tything; two constables for the former are appointed at the manorial court, and a court leet for the hundred is held annually, at which a tything-man is chosen for the latter. The powers of the county debt-court of Wincanton, established in 1847, extend over the registration-district of Wincanton. The parish comprises by measurement 4130 acres: there are quarries of stone for building, and for mending the roads.
The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £123; patrons, the Messiter family, as owners of the rectory: the tithes have been commuted for £490, and the glebe comprises 45 acres. The church, a spacious and neat edifice, with a square embattled tower, was enlarged in 1835. There are places of worship for Baptists, the Society of Friends, and Independents; also a national school. Various charitable bequests have been made for distribution among the poor. The union of Wincanton comprises 39 parishes or places, 37 of which are in the county of Somerset, and two in that of Dorset; and contains a population of 21,286. At Stavordale, the north-eastern extremity of the parish, a small priory of Augustine canons, dedicated to St. James, is said to have been built by Sir William Zouch, which, in the 24th of Henry VIII., was annexed to the priory of Taunton: the remains, especially the richly-groined roof and some portions of the chapel, are in good preservation. The Earl of Ilchester, among his inferior titles, takes that of Baron Stavordale from the place. At Horwood, about a mile south-east of the town, are two mineral springs, resembling those at Cheltenham. An urn, containing several Roman coins, was discovered in the parish many years since. Sir James Dyer, chief justice of the court of common pleas in the reign of Elizabeth, was a native of Wincanton.
Winceby (St. Margaret)
WINCEBY (St. Margaret), a parish, in the union of Horncastle, hundred of Hill, parts of Lindsey, county of Lincoln, 2½ miles (N. W. by N.) from Bolingbroke; containing 70 inhabitants, and consisting of 842a. 3r. The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at £6. 0. 2½., and in the patronage of the Crown: the tithes have been commuted for £205. 5., and the glebe comprises 29 acres. The church is an ancient structure. A battle was fought here during the parliamentary war, in which the king's troops were defeated.
Winch, East (All Saints)
WINCH, EAST (All Saints), a parish, in the union and hundred of Freebridge-Lynn, W. division of Norfolk, 5½ miles (S. E. by E.) from Lynn; containing 440 inhabitants. It comprises by measurement 2530a. 3r. 27p., of which about 1800 acres are arable, 541 meadow and pasture, 69 woodland, and the remainder common, roads, and waste. The village is on the road from Lynn to Norwich, and the Lynn and Dereham railway has a station here. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £8; patron, the Rev. George Edw. Kent: the vicarial tithes have been commuted for £184; the glebe comprises 14 acres. The church is a handsome structure in the later English style, with a square embattled tower; in the east window are the arms of Vere and Howard, and on the north side is the ancient chapel of St. Mary, the burial-place of the latter family. At the inclosure, 80 acres of common were allotted to the poor; and there are 28¾ acres of land, producing £42 per annum, for the repair of the church and for the poor, given by Robert Astey in 1607. Near Grancourt House, which was the seat of Sir William Howard, who purchased the manor in the reign of Edward the First, are some slight remains of a religious house.
Winch, West (St. Mary)
WINCH, WEST (St. Mary), a parish, in the union and hundred of Freebridge-Lynn, W. division of Norfolk, 3 miles (S. by E.) from Lynn; containing 415 inhabitants. It is bounded on the west by the navigable river Nar, and comprises 1208a. 1r., of which 437 acres are arable, 542 meadow and pasture, and 210 common and waste. The Lynn and Ely railway passes through the parish. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £9. 13. 4., and in the patronage of the Crown: the tithes have been commuted for £324, and the glebe consists of 21 acres. The church is an ancient structure in the early and decorated English styles, with a square embattled tower.
WINCHAM, a township, in the parish of Great Budworth, union of Northwich, hundred of Bucklow, N. division of the county of Chester, 2 miles (N. E. by E.) from Northwich; containing 650 inhabitants. It comprises 857 acres, partly a clay and partly a sand soil.
Winchcomb (St. Peter)
WINCHCOMB (St. Peter), a market-town and parish, and the head of a union, in the Lower division of the hundred of Kiftsgate, E. division of the county of Gloucester, 15½ miles (N. E. by E.) from Gloucester, and 95 (W. N. W.) from London; containing 2613 inhabitants. This place was formerly called Wincelcumb (from the Saxon Wincel, a corner, and comb, a valley), of which its modern name is obviously a contraction. During the heptarchy, if not the metropolis of the kingdom of Mercia, it was at least the residence of some of the Mercian kings, of whom Offa founded a nunnery here in 787. Cenulph, who succeeded to the throne of that kingdom, after the death of Egferth, Offa's son, who survived his father only a few months, had a palace here, and in 798 laid the foundation of a stately abbey for 300 monks of the Benedictine order, which he endowed with an ample revenue, and dedicated with unusual splendour to the Blessed Virgin Mary. At the conclusion of the ceremony, which was conducted by Wulfred, Archbishop of Canterbury, assisted by twelve other prelates, in the presence of the king himself, of Cuthred, King of Kent, Sired, King of the East Saxons, ten dukes, and the flower of the Mercian nobles, Cenulph, leading to the high altar his captive Ethelbert Pren, usurper of the kingdom of Kent, whom he had made prisoner, generously restored him to his liberty without fine or ransom. In the year 819 Cenulph was buried in the abbey which he had founded, where also the remains of his son and successor, Kenelm, were deposited; the latter was at length canonized, and the numerous pilgrimages made to his shrine greatly augmented the revenue of the monastery, which was subsequently re-dedicated to the Virgin Mary and St. Kenelm. The establishment was afterwards in the possession of Secular priests, and had almost fallen into decay, when Oswald, Bishop of Worcester, in the year 985, reformed its discipline, recovered the lands of which it had been deprived, and restored it to the Benedictine monks, who held it till the Dissolution.
This was a mitred abbey, the first summons of the abbot to parliament now on record being in 1265. Its possessions were numerous, for, at the period of the Norman survey, no fewer than nineteen manors were annexed to it, independently of Winchcomb itself; though the monks having opposed the Conqueror, had been deprived by him of many of their lands. At the Dissolution the revenue was £759. 11. 9. The building is reported to have been exceedingly magnificent, and the establishment so prosperous at one period, that it was "equal to a little university." Very few traces of it remain, but the memorial is preserved in the name of part of a hamlet, which is still called the Abbey demesnes.
Of the civil history of the place few particulars are recorded: the town appears to have been walled, and to the south of the church was an ancient fortress, or castle, which, according to Lei and, having fallen into decay, and the ruins being overspread with ivy, gave the name of Ivy Castle to a spot now occupied only by a few cottages and gardens. Winchcomb is situated in a beautiful vale, at the northern base of the Cotswold hills, by which it is sheltered nearly on every side; and is watered by the little river Isbourne, which flows close to it on the south-east. It consists principally of three streets, extending in a long line from east to west, with North-street and a few smaller ones branching from them. The houses are in general low and of indifferent appearance; and being but little of a thoroughfare, the place preserves an air of seclusion and tranquillity, and has that venerable character which denotes an AngloSaxon town. It is abundantly supplied with excellent water from wells and springs. The cultivation of tobacco, which is said to have been first planted here on its introduction into the kingdom, in 1583, was for a considerable time a source of much profit to the inhabitants; but in the 12th of Charles I., the trade being restrained, the plantations were neglected. The principal branches of manufacture at present carried on are those of paper and silk, for the former of which there are two large mills in the neighbourhood, and one for the latter; there is also a tanyard on a moderate scale. The market is on Saturday: fairs are held on the last Saturday in March, on May 6th, and July 28th, for horses, cattle, and sheep; and two fairs take place at Michaelmas for the hiring of servants. Previously to the time of Canute, Winchcomb, with a small surrounding district, was a county of itself; and in the reign of Edward the Confessor the town was made a borough. The powers of the county debt-court of Winchcomb, established in 1847, extend over the registration-district of Winchcomb.
The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £3. 4.; net income, £134: patron, Lord Sudeley. The tithes were commuted for land in 1812. The church, partly erected by Abbot William, in the reign of Henry VI., and completed at the expense of the parishioners, munificently assisted by Ralph Boteler, Lord of Sudeley, is a spacious and handsome structure in the later English style, with a lofty square embattled tower crowned by pinnacles. The walls are embattled and strengthened by buttresses, also terminating in pinnacles; the south porch, of which the roof is elaborately groined and highly enriched, is a beautiful specimen of the style. At Gretton is a chapel of ease. There are places of worship for Baptists and Wesleyans. A free grammar school was established in 1522, by Henry VIII., who endowed it with £9. 4. 6. per annum, which was confirmed by Queen Elizabeth. The school, after being long continued in a house belonging to the corporation, was united to a grammar school subsequently founded by Lady Frances Chandos, for which she erected a school-house in St. Nicholas' street, endowing it with certain property. The income, arising from nearly 20 acres of land, is £45. A school for teaching children to read was instituted by George Townsend, Esq., who endowed it with £5 per annum as a salary for the master (since increased to £20 by the trustees), and also left funds for apprenticing the children, with whom a premium of £15 is given. There are likewise various bequests for the poor. The union of Winchcomb comprises 30 parishes or places, of which 27 are in the county of Gloucester, and 3 in that of Worcester; and contains a population of 10,000. In the parish are two mineral springs, one a strong saline, the other chalybeate, and nearly similar to the water of Cheltenham. Besides the abbey of St. Mary, previously noticed, were a church dedicated to St. Nicholas, in the east part of the town; and an ancient hospital. Tidenham of Winchcomb, Bishop of Worcester, and physician to Richard II., is supposed to have been a native of the towu; and Dr. Christopher Mercet, an eminent naturalist and philosopher, was born here in 1614.
Winchelsea (St. Thomas the Apostle)
WINCHELSEA (St. Thomas the Apostle), a borough and parish, having separate jurisdiction, and formerly a market-town, in the union of Rye, locally in the hundred of Guestling, rape of Hastings, E. division of Sussex, 74 miles (E. by N.) from Chichester, and 63¾ (S. E.) from London; containing 687 inhabitants. The ancient town, which is supposed to have derived its name from its bleak and exposed situation near the Camber Point, was a place of considerable importance in the time of the Romans, but was destroyed by an inundation about the close of the 13th century. The present town was built upon an eminence well adapted to prevent a similar accident, in the reign of Edward I., who gave land for the purpose, and contributed largely towards its erection. The site, originally called Higham, was, by the munificence of that monarch, surrounded with walls, and defended by three strong gates, which formed the principal entrances, and are still in good preservation. In the reign of Henry III., Winchelsea and Rye were annexed to the cinque ports, but more as appendages than equal ports, being members of Hastings; in the different charters granted to these towns, they are invariably styled "ancient towns." The new town was invested with the same privileges as the old, and, enjoying all the benefits of the cinque-ports, it rapidly acquired a considerable degree of commercial importance. The inhabitants joining in the rebellion of Simon de Montfort, Edward I., after the defeat of the rebels at Evesham, advanced to Winchelsea, which he took by storm; but on the submission of the insurgents, he restored to them their privileges. In the reign of Edward III. it sustained material injury from the French, who having landed on this part of the coast, burnt a portion of it; and in the time of Richard II. it was plundered by the Spaniards. But it experienced the greatest injury from the retiring of the sea, about the close of Elizabeth's reign, by which its harbour was destroyed, and its trade annihilated.
The town is about a mile and a half distant from the sea, and occupies a space nearly two miles in circumference, divided into squares by streets intersecting each other at right angles, probably after the plan of the ancient town. The manufacture of cambric was introduced in 1760, but was soon discontinued, and a subsequent attempt to establish a factory of Italian crape was attended with no better success. A fair is held on May 14th, for cattle. An extensive mackerel-fishery is carried on in a detached portion of the parish, situated on the coast eastward of Rye, where is a coast-guard station for one officer and 12 men. The Royal Military canal commences at Cliff-End, and passes by the town parallel with the shore, till it enters the sea at Shorne-cliff, near Hythe. According to the ancient charter, the government is vested in a mayor and twelve jurats, who are justices of the peace within the ancient town and its liberties, and hold quarterly courts of session for the borough, and also petty-sessions when requisite. The borough received the elective franchise in the 42nd of Edward III., from which period till the 2nd of William IV. it continued to return two members; it was disfranchised by the act then passed, and joined to the borough of Rye. Jointly with Hastings, it sends canopy-bearers on the occasion of a coronation, these two places being entitled to every third turn, in common with the other cinque-ports. The court-house is an ancient building, of which the lower portion forms the gaol for the borough. The parish comprises about 800 acres.
The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at £6. 13. 4.; net income, £278; patrons, the Trustees of Sir W. Ashburnham, Bart. The choir, the only remaining portion of the ancient church, a magnificent cruciform structure, is now appropriated as the parochial church, aud presents an elegant specimen of the early and decorated English styles. On the south side are some stalls and a piscina of beautiful design, and in other parts are several splendid monuments, including three supposed to be memorials of Knights Templars, cross-legged and in armour, of which one, in particular, is hardly excelled by any in the kingdom. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans. In addition to the church of St. Thomas were anciently two parochial churches dedicated respectively to St. Leonard and St. Giles. The remains of antiquity still visible are, the ruins of Camber Castle, erected by Henry VIII., a circular fortress with a round tower; the ancient gates of the town; and the interesting ruins of a monastery of Grey friars founded by Edward II. Some fragments of the conventual church, dedicated to the Virgin Mary, form a picturesque object embosomed in trees. On the site of the cloisters, a handsome mansion in the early English style of domestic architecture, was erected in 1820, by Richard Stileman, Esq. Robert, Archbishop of Canterbury, who died in 1313, was a native of the town. It gives the title of Earl to the Finch family.
Winchendon, Nether (St. Nicholas)
WINCHENDON, NETHER (St. Nicholas), a parish, in the union of Aylesbury, hundred of Ashendon, county of Buckingham, 4 miles (S. by W.) from Waddesdon; containing 291 inhabitants. It comprises about 1560 acres, of which one-half is arable, and the other meadow and pasture. The living is a perpetual curacy; patron, T. T. Bernard, Esq.
Winchendon, Upper (St. Mary Magdalene)
WINCHENDON, UPPER (St. Mary Magdalene), a parish, in the union of Aylesbury, hundred of Ashendon, county of Buckingham, 6 miles (W. by N.) from Aylesbury; containing 218 inhabitants. It comprises by measurement 1197 acres, of which the soil is generally a light and yellow mould. The living is a donative, valued in the king's books at £7. 17.; net income, £60; patron and impropriator, the Duke of Marlborough.
WINCHESTER, a city, having separate jurisdiction, and the head of a union, locally in the hundred of Buddlesgate, Winchester and N. divisions of the county of Southampton, of which it is the capital, 63 miles (S. W. by W.) from London; containing, with the Soke liberty, 10,732 inhabitants. This place, called by the ancient Britons Caer Gwent, from the whiteness of its chalky soil, was the Venta Belgarum of Ptolemy and Antoninus; and on its subsequent occupation by the Saxons, obtained the appellation of Wintan-Ceaster, from which its present name is derived. It was probably first inhabited by the Celtic Britons, who emigrated from the coasts of Armorica, in Gaul, and came to this part of the island, finding well-watered valleys, fertile plains, and shady forests, adapted to their support, and suited to the exercise of their religious rites. Here they fixed their chief residence, and continued in undisturbed possession till within a century prior to the Christian era, when they were expelled by a tribe of the Belgæ, who, having established themselves on the southern coasts, concentrated their forces, and advancing into the country, made this one of their settlements. Among the several towns which were called Ventæ, this became the most important, and, prior to the Roman invasion, was the capital of the Belgian territory in Britain. It retained its pre-eminence till it fell under the power of the Romans, who, achieving the conquest of this portion of the island, under Vespasian, made it one of their principal stations. In the year 50, Ostorius Scapula fortified all the cities of the Belgae between Anton, or the Southampton river, and the Severn, and placed garrisons in them, as a defence from the frequent assaults of the Britons, who were ever on the alert to surprise the enemy, and to recover the towns of which they had been deprived. The fortifications of this station may be still discerned in various places; and on Catherine Hill, within a mile of the city, are vestiges of a Roman camp. Two Roman temples are said to have been erected near the site of the present cathedral, one consecrated to Apollo, and the other to Concord; and among other evidences of Roman occupation, sepulchres have been discovered without the walls of the city to the north, east, and west. Carausius and Alectus, who assumed the imperial purple in Britain, are said to have fixed their residence in this place, where their coins have been discovered in greater profusion than in any other part of the kingdom. Soon after the establishment of Christianity in the island, a monastery was founded here, of which Constans, son of Coustantine, was one of the brethren; but being allured by his father from his devotional retirement, to take the command of the forces in Spain, he was, by the revolt of his general, made prisoner, and eventually put to death. After the departure of the Romans from Britain, Vortigern, who had previously exercised authority over the western part of the island, being elected king in order to oppose the incursions of the Picts and Scots, who were making continual depredations, made Winchester the metropolis of the whole kingdom. It was also the residence of his successors.
On the invasion of Britain by the Saxons under Cerdic, and the defeat of the united Britons in the New Forest, it became the capital of the Saxon kingdom of Wessex, and the residence of the conqueror, who was crowned King of the West Saxons. Cerdic, in conjunction with his son Cenric, spent several years in extending his dominions, and in giving security to his conquests; he died and was buried here, in 534. During his government, the monastery was converted into a Pagan temple, and appropriated to the service of the Saxon deities. In 635, St. Birinus, whom Pope Honorius had sent into Britain, to propagate the Christian faith in those parts of the island which were still in Pagan darkness, met with a favourable reception from Cynegils, who, with his son Cwichelm, was then king of the West Saxons. Cynegils, by the persuasion of Oswald, King of Northumbria, who afterwards espoused his daughter Kineburga, was baptized at York; and in the following year, his son Cwichelm and many of his subjects were converted to Christianity, which from that time began to flourish in this part of the island. Cenwahl, the second son, succeeding to the throne on the death of his elder brother, the people again relapsed into paganism, till, upon his baptism by St. Birinus, in 648, he completed a cathedral, which he dedicated to St. Birinus, St. Peter, and St. Paul; and founded, and amply endowed, a monastery near the site. About ten years after the death of St. Birinus, who was buried at Dorchester, Cenwahl divided the see into two portions, assigning the northern part of his kingdom to Dorchester, and the southern part to Winchester, to the cathedral of which latter place the remains of St. Birinus were removed by Hedda, the fifth bishop. Egbert, who succeeded to the throne of Wessex in 800, after many severe struggles for empire, obtained the sovereignty of all the kingdoms of the heptarchy, of which he was crowned sole monarch, in the cathedral of Winchester, in 827, in the presence of a wittenagemote, or great assembly of the people. This union of the kingdoms greatly promoted the importance of Winchester, which, from being the capital only of Wessex, became the metropolis of the kingdom. Ethelwolf, who succeeded Egbert, dated from this city his charter for the general establishment of tithes, which was signed in the cathedral, by himself, by Burhred, King of Mercia, and Edmund, King of the East Angles (his tributary vassals), and by the chief nobility and prelates.
About this time the city seems to have been in a flourishing condition; and a commercial guild was established in it, under royal protection, at least a century earlier than in any other part of the kingdom. During the reigns of Ethelwolf and Ethelbald, St. Swithin, a native, either of the city or its suburbs, presided over the see. By his advice, the latter monarch inclosed the cathedral and the cloisters with a wall and fortifications, to defend them from the predatory attacks of the Danes, who, at this period, were beginning to make frequent incursions upon this part of the coast, and who, in the succeeding reign, having landed in considerable numbers at Southampton, advanced to Winchester, where they committed the most barbarous outrages. When retiring to their ships, however, they were attacked, routed with great slaughter, and dispossessed of the immense quantity of plunder which they had taken in the city. About the year 872, after repeated battles fought with various success, in which Ethelbert was assisted by his younger brother Alfred, a band of those rapacious pirates assaulted the city, in which they made dreadful havoc; the cathedral was greatly damaged, and the ecclesiastics were inhumanly massacred. After the victory subsequently obtained over them by Alfred, Winchester was restored to its former importance, and again became the seat of government; and Alfred, who had fixed his chief residence here, ordered a general survey of the country to be made and deposited in the royal archives, which was thence called the Codex Wintoniensis. This monarch founded a monastery on the north side of the cathedral, for his chaplain St. Grimbald, intending it also as a place of interment for himself and family; but dying before it was completed, he was buried in the cathedral, from which his remains were subsequently removed, and deposited in the new minster. In the time of Athelstan six mints were established here, for coining as many different kinds of money; and during this reign, the legendary battle between Guido, Earl of Warwick, and a Dane of gigantic stature, named Colbrand, is said to have taken place in a meadow near the city, on a spot of ground still called Danemark.
In the reign of Edgar a law was made to prevent frauds arising from the diversity of measures, and for the establishment of a legal standard measure, to be used in every part of his dominions. The standard vessels made by order of the king were deposited in this city, from which circumstance originated the appellation "Winchester measure:" the original bushel is still preserved in the guildhall. In the same reign, St. Ethelwold, a native of Winchester, who presided over the see, partly rebuilt the cathedral, which, on its completion in the following reign, he re-consecrated, in the presence of King Ethelred, Dunstan, Archbishop of Canterbury, and the principal nobility and prelates of the kingdom; including in the dedication the name of St. Swithin, whose remains, buried at his own request in the churchyard, were removed and re-interred in the cathedral under a magnificent shrine, which had been prepared for that purpose by King Edgar. After the partition of the kingdom between Edmund Ironside and Canute, the latter, obtaining the entire sovereignty, divided it into four parts, three of which he entrusted to subordinate rulers, while he reserved the fourth and most important under his own administration. He fixed his seat of government at Winchester, and greatly enriched the cathedral, to which, after the memorable reproof of his courtiers at Southampton for their flattery, he presented his regal crown, depositing it over the high altar, and making a vow never to wear it more. This monarch here held a general assembly of the nobility, in which he enacted laws for the government of the kingdom, and for the preservation of the royal forests and chases. On the death of Hardicanute, in 1041, Edward the Confessor was crowned with great pomp and splendour in the cathedral, to which he granted an additional charter, at the same time ordering a donation of half a mark to the master of the choir, and a cask of wine and 100 cakes of white bread to the convent, as often as a king of England should wear his crown in that city. During this reign, Queen Emma his mother, by her own desire, to vindicate her innocence of the crime of incontinence, with which she had been aspersed, underwent the trial of the fiery ordeal in the cathedral, without, as is stated, receiving the smallest injury. In gratitude for her deliverance, she enriched the possessions of the church with nine additional manors; the same number was added by Bishop Alwyn, her kinsman and her asserted paramour, and the manors of Portland, Weymouth, and Wyke were given on the occasion by the king. The first great seal of England was, in the course of this reign, made and kept in the city.
At the Conquest, William fixed his principal residence at Winchester as the seat of government, and built a strong castle at the south-west extremity of the city, in order to keep his new subjects in awe. Here he enacted most of his laws, and framed measures for the security of his government, among which were the institution of the Curfew, and the general survey and estimate of the property of his subjects, called the Roll of Winchester, or Domesday book, a probable imitation, or enlargement, of the Codex Wintoniensis of Alfred. Though he occasionally resided in London, which was growing into importance, and more especially during the latter part of his reign, yet he invariably celebrated the festival of Easter in this city. In 1079, Walkelyn, a relation of the Conqueror's and bishop of the see, began to rebuild the cathedral and the adjoining monastery; for which purpose he obtained from the king a grant of timber from the woods in the vicinity: the building was completed in 1093, and dedicated, with great pomp, in the presence of all the bishops and abbots in the kingdom. On the death of Walkelyn, in 1098, William Rufus, who was crowned here, seized upon the bishopric, and held it till the year 1100, when, being killed while hunting in the New Forest, his body was brought into the city on the following day, in a cart belonging to a charcoalmaker named Purkis, and interred in the choir of the cathedral. The lineal descendants of Purkis still pursue that occupation in the same place, which is within a few hundred yards of the spot where the king fell.
On the death of Rufus, his elder brother Robert being on a crusade, Henry, his younger brother, hastened to Winchester; and having made himself master of the royal treasure, he drew his sword in the presence of the reluctant nobles, and secured his pretensions to the kingdom by forcibly placing the crown upon his head. In the same year he espoused Matilda, daughter of Malcolm III., King of Scotland, who had assumed the veil in the monastery of St. Mary, in this city, but had not taken the vows; by which marriage the royal Saxon and Norman lines were united; and on the birth of a son, the following year, he conferred many additional privileges on the inhabitants. About this time a dreadful fire broke out, which destroyed the royal palace, the mints, the guildhall, a considerable portion of the city, and many of the public records. Henry, by the advice of Roger, Bishop of Sarum, ordered a general meeting of the masters of the several mints to assemble at Winchester, on Christmas-day in 1125, to investigate the state of the coin, which had been generally debased throughout the kingdom; and after due examination they were all, with the exception of three of the Winchester mint-masters, found guilty of gross fraud, and punished by the loss of the right hand. Henry, also, to prevent frauds in the measurement of cloth, ordered a standard yard, of the length of his own arm, to be deposited here with the standard measures of Edgar.
Winchester appears now to have attained its highest degree of prosperity. It was the seat of government, and the residence of the monarch; and the royal mint, the treasury, and the public records were kept here: it had also a magnificent royal palace, a noble castle erected by the Conqueror, and another not less considerable, which was subsequently built as a palace for the bishops; with various stately public buildings, and numerous mansions for the residence of the nobility and gentry connected with the court. In the city were three royal monasteries, exclusively of inferior religious houses; a splendid cathedral, in which many of the monarchs of England had been crowned, and were interred; and a vast number of parochial churches, of which Stowe relates that not less than forty were destroyed in the war between Stephen and Matilda. The population was great, and the suburbs, in every direction, extended a mile further than they do at present. Winchester was the general thoroughfare from the eastern to the western parts of the kingdom; it had a considerable manufactory for woollen caps, and enjoyed an extensive commerce with the continent, from which it imported wine, in exchange for its manufactures. It was also a place of great resort for its numerous fairs.
On the death of Henry I., the city suffered greatly in the war which followed in the reign of Stephen, who having seized into his own hands the episcopal palaces throughout the kingdom, a synod was held here, to protest against the injustice of that measure, and to concert means of obtaining redress. At this meeting it was resolved that the assembled prelates should prepare an address, and send a deputation to the king, who then resided at the palace of Winchester, which was accordingly done; but the king, without paying the least attention to it, departed for London. The Empress Matilda, at this conjuncture, landed on the coast of Sussex, to dispute Stephen's title to the throne, and the royal castle of Winchester was secured by a party in her interest; but through the influence of Henry de Blois, the king's brother, who then held the see, the city was preserved in its allegiance to Stephen. On the subsequent captivity of the king, who was made prisoner in the war, and the acknowledgment of Matilda's claim to the crown by the greater part of the kingdom, the bishop abandoned his brother's cause; and having gone out with a solemn procession of his clergy, to meet the empress at Magdalene Hill, conducted her and her partisans into the city with great ceremony. The public opinion beginning, however, to change in favour of the captive king, and the haughtiness of the empress having excited much disgust, the bishop commenced putting his castle of Wolvesey into a state of defence, and had scarcely completed its fortifications, when it was closely invested by Matilda's forces, under the command of Robert, Earl of Gloucester, her natural brother, and of her uncle, David, King of Scotland. A considerable body of Stephen's party having taken up arms, marched to the relief of the bishop. The armies on both sides were numerous and well appointed, and the city suffered dreadful havoc from their hostilities, which were carried on in the very centre of it, for several weeks, with the utmost acrimony. The king's party ultimately succeeded in confining their opponents within the limits of the royal castle; but, having previously spread a report of Matilda's sickness and death, the garrison obtained a truce for her interment, and placing her in a coffin, she was carried out through the army and escaped in safety to Gloucester. In the mean time, the Earl of Gloucester, with the King of Scots, taking advantage of the truce, made a sally from the castle; being pursued, the earl was taken prisoner at Stockbridge, and subsequently exchanged for the captive monarch. Stephen, immediately on his liberation, repaired to Winchester, and began to strengthen the fortifications of the castle by the addition of new works; but, while engaged in that undertaking, an army which had been newly raised in the adjoining counties, marched against him, and he was compelled to abandon his design, and save himself by flight. During the war, the bishop held a synod here, by an act of which it was decreed, that ploughs should have the same privilege of sanctuary as churches; and a sentence of excommunication was issued against all who should molest any person employed in agriculture. On the conclusion of the war, during which nearly one-half of the city was destroyed, the treaty between Stephen and Henry the son of Matilda, the terms of which had been agreed upon at Wallingford Castle, was ratified at Winchester, by general consent.
Henry II., on his accession to the throne, was crowned here with his queen Margaret. Here also, in 1184, his daughter, the Duchess of Saxony, gave birth to a son, named William, from whom the illustrious house of Hanover is supposed to have sprung. This monarch conferred many privileges upon the city, among which was that of being governed by a mayor and a subordinate bailiff. During his reign a calamitous fire, which began in the mint, destroyed the greater part of the town. On the death of Henry, his son Richard I., surnamed Cœur de Lion, having secured the royal treasure in this city, was crowned in London; but after his ransom from the captivity into which he fell, in returning from the crusades, he had the ceremony of his coronation performed with great pomp in the cathedral of Winchester. In 1207, King John held a parliament here, in which he imposed a tax of one-thirteenth part on all moveable property; and in the same year his queen gave birth to a son, who, from the place of his nativity, was surnamed Henry of Winchester. The year following, in consideration of 200 marks paid down, and an annual payment of £100, that monarch granted the inhabitants a charter of incorporation, confirming all previous privileges; and on his subsequent submission to the pope, he received absolution in the chapter-house of the monastery from sentence of excommunication, which had been pronounced against him by the legate of Pope Innocent III.
Henry III., during his minority, kept bis court here, under the guardianship of the Earl of Pembroke, and, after the earl's death, under that of Peter de Rupibus, Bishop of Winchester. The residence of the king contributed materially to restore Winchester to the importance it had enjoyed previously to the war between Stephen and Matilda; but this advantage was greatly diminished by the existence of numerous bands of lawless plunderers in the city and its vicinity, with whom many of the inhabitants, and even members of the king's household, were connected. The depredations committed by these bands were at length suppressed by the firmness and resolution of the king, thirty of the offenders being brought to trial and publicly executed. During the war between this monarch and the barons, the city experienced considerable devastation, and suffered severely from the violence of both parties, who alternately had possession of it. After the battle of Evesham, the king held several parliaments here, in which all who had borne arms against him were attainted; but, with the exception of the Montfort family, none of the attainders were carried into execution, and the highest penalty inflicted did not exceed five years' rent of the forfeited estates. The celebrated trial of John Plantagenet, Earl of Surrey, took place here, for the murder of Alan de la Zouch, chief justice of Ireland, whom that nobleman killed on the bench in Westminster Hall, when summoned before him to give evidence of the tenure by which he held his estates. On his oath, and on that of twenty-four compurgators, that he did not strike the judge from preconceived malice, the earl was acquitted, and fined 1200 marks.
Edward I. also held several parliaments at Winchester, in one of which the celebrated ordinances, afterwards called the Statutes of Winchester, were passed. But the royal residence for the greater part was transferred to London, which, having risen into higher importance, had now become the metropolis of the kingdom; and Winchester, which hitherto had held the first rank among the cities of the empire, began to decline. Towards the end of his reign, this monarch, offended at the escape of a foreign hostage, who had been confined in the castle under the mayor's custody, deprived the city of all its privileges, which were however subsequently restored. Soon after the death of Edward II., a parliament was held here by Queen Isabel and Mortimer, in which Edmund of Woodstock, Earl of Kent, was arraigned on a charge of high treason, and condemned to death. Edward III. having made Winchester a staple for the sale of wool, the merchants erected large warehouses for conducting that lucrative trade, and the city began to recover its commercial importance. Its progress, however, was interrupted by the destruction of Portsmouth and Southampton, in 1337, by the French; also, in the following year, by the plague, which ten years afterwards raged violently in the neighbourhood; and ultimately by the removal of the staple to Calais in 1363. During this reign, Bishop Edington, who was treasurer and chancellor to the king, commenced rebuilding the nave of the cathedral, which was completed by his successor, William of Wykeham, who, for his skill in architecture, was employed by Edward III. to superintend the erection of part of Windsor Castle.
Richard II. and his queen visited Winchester in 1388; and in 1392, that monarch removed to it his parliament from London, which was then suffering a suspension of its privileges under the king's displeasure. The marriage of Henry IV. with the Dowager Duchess of Bretagne was solemnized in the cathedral, by Bishop Wykeham, in 1401; and on the death of that prelate, Henry, afterwards Cardinal Beaufort, son of John of Gaunt, was appointed to the see. Here Henry V. gave audience to the French ambassadors, whose insolence on the occasion led to the invasion of France which soon followed. Henry VI. was a great benefactor to the city, which he frequently visited; and in 1449 he held a parliament here, which continued to sit for several weeks. In the course of this reign, however, its trade and population so greatly declined, that, in petitioning the king for the renewal of a grant conferred by his predecessor in 1440, the inhabitants represented that 997 houses were deserted, and seventeen parochial churches closed. Bishop Waynfleet having succeeded to the see, the king honoured the ceremony of his installation with bis presence; and in the reign of Henry VII., the queen resided in the castle, where she gave birth to a son, whom, to conciliate the Welsh, the king named Arthur, in honour of the British hero of that name. In 1522, Henry VIII., in company with his royal guest, Charles V., spent several days in the city; on this occasion the celebrated Round Table, at which the renowned King Arthur and his knights used to dine, and which was preserved in the castle, was newly painted, and an inscription placed beneath it, in commemoration of the visit. The Dissolution of monasteries and the demolition of many of the religious establishments, completed the downfall of this once splendid and opulent city, and reduced it to a mere shadow of its former grandeur. On the accession of Mary, some transient gleams of returning prosperity revived, for a time, a hope of restoration; the marriage of that queen with Philip of Spain was solemnized in the cathedral, and several estates which had been alienated during previous reigns were restored to the see. But the real importance of Winchester had subsided, and in a charter obtained for it from Elizabeth, through the solicitation of Sir Francis Walsingham, it is described as "having fallen into great ruin, decay, and poverty."
At the commencement of the parliamentary war, Sir William Waller took possession of the castle for the parliament; but towards the close of the year 1643, it was retaken and garrisoned for the king, by Sir William (afterwards Lord) Ogle, and the city was appointed the general rendezvous of the army then forming in the west for the re-establishment of the king's authority, Fortifications were constructed round it, more especially on the east and west sides, where vestiges of intrenchments are still discernible; but the vigilance and activity of Waller disconcerted the enterprise, and on the subsequent defeat of Lord Hopton's party on Cheriton Down, he obtained possession of the city without difficulty. The castle, notwithstanding, held out for the king; and on the retreat of the parliamentarians to join the forces of the Earl of Essex, who was then laying siege to Oxford, the city also fell into the hands of the royalists. After the battle of Naseby, Cromwell was sent with an army to reduce Winchester, which after being repeatedly summoned, refused to surrender, and the siege was immediately commenced. The garrison made a resolute defence, but after a week's resistance capitulated on honourable terms. The castle was immediately dismantled, and the works blown up; the fortifications were demolished, together with the bishop's castle of Wolvesey, and several churches and other public buildings. The wanton violence of the parliamentary troops was manifested in defacing the cathedral, destroying its monuments, violating the tombs, and in the indiscriminate insult offered to the relics of the illustrious dead, whose bones the soldiers scattered about the church; the statues of James and Charles, at the entrance of the choir, were thrown down, and the communion-plate and other valuables belonging to the church were carried away. After the Restoration, the king chose Winchester for his occasional residence, and purchased the remains of the ancient castle, with the materials of which he began to erect a palace. The example of the king was followed by many of his nobility, who began to build splendid mansions, and Winchester once more exhibited signs of retrieving its distinction; but the death of Charles, before the completion of these works, put an end to those flattering prospects. Queen Anne, after her accession to the throne, paid a visit to the city, accompanied by Prince George of Denmark, on whom the palace of Charles II. had been settled at the time of his marriage, in the event of his surviving the queen, his consort.
The City is pleasantly situated on the eastern acclivity of an eminence rising gradually from the river Itchen, which is navigable to Southampton. It consists of one spacious regular street, passing through the centre, and intersected at right angles by several smaller streets, extending in a parallel direction for about half a mile through the breadth of the city, which is nearly the same as its length. Extensive hills, or downs, encircle it on the east and west. The principal parts of the city are within the limits of the ancient walls, which were of flint, strongly cemented with mortar, and defended by turrets at short intervals. The chief entrances from the suburbs were through four ancient gates, of which the West Gate is remaining, and, though it has undergone considerable alteration, still retains much of its ancient character: the other gates were removed by the commissioners appointed in 1770, by act of parliament, for the general improvement of the city. Over the Itchen, of which several branches intersect the town, is a handsome and substantial bridge of stone. At a small distance beyond the West Gate is an obelisk, occupying the spot where the people of the neighbouring country used to deposit their provisions for the supply of the city in time of plague, the inhabitants leaving the stipulated sum for payment, to prevent any communication of the contagion. In the centre of the High-street is the city cross, forty-three feet high, an elegant pyramidal structure in the later English style, consisting of three successive stages, richly ornamented with open arches, canopied niches, and crocketed pinnacles, erected by the fraternity of the Holy Cross, instituted by Henry VI. One of the niches of the second stage contains a figure supposed by some to be of St. John the Evangelist, but more probably, by others, to be of St. Lawrence, to whom the adjacent church is dedicated. The houses are in general substantial and well built, and many of them possess an appearance of great autiquity. The city is paved, lighted with gas, and supplied with water of excellent quality. A public subscription library is established in High-street; and the upper floor of the butchers' market, which had been used as a watchhouse, was lately taken down, and a building for a mechanics' institution erected. The theatre, in Gaol-street, a neat building handsomely fitted up, is occasionally opened by the Southampton company; and miscellaneous concerts and balls are held in St. John's rooms, in which also the general winter assemblies and subscription concerts usually take place. There are hot, cold, vapour, and shower baths in High-street. Races are held in July, on Worthy Down, about four miles from the city. On the site of the ancient castle is the unfinished palace of Charles II., now called the King's House, which, had it been completed according to the original design, would have been one of the most magnificent palaces in Europe; the front is 328 feet in length, and the principal story contained a splendid suite of state apartments. The building has been converted into a handsome range of barracks for the district, capable of containing about 2000 men, and having spacious grounds for exercise.
The trade was formerly considerable for the manufacture of woollen caps; at present, there is an extensive factory for sacking, and a little business is carried on in wool-combing. A canal from Woodmill, about two miles above the Itchen ferry, near Southampton, supplies the town with coal and the heavier articles of merchandise; and a station on the London and Southwestern railway is situated near the western extremity of the city. The market-days are Wednesday and Saturday, the latter for corn. The market-house, erected in 1772, is a handsome building, in every respect adapted to its use: the corn-exchange, at the north end of Jewrystreet, built in 1838, affords excellent accommodation, and is a considerable ornament to the town. The fairs are on the first Monday in Lent, on August 2nd, September 12th, and October 24th, for horses and pedlery: the first and last take place in the city, and the two others on the hills immediately adjoining; the September fair which is held on St. Giles's Hill, is a very large cheese-fair.
Winchester received its first regular charter of incorporation from Henry II., in 1184, twenty-two years before London was incorporated; and among the privileges conferred by that monarch, was the superintendence of the royal kitchen and laundry at the ceremony of the king's coronation. This charter was confirmed and extended by succeeding sovereigns, and remodelled by Queen Elizabeth; but the corporation now consists of a mayor, six aldermen, and 18 councillors, under the act 5th and 6th of William IV., cap. 76. The borough is divided into three wards; the municipal and parliamentary boundaries are co-extensive, and the number of magistrates is nine. The city first exercised the elective franchise in the 23rd of Edward I., since which time it has regularly returned two members to parliament: the right of election was extended in 1832, to the £10 householders of an enlarged district, comprising by estimation 715 acres: the mayor is returning officer. The recorder holds quarterly courts of session for all offenres not capital; a court of record is held four times in the year for the recovery of debts to any extent, and petty-sessions take place twice a week. The powers of the county debtcourt of Winchester, established in 1847, extend over the registration-districts of Alresford, Hursley, and Winchester. The Cheyncy court, so called from its having been anciently held under an oak (chéne), which refers its origin to the Druids, is an episcopal court, held weekly for the determining of actions, and the recovery of debts to any amount. Its jurisdiction extends over all places which ever belonged to the see of Winchester or the convent of St. Swithin, including 100 parishes, tythings, and hamlets, in the county of Southampton, some of which are 30 miles distant from the city.
The town-hall, a handsome structure in the Grecian style, and of the Doric order, was built in 1713, on the site of an edifice erected on the foundation of one burnt down in 1112. The front is decorated with a well executed statue in bronze of Queen Anne, given to the corporation by George Brydges, Esq., who represented Winchester in seven successive parliaments. In the muniment-room, over the west gate of the city, are preserved the town records, the original Winchester bushel made by order of King Edgar, the standard yard of Henry, and the standard measures of succeeding sovereigns, with various other remains of antiquity. The assizes and general quarter-sessions for the county are held in the chapel of the old castle, which has been converted into a county-hall, and appropriately fitted up for the purpose. The building is 110 feet in length. At the cast end is suspended the celebrated Round Table, attributed to the renowed King Arthur, but which, with greater probability, is said to have been introduced by King Stephen, with a view to prevent disputes for precedence. It is made of oaken planks, is eighteen feet in diameter, and ornamented with a figure of King Arthur, and the names of his knights, as collected from the romances of the times, in the costume and characters of the reign of Henry VIII. In several parts it is perforated by bullets, probably discharged by Cromwell's soldiers, while in possession of the city. An extensive common gaol for the county was erected in Gaol-street, in 1778, upon the principle recommended by the philanthropist Howard: the county bridewell, a spacious structure in Hyde-street, was built in 1786.
The origin of the Diocese may be traced to the early part of the seventh century, when Cynegils, the first Christian king of the West Saxons, being converted by St. Birinus, resolved to make his capital the seat of a bishopric, and began to collect materials for building a cathedral, which was afterwards accomplished by his son, Cenwahl, in 646. The establishment having been dispersed by the Danes in 867, secular priests were substituted the year following, who remained till 963, when Ethelwold, by command of King Edgar, expelled them, and supplied their place with monks of the Benedictine order from Abingdon. These kept possession without molestation, and the establishment continued to flourish, enriched with royal donations and other ample endowments, till the Dissolution, at which time its revenue amounted to £1507. 17. 2. It was afterwards refounded by Henry VIII., for a bishop, dean, chancellor, twelve prebendaries or canons, two archdeacons, six minor canons, ten lay clerks, eight choristers, and other officers. The jurisdiction of the see extends over the counties of Hants and Surrey, the Isle of Wight, and the islands of Jersey, Guernsey, Alderney, and Sark: the Bishop has the patronage of the two archdeaconries, the chancellorship, the canonries (now reduced to nine), and 83 benefices. The Dean and Chapter have the patronage of the minor canonries and 19 benefices. Three of the canonries have been suspended, and the proceeds transferred to the Ecclesiastical Commissioners' fund for the augmentation of small livings.
The Cathedral, situated in an open space near the centre of the city, towards the south-east, and originally dedicated to St. Peter, St. Paul, and St. Swithin, was, upon the establishment of the present society by Henry VIII., dedicated to the Holy and Undivided Trinity. It is a spacious, massive, and splendid cruciform structure, chiefly in the Norman style, with a low tower rising from the centre, richly ornamented in its upper stages. The original building, as erected by Bishop Walkelyn in 1079, was one of the most magnificent specimens of the Norman style in the kingdom; it was enlarged by Bishop Edington, and a considerable part was rebuilt by the celebrated William of Wykeham, who, adopting the later English, which prevailed in his time, endeavoured to make the original style conform to that model. By this means the character of the architecture was materially changed, but the edifice displays many features of great beauty, and, from its extent and the loftiness of its proportions, notwithstanding the discrepancy of some parts, retains an air of stately grandeur. The principal Norman parts are, the transepts, in which the chief alteration is in the insertion of windows in the later style; and the tower, which preserves its original character. The west front is an elegant composition in the later English style, comprising three highly-enriched porches. Some part of the eastern portion is in the finest early English, with occasional insertions of later date, particularly the clerestory windows of the choir; and in other parts of the building are various specimens of the early English at different periods, all remarkable for the excellence of their details. In a few instances are found small portions of the decorated merging into the later English, of which latter, in various parts of the building, are progressive series from its commencement to the period of its utmost perfection.
The interior, from the amplitude of its dimensions, and the loftiness of its elevation, is strikingly impressive. The Nave is separated from the aisles by massive circular columns, twelve feet in diameter, and of proportionate height, which, in order to make them assimilate with the pointed arches that have been introduced within the circular Norman arches, have been cased with clustered pillars, and appropriately embellished. In some of the intervals between the columns, which are two diameters in width, are various chantry and sepulchral chapels. The roof is elaborately groined, and richly ornamented with delicate tracery, embellished with the armorialbearings and devices of John of Gaunt, Cardinal Beaufort, and Bishops Waynfleet and Wykeham, which are continued along the fascia, under the arches of the triforium. In the Transepts are several chapels and altars of exquisite beauty; the central part is separated from the aisles by massive circular columns and arches, rising iu successive series, and with varied ornaments to the roof. The west aisle of the south transept has been partitioned off for a chapter-house; and at the extremity of the north transept is a beautiful Catherine-wheel window. At the eastern extremity of the nave, a flight of steps leads into the choir, through a beautiful screen lately erected; on the sides of the entrance are niches containing ancient bronze statues of James I. and Charles I.
The Choir, which comprises the lower stage of the central tower, is early English, with some insertions, including a handsome range of clerestory windows in the later style. The original roof of the tower is concealed by an embellished ceiling, in the centre of which is an emblematical representation of the Trinity, with an inscription: the vaulting is supported by ribs springing from busts of James I. and Charles I., dressed in the costume of their times, above each of which is a motto; and among various other ornaments, are the initials and devices of Charles I. and his queen, Henrietta Maria, with their profiles in medallions. The roof of the choir, from the tower to the east end, is richly groined, and adorned with a profusion of armorial-bearings, devices, and other ornaments, exquisitely carved, and richly painted and gilt. Among them are the armorial-bearings of the houses of Tudor and Lancaster, and of the sees of Exeter, Bath and Wells, Durham, and Winchester, over which Bishop Fox, who superintended this work, successively presided. From the altar to the east window, the embellishments are emblematical of Scripture history, comprising the instruments of the Crucifixion, the faces of Pilate and his wife, of the high priest, and others: the whole of these embellishments have been judiciously renewed during the recent repairs of the edifice. The east window is of excellent proportions and design, and embellished with remains of ancient stained glass of rich hue: the subjects are chiefly the Apostles and Prophets, and some of the bishops of the see, with appropriate symbols and legends. Many of the figures were mutilated by the soldiery when they defaced the cathedral, at which time also the painted glass generally was destroyed; the fragments that remain bear ample testimony to their original merit. The bishop's throne, the prebendal-stalls, and pulpit, are excellent specimens of tabernacle-work. The altar, in front of which is a beautiful tessellated pavement, is adorned with a painting, by West, of Christ raising Lazarus from the Dead. Behind the altar, and separating it from the Lady chapel, is a finely-carved stone screen of beautiful design, with canopied niches and other appropriate ornaments; the statues that formerly filled the niches, were destroyed by Cromwell's soldiers. On each side of the altar, separating the presbytery from the aisles, are partitions of stone divided into compartments, ornamented with arches, and with shields of armorial-bearings and other devices: above the compartments are placed six mortuary chests, richly carved and gilt, and surmounted by crowns, containing the bones of several Saxon kings and prelates, which were collected and deposited in them by Bishop Fox.
In the south aisle of the choir is the sumptuous Chapel, or Chantry, of Bishop Fox, which, for its richness and minutely elaborate ornaments, is perhaps unequalled. In a niche under one of the arches is a recumbent figure of the founder, wrapped in a winding-sheet, with the feet resting on a skull. The roof is finely groined, and embellished with the arms of the royal house of Tudor, richly emblazoned, and with the armorial-bearings of the bishop, and the pelican, his favourite device. In the north aisle of the choir is the sepulchral Chapel of Bishop Gardiner, an unsightly mixture of the later English and the Grecian styles, and in a greatly dilapidated state. Behind the altar is a chapel in which was kept the magnificent shrine of St. Swithin, the costly gift of King Edgar, said to have been of silver, richly gilt, and profusely ornamented with jewels. The Lady Chapel, on each side of which is a smaller chapel, terminates the eastern extremity of the cathedral. It was built by Bishop de Lucy, and enlarged and beautified by Priors Hunton and Silkstede, whose initials and devices are worked into the groinings of the roof; the portrait of the latter, with his insignia of office, is still visible over the piscina, and on the walls are traces of paintings in fresco, representing subjects of scriptural, profane, and legendary history, now in a very imperfect state. The magnificent Chantry of Cardinal Beaufort, of Purbeck marble, is a highly-finished structure in the later English style, and abounds with architectural beauty of the highest order. The roof, which is delicately groined, and enriched with fan-tracery of elegant design, is supported on slender clustered columns of graceful proportions. On the tomb of the founder is his effigy in a recumbent posture, in his robes as cardinal; and at the upper end of the chantry, inclosing the altar, are some beautiful canopied niches crowned with crocketed pinnacles, from which the statues were taken by the parliamentarian soldiers. Bishop Waynfleet's Chantry is in the same style, and of equal beauty with Cardinal Beaufort's. From the attention paid to it by the trustees of his foundation at Magdalen College, it is kept in good repair. It contains the tomb of the bishop with his effigy in his pontificals, in the attitude of prayer. Among the various other chapels in the cathedral, are, that of Bishop Langton, containing some fine carvings in oak, his tomb stripped of all its ornaments; and that of Bishop Orleton, of whom no memorial is preserved. Of this latter chapel, the roof is vaulted, and profusely ornamented with figures of angels: on the north side is the tomb of Bishop Mews, a distinguished adherent to the cause of Charles I., who after having served as an officer in the royal army, entered into holy orders, and was promoted to the see of Winchester.
Underneath the high altar, and formerly accessible by a stone staircase leading from that part of the cathedral called the "Holy Hole," as being the depository of the remains of saints, are vestiges of the ancient Norman crypt built by Ethelwold; the walls, pillars, and groining are in their original state, and remarkable for the boldness and simplicity of their style. A new crypt, in the later style, has been built underneath the eastern end of the Lady chapel. Among the monuments, in addition to those in the sepulchral chapels, is the tomb of William Rufus, in the centre of the choir, of grey marble, raised about two feet above the surface of the pavement. In the cathedral are also the tombs of Hardicanute; Earl Beorn, son of Ertrith, sister of Canute; Richard, second son of William the Conqueror; Bishops Peter de Rupibus, Henry de Blois, Hoadly, Willis, and other distinguished prelates; Sir John Clobery, who assisted General Monk in planning the restoration of Charles II.; Sir Isaac Townsend, knight of the garter; the Earl of Banbury; Dr. Joseph Warton; Izaak Walton, and other eminent persons. The whole length of this magnificent structure is 545 feet, from east to west, and the breadth along the transepts, 186; the mean breadth of the nave is 87, and that of the choir 40: the height of the tower is 140 feet, and its sides are 50 feet broad.
The great cloisters, which inclosed a quadrangular area 180 feet in length and 174 in breadth, were destroyed in the reign of Queen Elizabeth. On the east side of the quadrangle is a dark passage, which led to the infirmary and other offices belonging to the ancient monastery; and to the south of it is a doorway, that led to the chapter-house, whose site is now occupied by the Dean's garden, in the walls of which are some of the pillars and arches yet remaining. The refectory is now divided into two stories; under it are two kitchens, the roofs of which are vaulted in the Norman style, and supported on a single central column, still preserved. The Prior's hall and some other apartments form the present deanery; and other remains of the conventual buildings may be traced in the gardens of the prebendal houses, which occupy the Cathedral Close, an extraparochial district.
Winchester comprises the Parishes of St. Bartholomew, which is partly in the Soke liberty, and contains 776 inhabitants; St. Lawrence, the mother church, 310; St. Mary Kalendar, 867; St. Maurice, 1770; St. Peter Colebrook, 616; St. Thomas, 3071 inhabitants; and the parishes of St. Faith, St. John, St. Michael, St. Peter Cheesehill, St. Martin Winnall, and St. Swithin, within the Soke liberty, containing together 3361 inhabitants. The living of St. Bartholomew's parish is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £10, and in the patronage of the Crown; net income, £100. The church, in Hyde-street, is supposed to have been originally appropriated to Hyde Abbey. St. Lawrence's is a discharged rectory, valued at £6. 5., and in the patronage of the Crown; net income, £56. The church, situated in the square, is an ancient structure with a lofty tower, and consists of one large aisle, into which, on taking possession of his see, the bishop makes a solemn entry. The living of St. Mary Kalendar's is valued in the king's books at £7: the church has been destroyed. St. Maurice's is a rectory, to which the rectories of St. Mary Kalendar, St. Peter Colebrook, St. George, and St. Mary Wood, are united, valued at £6. 7. 6.; net income, £ 145; patron, the Bishop. The church, in High-street, formerly the chapel of a priory, has been rebuilt by subscription, aided by a grant of £500 by the Incorporated Society. The living of St. Peter's Colebrook is valued in the king's books at £3. 4. 2.: the church has been destroyed, as also have those of St. George and St. Mary Wood, the livings of which are valued, the former at £3. 5. 8., and the latter at £2. The living of St. Thomas' is a discharged rectory, with that of St. Clement united, valued at £13. 17. 8½.; net income, £145; patron, the Bishop. The church is an ancient structure in the Norman style, with a low tower; the interior consists of a nave and one aisle, separated by massive circular columns. The church of St. Clement has been demolished.
St. Faith's is a sinecure rectory, annexed to the mastership of the hospital of St. Cross, which is extra-parochial, and in the chapel of which the parishioners attend divine service, the church of St. Faith having been demolished for more than two centuries. St. John's is a perpetual curacy, with the rectory of St. Peter's Southgate united; net income, £82; patron, the Bishop. The church is in the Norman style, with a massive tower and turret, and consists of a nave and two aisles, separated by massive circular columns: the church of St. Peter's Southgate has been destroyed. The living of St. Michael's is a discharged rectory, valued at £5. 17. 11.; net income, £104; patron, the Bishop. The church, with the exception of the tower, has been rebuilt; it is a handsome edifice in the later English style, and consists of a spacious nave and chancel. St. Peter's Cheesehill is a discharged rectory, valued at £14. 9. 9½., and in the patronage of the Crown; net income, £100. The church is a neat plain structure, with a tower. St. Swithin's is a discharged rectory, valued at £6. 6. 10½., and in the patronage of the Crown; net income, £80. The church, which is over a postern called King's Gate, was used as the church for the servants employed in the great priory of St. Swithin. The living of St. Martin's Winnall is a rectory, valued at £5; net income, £170: patron, the Bishop. The church, rebuilt in 1786, consists of one aisle and a small tower. There are places of worship in the city for Baptists, Independents, and Wesleyans. A Roman Catholic chapel in the later English style, dedicated to St. Peter, was erected in 1792, in St. Peter street: at the entrance of the walk leading to it is an ancient Norman portal, which was removed from the church of St. Mary Magdalene's hospital. Nearly opposite is a convent, a large and handsome brick edifice, called the Bishop's House, consisting of Benedictine nuns removed from Brussels. To the south-west of the city is a public cemetery, containing 7 acres, laid out in gravel-walks and plantations; a low wall separates the consecrated portion from that appropriated to dissenters.
Winchester college holds a pre-eminent rank among the public literary institutions of the kingdom, and from a very early period has been distinguished as a seat of preparatory instruction. A grammar school was established prior to the commencement of the twelfth century, on the site of which, in 1387, Bishop Wykeham, who had received his early education in it, erected the present magnificent college, for a warden, ten secular priests who are perpetual fellows, three priests' chaplains, three clerks, sixteen choristers, a first and second master, and seventy scholars, intending it as a preparatory seminary for his foundation of New College, Oxford, completed the year before. Under the influence of salutary regulations, the college continued to flourish till the time of the Dissolution, when its revenue amounted to £639. 8. 7.; and it was held in such estimation, that it obtained a special exemption from that general measure. The collegiate buildings, which were completed in 1393, occupy two spacious quadrangles. The entrance into the outermost is through a noble turreted gateway, under a finely-pointed arch; and on the opposite side of this quadrangle is a gateway leading into the second court, above which is a tower ornamented in front with three beautiful niches, enriched with canopies and crocketed pinnacles. The buildings surrounding the inner quadrangle are principally in the later English style, of which they exhibit an elegant specimen. The grand hall and the chapel occupy the south side. The former is lighted by a range of windows enriched with tracery; the roof is finely arched, and the beams, which are handsomely ornamented, are supported by ribs springing from corbels decorated with coloured busts of kings and bishops. In the centre of this side is the stately tower of the chapel, surmounted with turrets crowned with pinnacles, the work of a later period than the building by Wykeham, and said to have been erected by the Warden Thurbern. The chapel vestibule, the ceiling of which is elaborately enriched, contains the ancient stalls, removed from the chapel in 1681 by Dr. Nicholas, and some ancient brasses. The interior of the chapel is beautifully arranged: the windows are enriched with tracery, antl with paintings of kings, saints, prelates, and nuns; in the great east window is a representation of the Genealogy of Christ, the Crucifixion, and the Resurrection. The altar is embellished with a painting of the Salutation, by De Moine, presented by a late headmaster, Dr. Burton. The schoolroom is a plain brick building, erected in 1687, at an expense of £2600: over the entrance is a statue of Bishop Wykeham, presented to the college by Caius Gabriel Cibber, which has been injudiciously painted and gilt. To the south of the chapel are the cloisters, inclosing a quadrangular area 132 feet square, and apparently of the 15th century; they contain many ancient brasses, and in the centre of the area is a chantry chapel, erected by John Fromond, a liberal benefactor to Wykeham's foundations. This building, the ceiling of which is strongly vaulted, is now appropriated as the college library, and contains a select and valuable collection of works, and a small museum of natural curiosities. The sides of the quadrangle are composed of the houses and apartments of the warden, fellows, head and second masters, and other members of the establishment; and contiguous to the college is a spacious building for the residence of gentlemen commoners not on the foundation, of whom the number is very considerable. The college, chapel, and school, were completely repaired in 1795. A visitation is held in July, by the warden and two of the fellows of New College, Oxford, at which an examination takes place of the candidates for the vacant fellowships in that college. There are several scholarships and exhibitions for such as fail in obtaining fellowships; also a superannuated fund belonging to the establishment, founded by Dr. Cobden, Archdeacon of London, in 1784. In this noble institution many eminent prelates and literary characters have received their early education; among whom may be named, Sir Thomas Brown, Sir Thomas Wooton, Sir Thomas Ryves; and the poets Otway, Philips, Young, Somerville, the Rev. Christopher Pitt, Collins, Warton, and Hayley.
The Hospital of St. Cross, about a mile south of the city, beautifully placed on the bank of the river Itchen, was founded in 1132, by Bishop Henry de Blois, brother of King Stephen, who endowed it for the residence and maintenance of a master, steward, four chaplains, thirteen clerks, seven choristers, and thirteen poor brethren; and for the daily entertainment of 100 of the most indigent men in the city, who dined together in a common hall, called the "hundred menne's hall." Bishop Wykeham, on his appointment to the see in 1366, finding that the revenue of the hospital was misapplied, succeeded, after a tedious litigation, in reestablishing the institution. At the suppression of monasteries its revenue was valued at £184. 4. 2.: it was exempted from dissolution, but suffered materially during the war in the reign of Charles I. The present establishment consists of a master, chaplain, steward, and thirteen brethren. The buildings formerly occupied two quadrangular areas, but the south side of the inner quadrangle has been taken down: the entrance gateway, erected by Cardinal Beaufort, is a good specimen of the later English style, surmounted by a lofty tower. In the inner court is the church of St. Cross, an ancient and interesting cruciform structure, comprising a series of styles, passing, by gradual and almost imperceptible transitions, from the Norman to the early and decorated English styles. The low tower rising from the centre is Norman. The west front is an elegant composition in the early English style, with appropriate embellishments. The groining of the roof, towards the east, is replete with ornaments of Norman character; that of the western part, which appears to have been the work of Beaufort, is embellished with the armorialbearings of the cardinal, of Bishop Wykeham, and of the college. The west window, of five lights, is richly ornamented with painted glass, representing various saints, and emblazoned with armorial devices; over the stalls in the choir are sculptured figures of the most conspicuous subjects of Scripture history. Among the funeral monuments are, an ancient brass in memory of John de Campden, the friend of Wykeham; and a modern mural tablet to Wolfran Cornwall, speaker of the house of commons. The living is a perpetual curacy, with the rectory of St. Faith's annexed, and in the patronage of the Bishop. The remaining buildings of the hospital include the apartments of the brethren; the refectory; and the master's apartments, which are spacious and commodious.
St. John's Hospital, now called St. John's House, in High-street, is a very ancient establishment, said to have been founded in the year 933, by St. Brinstan, Bishop of Winchester, and to have become the property of the Knights Templars, upon the suppression of which order it was refounded, by permission of Edward II., for sick and lame soldiers, for pilgrims, and necessitous wayfaring men, who had their lodging and other necessaries for one night, or longer, in proportion to their wants. After the Dissolution, the site and remains were given to the corporation, who converted the great hall into a public room, in which meetings of the corporation, and public assemblies and concerts, are held. The hall is elegantly fitted up, and embellished with a fulllength portrait of Charles II. in his robes of state, painted by Sir Peter Lely, and presented to the corporation by that monarch: in an adjoining room, called the councilchamber, are the city tables, recording its principal historical events. In an inner court of the northern part of the hospital are the almshouses founded in 1558, by Ralph Lamb, who endowed them for the support of six widows. By a decree of the court of chancery, the management of this charity has been transferred from the corporation to 12 trustees; and the funds having greatly increased, an extensive building on the opposite side of the street has been erected, in which 18 additional inmates are lodged, who receive the same alms as those in the original establishment. The ancient chapel of the hospital, which had been used as a schoolroom, was lately renovated, and a regular chaplain is now appointed. Christ's Hospital was established in 1586, by Peter Symonds, who endowed it with lands now producing more than £420 per annum, for the support of six unmarried men above 50 years of age, and the maintenance and education of four boys. There are two exhibitions, of £10 per annum each, tenable for four years, to Oxford and Cambridge; and with such as do not obtain them, an apprentice-fee of £10 is given, on their leaving the hospital. The County Hospital or Infirmary, in Parchment-street, the first institution of the kind established in the kingdom, was founded in 1736; the buildings comprise a centre and two wings, and are in every respect well adapted to the purposes of the institution. Near the cathedral are some almshouses founded in 1672, by Bishop Morley, for the residence and support of ten clergymen's widows; and there are various other funds for charitable uses, among which is Sir Thomas White's charity, for loans without interest to young tradesmen. The poor-law union of Winchester comprises 33 parishes or places, and contains a population of 20,452.
Among the ancient monastic institutions, in addition to those already described, was Hyde Abbey, originally the New Minster founded by Alfred the Great, adjoining the site of the present cathedral, which, by way of distinction, was thence called the Old Minster. The foundation, after the death of Alfred, was completed by his son, Edward the Elder, and placed under the superintendence of St. Grimbald, who established a fraternity of Canons regular, that were afterwards expelled by Bishop Ethelwold, and replaced by monks of the order of St. Benedict. Alwyn, the eighth abbot in succession from St. Grimbald, was uncle of Harold, and, with twelve of his monks, assisted that monarch at the battle of Hastings, in which he was slain with his brethren. In resentment of this, William the Conqueror treated the New Minster with the utmost rigour, seized upon its revenue, and would not allow a new abbot to be appointed. About three years after, however, he permitted an abbot to be chosen, and restored some of the abbey lands, giving others in exchange for the remainder. The contiguity of the buildings to the Old Minster, and the nuisances which had arisen from the stagnation of the stream of water brought in its immediate vicinity to supply the fosse dug round the castle erected by the Conqueror, induced the fraternity to build a new abbey at a greater distance, on a spot near the north wall of the city, called Hyde meadow, from which it took its name. Into this the remains of Alfred, his queen Alswitha, his sons Ethelred and Edward the Elder, of Elfleda, Ethelhida, and King Edwy, were removed and re-interred. In the contest between Stephen and Matilda the abbey was burnt to the ground by the fire-balls thrown from Wolvesey Castle; but it was rebuilt, with greater magnificence, in the reign of Henry II., and the abbot was invested with the privilege of a seat in parliament. It continued to flourish till the Dissolution, at which time its revenue was £865. 1. 6. The buildings were soon after demolished, and very small portions of them at present remain; among these are, the tower of St. Bartholomew's church, some of the offices, and part of a large barn, with one gateway containing a regal head in the groining of the arch. On the site of the abbey a new bridewell has been erected, in digging the foundations of which many stone coffins, chalices, patins, rings, busts, capitals of ancient columns, and other fragments of sculpture, were found; the most interesting relic being a stone inscribed "Alfred Rex, 881," in Saxon characters.
The Abbey of St. Mary was founded by Alswitha, wife of Alfred, and, after the king's death, was the place of her retirement. Edburga, daughter of Edward the Elder, became abbess; and in the reign of Edgar, the convent was amply endowed by Bishop Ethelwold, who prescribed for the observance of the nuns the more severe rules of the order of St. Benedict. Many Saxon ladies of royal and noble lineage were sisters in this establishment, in which Matilda, wife of Henry I., received her education. The buildings were destroyed in the war during the reign of Stephen, and subsequently restored by Henry II., who was a liberal benefactor to the abbey. At the time of the Dissolution, its revenue was £179. 7. 2.; a few years after that period, its abbess and eight of the nuns received small pensions, and the rest of the inmates were dispossessed. The only visible remains are in a large modern mansion, partly built with the materials of the abbey. In the meadow of St. Stephen, near the Bishop's palace of Wolvesey, was a college, established in 1300 by Bishop Pontoys, dedicated to St. Elizabeth, a daughter of the King of Hungary, and endowed for a provost, six chaplains, priests, six clerks, and six choristers: its revenue at the Dissolution was £112. 17- 4. A monastery, dedicated to St. James, was founded in the abbey churchyard by John, or Roger, Inkpenne, who in 1318 endowed it for a warden and several priests. In the churchyard of St. Maurice was the fraternity of St. Peter; and in that of St. Mary Kalendar, a college, the revenue of which was granted to the corporation in the reign of Philip and Mary. The Hospital of St. Mary Magdalene was an ancient building, situated on Magdalene Hill, and supposed to have been erected and endowed by one of the bishops, about the close of the twelfth century. In 1665, the king ordered the inmates to be removed to the city of Winchester; the old hospital buildings, being in a state of ruin, were taken down, and six tenements, with three rooms each, were built in St. John's parish, in the East Soke. The institution consists of a warden and four brothers and four sisters, and the annual income of the charity amounts on an average to £154. There were also convents of Augustine, Carmelite, Dominican, and Franciscan friars, the sites of which were, after the Dissolution, granted to the college. Winchester gives the title of Marquess to the family of Paulet.
Winchfield (St. Mary)
WINCHFIELD (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Hartley-Wintney, hundred of Odiham, Odiham and N. divisions of the county of Southampton, 2 miles (S. by W.) from Hartford-Bridge; containing 317 inhabitants. It comprises 1220 acres of inclosed land, and 211 acres of waste; the surface is flat, the soil in some parts loamy, and in others a strong clay, producing good wheat and beans. The Basingstoke canal has a wharf here; and the Winchfield and Hartley-Row station of the London and South-Western railway is within the limits of the parish. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £8. 16. 10½.; net income, £247; patron, the Rev. H. E. St. John. There is a parsonagehouse, and the glebe contains 50 acres. The church is an ancient edifice, with three Norman arches; the pulpit bears the date 1634.
WINCHMORE-HILL, a chapelry, in the parish, union, and hundred of Edmonton, county of Middlesex, 8 miles (N.) from London. The chapel, dedicated to St. Paul, was erected in 1828, at an expense of about £5000, of which sum £3843 were granted by the Parliamentary Commissioners, and the remainder raised by subscription. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £220; patron, the Vicar. There are places of worship for the Society of Friends, for Independents, and Wesleyans; and a national school. Dr. Fothergill, an eminent physician, and a member of the Society of Friends, was buried here.
WINCLE, a chapelry, in the parish of Prestbury, union and hundred of Macclesfield, N. division of the county of Chester, 5½ miles (S. E. by S.) from Macclesfield; containing 455 inhabitants. It comprises 2467 acres, the soil of which is partly clay and partly sand. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £116; patron, the Vicar of Prestbury. The chapel was erected about 1642.
WINDER, a township, in the parish of Lamplugh, union of Whitehaven, Allerdale ward above Derwent, W. division of Cumberland, 5¼ miles (E. by S.) from Whitehaven; containing 107 inhabitants. The tithes were commuted for land in the year 1819, under an inclosure act.
WINDER, LOW, a township, in the parish of Barton, West ward and union, county of Westmorland, 5¼ miles (S. by W.) from Penrith; containing 16 inhabitants. The impropriate tithes have been commuted for £2. 18. 10., and the vicarial for £1. 0. 8.
Windermere, (St. Martin)
WINDERMERE, (St. Martin), a parish, in Kendal ward and union, county of Westmorland, 9 miles (W. N. W.) from Kendal; containing, with the posttown of Bowness, the townships of Applethwaite and Undermilbeck, the chapelry of Troutbeck, and part of Ambleside, 2498 inhabitants. This parish derives its name from the beautiful lake anciently called Wynandermere, which is nearly eleven miles in length, about one mile in breadth, and forty fathoms deep. The lake is studded with many picturesque islands, the principal of which, Belle Isle, is richly wooded, and adorned with an elegant circular mansion in the Italian style: in the centre of the island formerly stood Holm House, which was besieged for the parliament by Col. Briggs, who, on the siege of Carlisle being raised, was obliged to abandon it. On Lady Holm, a smaller island, was a chapel dedicated to the Virgin Mary. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £24. 6. 8., and in the patronage of the Le Fleming family; net income, £253. The church, situated at Bowness, is a simple and venerable edifice, of which the east window of stained glass is said to have been brought from Furness Abbey: there are several curious memorials of the Philipson family, once the owners of Rayrigg, Calgarth, and the Island; and among the monuments of modern date, is an elegant one designed by Flaxman, to the memory of Bishop Watson, the learned author of the Apology for the Bible, &c. At Troutbeck is a separate incumbency.—See Bowness, and Westmorland.
Windford (St. Mary and St. Peter)
WINDFORD (St. Mary and St. Peter), a parish, in the union of Bedminster, hundred of Hartcliffe with Bedminster, E. division of Somerset, 7 miles (S. W. by S.) from Bristol; containing, with the tythings of Felton and Redghill, 852 inhabitants, of whom 262 are in Windford tything. The parish is situated near the road from Bristol to Bridgwater, and comprises 2992 acres, of which 596 are arable, 2141 meadow and pasture, and the rest common, &c. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £21. 12. 11., and in the gift of Worcester College, Oxford: the tithes have been commuted for £480; there is a glebe-house, and the glebe contains 108 acres. The church was rebuilt in 1797, with the exception of the tower, which is ancient and handsome.
Windle with Hardshaw
WINDLE, with Hardshaw, a township, in the parish and union of Prescot, hundred of West Derby, S. division of Lancashire; containing 6918 inhabitants, of whom 5051 are in the hamlet of Hardshaw. Before the reign of John, Windhull gave name to a family, of whom was Edusa, widow of Alan de Windhull, who obtained from that king a summons for her dower against Alan de Windhull, son of the former. In the reign of Edward III., the manor was held under William Boteler by Peter de Burnhull, with whose heiress the Gerards acquired the property; and this latter family are the present lords. The township consists of 2908 acres, and includes that part of the town of St. Helen's comprised in Hardshaw. Hardshaw Hall, now a farm, was purchased by John Penketh Cottom, Esq., whose heirs are esteemed lords of the manor of Hardshaw, though no manorial court is held. Windle Hall belongs to Sir John Gerard, Bart., at whose annual court lor the manor of Windle, officers are chosen for the township. A Roman Catholic chapel, bearing the stamp of antiquity, formerly stood at Windleshaw, but it has crumbled to its foundation, and all that remains is the tower, with a cross; the cemetery, however, is preserved, and is still used. Mr. Barrett, the antiquary, of Manchester, describing the ruins in 1780, says: "When this place was founded, or by whom, or to what saint dedicated, I have not learned, but suspect the patron saint to be St. Thomas, for near here is a well, which goes by his name, and is bathed in oft, in summer, in regard of extraordinary virtues being ascribed to the water." The impropriate tithes have been commuted for an annual rent-charge of £315. 9., payable to King's College, Cambridge.
Windlesham (St. John the Baptist)
WINDLESHAM (St. John the Baptist), a parish, in the union of Chertsey, First division of the hundred of Woking, W. division of Surrey; containing, with the hamlet of Bagshot, 1899 inhabitants. The manor was given by Edward the Confessor to the church of Westminster, and, after the Dissolution, passed to St. John's College, Oxford, to which it still belongs. The village has a very pleasing appearance, displaying an intermixture of forest-trees with gentlemen's seats; but the uncultivated commons around look dark and dreary, except in the latter end of the summer, when the heaths are in blossom. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £10. 9. 7., and in the patronage of the Crown; net income, £404. The church was built in 1680, and enlarged in 1838 at a cost of £1380. There is a chapel of ease at Bagshot; also places of worship for Independents, Wesleyans, and Baptists; and a national school endowed with £175 three per cents., bequeathed by the Rev. Edward Cooper, late rector. Hool Mill, in the parish, erected by an abbot of Chertsey in the reign of Edward III., is subject to a permanent rent-charge of £8 in support of the poor; and there are almshouses for six men and women, erected by James Butler, Esq. The parish contains numerous chalybeate springs.
WINDLESTON, a township, in the new district of Coundon, parish of St. Andrew Auckland, union of Auckland, S. E. division of Darlington ward, S. division of the county of Durham, 4 miles (E. S. E.) from Bishop-Auckland; containing 215 inhabitants. It comprises by computation 1250 acres, and has been long the property of the Eden family, of whom Sir Robert Johnson Eden, Bart., rebuilt Windleston Hall about twenty years since. The village lies west of the road from Aycliffe to Ferryhill.
WINDLEY, a township, in the parish of Duffield, union of Belper, hundred of Appletree, S. division of the county of Derby, 6¾ miles (N. N. W.) from Derby; containing 234 inhabitants. It comprises an area of 1052 acres, principally belonging to Lord Scarsdale, who is lord of the manor. Several of the houses have been lately rebuilt. The impropriate tithes of the township have been commuted for £63. 13., and the vicarial tithes for £6.
WINDRIDGE, a ward, in the parish of St. Stephen, union of St. Alban's, hundred of Cashio, or liberty of St. Alban's, county of Hertford, 1¾ mile (W. S. W.) from St. Alban's; with 411 inhabitants.
Windrush (St. Peter)
WINDRUSH (St. Peter), a parish, in the union of Northleach, Lower division of the hundred of Slaughter, E. division of the county of Gloucester, 5¼ miles (E.) from Northleach; containing 313 inhabitants, and comprising by computation 1500 acres. The living is a discharged vicarage, united to that of Sherborne in 1776, and valued in the king's books at £5: the tithes were commuted for land and a money payment in 1777.
Windsor, or New Windsor (St. John the Baptist)
WINDSOR, or New Windsor (St. John the Baptist), a borough, markettown, and parish, having separate jurisdiction, and the head of a union, locally in the hundred of Ripplesmere, county of Berks, 20 miles (E. by N.) from Reading, and 22½ (W. by S.) from London; containing, with the castle, 7887 inhabitants. This place owes its origin to a more ancient town about two miles distant, called by the Saxons, from the winding course of the river Thames, Windleshora, of which the present name, Windsor, is an abbreviation. The first authentic notice of that town, which had been the residence of the Saxon kings, occurs in an ancient charter of Edward the Confessor, granting it, with all its appendages, to the monks of Westminster, in whose possession it remained till the Conquest. William, soon after his establishment on the throne, struck with the beauty of its situation on the bank of the Thames, and the peculiar adaptation of the surrounding country to the pleasures of the chase, procured it from the monastery of Westminster, in exchange for some lands in Essex, and made it his occasional residence while pursuing the diversion of hunting. On a hill in the neighbourhood, that monarch erected a fortress, where he held his court in 1070; and two years afterwards, he assembled in it a synod of the nobility and prelates, at which the question of precedency between the sees of Canterbury and York was discussed, and decided in favour of the former. Around this fortress he laid out extensive parks; he enlarged the boundaries of the neighbouring forest, and enacted severe laws for the preservation of the game. Old Windsor, however, continued to be the residence of William and his successors till 1110, when Henry I., having partly rebuilt and considerably improved the fortress which his father had erected, by the addition of a suite of apartments, converted it into a palace, in which he occasionally resided and kept his court. From this time the importance of the ancient town began to decline; and subsequently a new town arose in the immediate vicinity of the castle, which was distinguished by the appellation of New Windsor.
In the treaty of peace between Stephen and Matilda, the castle is referred to by the name of "Mota de Windsor;" and after the death of Stephen, Henry II. held a council here, in 1170. When Richard I. embarked on his expedition to the Holy Land, the castle became the residence of the Bishop of Durham, to whom, in conjunction with the Bishop of Ely, the king had entrusted the administration of the government in his absence. King John, during his contest with the barons, resided in the castle, at that time considered the next strongest fortress after the Tower of London: it was ineffectually besieged by the barons. Henry III. erected a barbican, and strengthened the fortifications and outworks of the castle, which, in the baronial wars of this monarch's reign, was alternately taken and retaken by the contending parties, till Prince Edward (afterwards Edward I.) finally obtained and held it for his father. On the prince's succession to the throne, the castle was frequently the place of his residence, and four of his children were born at Windsor, which was likewise the favourite retreat of his queen Eleanor. Edward III., who was also born here, rebuilt the palace on a more extensive and magnificent scale, raised additional towers, erected the keep, and, near it, a tower of high elevation, named Winchester Tower, after William of Wykeham, Bishop of Winchester, whom Edward had made superintendent of his buildings. The same sovereign erected the collegiate chapel of St. George, for a dean and twelve canons; also St. George's hall, as a banqueting-house for the knights of the order of the garter, of which he was the founder. He further surrounded the whole with a strong wall and rampart, faced with stone and encompassed with a moat. While this monarch occupied the throne, two sovereigns were prisoners in the castle at the same time, viz., John of France, and David of Scotland, the latter of whom he had captured after the reduction of that country. Edward IV. enlarged and partly rebuilt the collegiate chapel, the choir of which was vaulted by Henry VII., who also erected the lofty pile of building adjoining the state apartments in the upper ward. Henry VIII. added materially to the buildings by the erection of the prebendal houses and the gateway leading into the lower ward. Edward VI. and Queen Mary both made Windsor their residence; and, among other improvements, constructed a fountain in the centre of the upper quadrangle, from which the whole castle was supplied with water. Elizabeth, after her accession to the throne, resided occasionally in the palace, to which she added some buildings next the Norman gateway, and that part adjoining the buildings of Henry VII. which is called Queen Elizabeth's gallery. She also raised the noble terrace on the north side of the castle, commanding a beautiful view of Eton College, and an extensive prospect over the vale of the Thames. During the civil war, the castle, which had received several additions from Charles I., was seized and garrisoned by the parliament, who, notwithstanding an attempt by Prince Rupert, in 1642, to regain possession of it for the king, retained it in their hands till the conclusion of the war.
After the Restoration, Charles II. repaired the injuries it had suffered, and greatly embellished the interior; and James II. and William III. ornamented the state apartments with a splendid collection of paintings. In almost every succeeding reign this interesting structure continued to receive additional embellishment. By George III., the alterations and additions were conducted on a larger scale, and with a stricter regard to the restoration and preservation of the original character of the building, than by any of his predecessors since the time of Edward III. In the reign of George IV., the varied attractions of Windsor induced that monarch to make it his principal residence; and under the influence of a correct and refined taste, which duly appreciated the merits of the ancient English style, a design was formed for the enlargement and decoration of the castle, of which a considerable part was accomplished under the king's immediate superintendence. For carrying this into effect, various sums, amounting to £771,000, were granted by parliament in this and the succeeding reign for the buildings alone; and among the different plans which were submitted, that of Mr. Jeffrey Wyatt was, on the approbation of His Majesty, adopted by government. Under this design, several parts of the old building that had been injudiciously engrafted on the main edifice were entirely removed; and portions of freehold land within the park, belonging to private individuals, were purchased, and made to conform in their appearance with the varied beauty of the grounds. The height of the buildings throughout the castle was increased by a new story; several towers were erected, windows of lofty dimensions and of appropriate character generally inserted, and some splendid gatewayentrances from the principal approaches formed in a style of commensurate grandeur; which, with subsequent improvements, have rendered this highly interesting structure, with its appendant gardens, parks, and pleasure-grounds, pre-eminently adapted to the purposes of a royal residence.
Windsor Castle occupies more than twelve acres of ground, and comprises the upper, lower, and middle wards. The principal approach is from the Little, or Home, Park, through a gateway flanked on one side by the York tower, and on the other by the Lancaster tower, both massive structures, 100 feet high, crowned with projecting battlements supported on corbels. This gateway, which ranges in a line with the noble avenue of elms in the Great Park, called the Long Walk, was erected by George IV., whose name it bears; the first stone being laid on the 12th of August 1824, when His Majesty was pleased to change the name of the architect from Wyatt to Wyatville. It is a stately structure, forming an entrance into the Upper ward, a spacious quadrangle, to which are also entrances through St. George's gateway at the south-west, leading from the town, and through the ancient Norman gateway at the west, from the middle and lower wards. On the north side of this quadrangle are the state apartments, which are open to the inspection of the public; on the east, Her Majesty's private apartments; on the south side, apartments for Her Majesty's visiters; and on the west, the round tower, or keep, to the front of which has been removed, from the centre of the quadrangle, an equestrian statue in bronze of Charles II. in the Roman costume, on a marble pedestal ornamented with sculpture. About 400 feet from the castle, on its south side, and to the west of the Long Walk, are the new stables, erected in the present reign, by a parliamentary grant of £70,000; they extend upwards of 600 feet, and include a riding-house nearly 200 feet in length by 68 in breadth. The approach to the state apartments is by a superb vestibule portioned into three parts by ranges of finelyclustered columns and gracefully-pointed arches, in the most finished character of the later English style. The roof is elaborately groined, and decorated with fantracery of elegant design; in the walls are four larger and three smaller niches for the reception of statues, richly canopied, and highly embellished with architectural work. The Grand Staircase, divided in the centre by a broad landing place, is defended with a balustrade of bronze, with massive pedestals, and capitals of polished brass, and lighted by an octagonal lantern 100 feet high from the pavement; the roof is delicately ornamented with fan-tracery depending from the centre, and ending with the royal arms, encircled by the garter. At the termination of the grand staircase is the Drawing-room. Over the folding-doors are the royal arms in artificial stone, and on each side are shields of the arms of several British monarchs, supported by angels. The decorations of this apartment are of the most superb character. The ceiling is beautifully painted in compartments, representing the restoration of Charles II., the Labours of Hercules, and other subjects, and bordered with flowers and fruit, and ornaments richly gilt. The mirrors, chandeliers, and furniture, are in a corresponding style of elegance; a choice selection of paintings by the first masters, is finely displayed, and the whole embellishments are disposed with the most refined taste, and on a scale of the most splendid magnificence. The Audiencechamber, of which the ceiling bears an allegorical representation of the Re-establishment of the Church of England, is decorated with hangings of blue silk richly embroidered; the chair and canopy of state are superb, and here, also, is a collection of paintings, chiefly historical, representing the victories of Edward III., painted by West, and the first installation of the knights of the garter, in which last more than 100 figures are finely grouped. The Presence-chamber, and indeed the whole suite of these state apartments, are of equal grandeur.
The Ball-room is finished in the most elaborate style of Louis XIV. The walls and ceiling are panelled in compartments, highly ornamented and richly gilt. In the larger panels of the walls are some superb specimens of tapestry, most exquisitely worked, representing the history of Jason and the Golden Fleece; the colours are singularly vivid, and at the same time so softened by the skilful combination of light and shade, as to have all the force and delicacy of the finest painting. In the intermediate panels are six mirrors, of large dimensions and great brilliancy. A pair of folding-doors, panelled and ornamented to correspond with the walls, open into St. George's Hall, a spacious apartment, appropriated as a banquet-room for the knights of the garter. It is nearly 200 feet in length, and of proportionate width and elevation. The lofty arched ceiling is supported on beams springing from corbels decorated with shields, on which are emblazoned the arms of the original knights; and is divided into thirteen compartments, subdivided into panels of bold design, containing nearly 700 shields with the arms of the knights up to the present time. At the east end, under a canopy, is the throne of Her Majesty as sovereign of the order, at the back of which are Her Majesty's arms, and on each side those of twelve preceding sovereigns, richly carved and emblazoned, and also those of Edward III. and the Black Prince. The mantel-piece is a massive piece of workmanship of Dove marble, sculptured in flowers and foliage, with the initials of George IV. In the Guard-chamber have been deposited, on pedestals erected for the purpose, under canopied niches, a number of suits of ancient armour, the coats of mail of John, King of France, and David, King of Scotland, with other military trophies; on other pedestals, busts of the Duke of Wellington and the Duke of Marlborough; and on a pedestal formed of the frustum of the Victory's main-mast, a bust of Admiral Lord Nelson. In the Waterloo Chamber, a magnificent apartment 100 feet in length, 46 feet wide, and 45 high, and lighted by a lantern, have been arranged portraits of the various sovereigns, popes, cardinals, ministers of state, generals, and others connected with the prosecution of the war on the continent, and in the negotiation of the late peace; painted by Sir Thomas Lawrence, at an expense of more than £36,000, paid from the privy purse.
The entrance to Her Majesty's private apartments is in the south-east angle of the quadrangle, through a handsome hall, from which is an ascent by a double staircase of great architectural beauty, lighted by a double lantern of elegant design, into a corridor 500 feet in length, communicating with Her Majesty's apartments on the east, and with the visiters' apartments on the south. The ceiling of this gallery is panelled in compartments, with delicate tracery, and the walls are decorated with paintings by the most eminent masters of the old and modern schools; the furniture is of the most sumptuous character, and the whole, enriched with every architectural ornament which the later style combines, has an air of costly grandeur. The private apartments consist of a dining-room, drawing-room, smaller drawing-room, and library, with bed-rooms, dressingrooms, boudoir, and various other apartments. These rooms are most splendid; they are decorated with every ornament that ingenuity can devise, or wealth purchase, and lighted with superb oriel windows enriched with tracery, which are not only of internal grandeur, but add greatly to the external embellishments of the castle. An apartment adjoining St. George's Hall was consecrated in December, 1843, as a private chapel for Her Majesty: the organ, formerly in the chapel at Buckingham House, was built by Samuel Green about 1770, and was the favourite instrument of George III. The rooms for Her Majesty's servants occupy the lower and higher stories of the palace. In front of the private apartments is a parterre, 400 feet in length and of equal breadth, surrounded by a broad terrace rampart wall with bastions; in the area are numerous statues finely sculptured, and under the terrace on the north side is an orangery, 250 feet in length, the front of which forms a long series of finely-pointed arches with tracery.
The Middle ward comprises the Round Tower, or keep, which was formerly the residence of the constable, whose office was both of a military and a civil nature. In his military character he was entrusted with the command of the castle, and with the custody of every thing contained in it, assisted by a lieutenant-governor, or deputy, who possessed equal authority during his absence. In his civil capacity, he was judge of a court of record having jurisdiction over the precincts of the forest, 77½ miles in circumference; this office is now vested in a steward, assisted by a janitor who is keeper of the prison, though no process has issued for many years. The Round Tower, which is of very spacious dimensions, has been raised many feet higher than its original elevation, and is crowned with a projecting machicolated battlement, supported on massive corbels and arches, and surmounted on the eastern part of the circumference by a turret, on which the royal standard is displayed during Her Majesty's residence at the castle. The lower part of the tower is surrounded by a rampart, in which are embrasures for seventeen pieces of cannon: the ascent to it is by a flight of 100 stone steps. The roof of the staircase is supported by corbels, consisting of busts of kings, knights, angels, and others, many of which are in good preservation: at the summit of the staircase is a large piece of cannon, pointed at the entrance, through an aperture in the wall; and from the rampart a strong arched gateway, grooved for a portcullis, leads into the main tower, formerly appropriated to the reception of state prisoners of high rank.
The Lower ward or quadrangle is entered from the town through Henry the Eighth's gateway, flanked with two lofty massive towers. It comprises the collegiate chapel of St. George, beyond which, on the north side, are the houses of the dean, canons, minor canons, and other officers of the college, and various towers, among which are those of the Bishop of Winchester, who is prelate, and the Bishop of Salisbury, who is chancellor, of the order of the garter; a small portion of a tower formerly belonging to the garter king at arms; and a store tower. Apartments are also fitted up in this ward for the commanding officer and officer on guard, who, though subordinate to the constable, or governor of the castle, has the command of a company of the royal foot guards, always on duty here. In an apartment in the deanery, called the garter-room, the arms of the sovereign and knights companions of the order are emblazoned; and an ancient screen is decorated with the arms of Edward III., and of the several sovereigns and knights companions of the order from its original foundation. This apartment is at present used as a robingroom on days of installation.
St. George's chapel
St. George's chapel has a chapter, which is also a corporation, consisting of a dean and eight (formerly 12) canons, possessing the patronage of the six minor canonries, and 55 benefices, with one other benefice alternately; the establishment likewise embraces 10 choristers, a steward, treasurer, and several other officers. Four canonries have been suspended, and the proceeds transferred to the Ecclesiastical Commissioners. The minor canons have an allowance of £60 each, and six livings are appropriated to them by the chapter; they also hold property bequeathed to them as a body. The edifice, as before observed, was originally built by Edward III., on the site of a smaller chapel erected by Henry I., and dedicated to Edward the Confessor; it was considerably enlarged by Edward IV., materially enriched by Henry VII., and repaired, restored, and greatly embellished by George III., who expended £20,000 in its improvement. Very extensive alterations and embellishments were effected between the months of May and October, 1843. Many portions were carefully restored, and inferior coatings removed; a large quantity of stained glass of the most splendid description was introduced; numerous parts of the edifice were emblazoned with the arms of knights of the garter and distinguished families, under the superintendence of Wiilement, and this magnificent chapel now presents an appearance grand in the extreme. It is a cruciform structure in the purest character of the later English style, of which it displays one of the finest specimens in the kingdom; the transepts project in an octagonal form from the main building, and at the extremities of the aisles are lateral octangular projections, forming sepulchral chapels. Pierced parapets of elegant design, and buttresses crowned with square embattled turrets, are the principal external embellishments. The interior is finely arranged; the walls are panelled throughout in one general design, of which the windows, enriched with tracery, and divided by battlemented transoms, form an integral part.
The Nave is separated from the aisles by arches and piers of peculiar beauty, adapted to the contrast of light and shade with singular effect. Its roof and that of the choir are elaborately groined, embellished with fantracery of beautiful design, and splendidly decorated with shields of armorial-bearings and heraldic devices. It is lighted by an elegant range of clerestory windows, which are continued round the transepts; and the great window, which occupies the whole of the western extremity above the entrance, is enriched with tracery, and adorned with ancient stained glass of unrivalled brilliancy. The Choir, in which the installation of the knights takes place, is separated from the nave by a screen of artificial stone, from Coade's manufactory, ornamented with several devices illustrative of the order of the garter. In the choir are the stalls of the sovereign and knights companions of the order, enriched with historical and emblematical carvings, and with the names and heraldic honours of the knights emblazoned; the curtains and cushions are of blue velvet with gold fringe, and on the canopies of the several stalls are deposited the sword, helmet, mantle, and crest of the knights, above which are their banners of silk, with armorial bearings. The stall of the sovereign, whose banner is of velvet mantled with silk, and considerably larger than that of the knights companions, is on the right hand of the entrance. The other stalls, originally 25 in number, now increased to 31, occupy the north and south sides of the choir. The altar is embellished with a painting of the Last Supper, by West, which is considered to be one of the best productions of that artist; and the wainscot surrounding the presbytery is ornamented with the arms of Edward III., Edward the Black Prince, and the knights who originally composed the order, finely carved. In the east window is a beautiful painting of the Resurrection, in three compartments, executed by Jarvis and Forrest, from a design by West, at an expense of £4000; and in the windows on the north and south sides of the altar are the arms of the sovereign, and of the several knights companions who subscribed to defray that expense. The east window of the south aisle is adorned with a painting of the Angels appearing to the Shepherds, and in the west window is one of the Nativity; the west window of the north aisle contains a painting of the Adoration of the Magi, and at the eastern extremity is a chapter-room, forming an approach to the royal closet on the north side of the altar.
The various monumental chapels are separated from the aisles by screens of appropriate character, and in the south transept is a modern font of good design. At the east end of the north aisle are deposited the remains of Edward IV., over whose tomb is a black marble slab with the inscription "Edward IV. and his queen, Elizabeth Widville:" an elegant monument of iron, beautifully wrought, and representing a pair of gates between two antique towers, of elaborate design, which formerly covered the tomb, has been removed to the north side of the altar. In the opposite aisle, near the choir, were deposited the remains of Henry VI., brought from Chertsey, in Surrey, by order of Henry VIII. Near the ascent to the altar is the entrance to the royal vault, in which were interred the remains of Henry VIII.; of his queen, Jane Seymour; and of Charles I., whose coffin was opened by order of George IV. while Prince Regent, when the remains were found in a very perfect state, the countenance being as fresh as at the time the body was interred. In a small chapel at the east end of the south aisle are the monuments of Edward, Earl of Lincoln, and Richard Beauchamp, Bishop of Salisbury, first chancellor of the order of the garter. In the same aisle is a small chantry, erected in 1522, by John Oxenbridge, a canon, and a benefactor to the chapel; adjoining which is King's, or Aldworth, chapel, probably erected by Dr. Oliver King, Bishop of Bath and Wells, whose remains are interred in it. Opposite to this chapel are some panels of oak, on which are carved the arms and devices of Prince Edward (son of Henry VI.), Edward IV., and Henry VII., whose portraits, in full length, are painted on the panels. Near the centre of the aisle is the chapel of Sir Reginald Bray, who is interred here; and at the west end is the Beaufort chapel, containing monuments of Henry Somerset, Duke of Beaufort, of white marble, elegantly decorated with sculpture; and of Charles Somerset, Earl of Worcester, and his lady, Elizabeth: on this latter tomb are the effigies of the earl dressed in the habit of the order, and of his lady in her robes of state.
In the centre of the north aisle is Rutland chapel, in which is an alabaster monument to the memory of Sir George Manners, Lord Roos, and Lady Anne his wife, niece to Edward IV.: on the tomb are the figures of Sir George in armour, and his lady in her robes of state, while round it are the effigies of their children. In this chapel, Sir Thomas Syllinger and his wife Anne, Duchess of Exeter, and sister of Edward IV., were also interred; and it contains a beautiful marble tablet to the memory of Major Packe, killed at the battle of Waterloo, who is represented as being raised from the field by a brother officer. The same aisle, near the choir, comprises the chapel of St. Stephen, decorated with paintings illustrative of the life and death of that martyr: this chapel was erected by Elizabeth, widow of Lord William Hastings, whose remains were deposited in it after his decapitation by Richard III. In the south aisle of the choir is the chapel of St. John the Baptist, similarly decorated with paintings illustrative of his history. At the southwest corner of the church is Urswick's chapel, founded by Dr. Christopher Urswick, Dean of Windsor, who contributed greatly, with Sir Reginald Bray, to the completion of the church; it contains the cenotaph of the Princess Charlotte, beautifully executed in white marble, by Mr. Matthew Wyatt. There are several other chapels; and, in various parts of this imposing structure, numerous interesting specimens of magnificent decoration.
At the east end of the collegiate chapel is a chapel erected by Henry VII., as a place of interment for himself and his successors; but the king afterwards changing his purpose, it remained in a neglected state till the reign of Henry VIII., when Cardinal Wolsey, by royal permission, began to erect a splendid tomb, the design of which exceeded in magnificence that of Henry VII.'s in Westminster Abbey. The cardinal died before it was completed, and was buried in Leicester Abbey; and the unfinished sepulchre was destroyed in the parliamentary war. James II. converted the building into a chapel, and employed the artist Verrio to ornament the walls and ceiling with paintings; but the populace, excited by the public performance of Roman Catholic rites, furiously assailed the building, destroying the windows and interior decorations. In this ruined state it remained till George HI. ordered it to be repaired, and constructed within it a royal mausoleum, in which George III. and IV., and William IV., with several other members of the royal family, have been interred. In clearing away the ground for this purpose, the workmen discovered two coffins in a stone recess, in one of which were the remains of Mary, daughter of Edward IV. and Elizabeth Widville, and in the other, those of their third son, George, Duke of Bedford: the remains of both were reinterred in the same tomb with those of their parents. The chapel above the mausoleum, or crypt, is intended as a chapter-house for the order of the garter. It is lighted by a fine range of windows with tracery, which form a beautiful group at the east end, which is hexagonal; the west end is ornamented with a large window of elegant design.
The palace is situated in Grounds exceedingly attractive. It is surrounded on all sides, except the west, by a noble terrace, above 2500 feet in extent, faced with a strong rampart of hewn stone, and having, at convenient intervals, easy slopes leading down to the park. The smaller park, which is generally called the Home Park, immediately on the north-north-east and south sides of the castle, is about four miles in circumference, and was inclosed by William III. with a brick wall. Under the terrace, on the east side of the castle, is a beautiful lawn laid out in shrubberies and walks, called the Slopes, and extending on the west side of the park, from the north, terrace to the Adelaide Lodge. On the opposite side of the road is Frogmore Lodge, which was purchased by Queen Charlotte; the gardens and pleasure-grounds are tastefully laid out, and contain many interesting objects, among which is a hermitage, designed by the Princess Elizabeth, and perfected by Mr. J. Wyatt. This hermitage is situated on the margin of a beautiful piece of water. In the interior is an elegant apartment, in which are the effigy of an infant reposing on a cushion, and a monumental tablet to the memory of the Princess Charlotte, in which the countenance of the princess, and the representation of her infant are exquisitely sculptured. The Long Walk, extending from the upper quadrangle of the castle into the Great Park, is continued in a direct line for three miles, forming a noble avenue of double rows of elms, 77 yards wide, and, at the opposite extremity, ascending a hill of considerable elevation, on which the first stone of a monument in honour of his royal father was laid by George IV., in 1899. The monument consists of a colossal statue in bronze, 25 feet high, by Westmacott, placed on a pedestal 40 feet high, and forming a conspicuous object from the castle. Near this spot is Cumberland Lodge, the residence of the Duke of Cumberland, brother of George III.
The Great Park, which is partly in the parish of Old Windsor, is eighteen miles in circumference; it abounds with forest scenery of great beauty, and is agreeably diversified with hill and valley, and with water. Virginia Water, issuing from a valley commencing near the back of Cumberland Lodge, after winding for several miles through the varied scenery of the park, expands towards the south-east into a beautiful lake, more than a mile in length and of considerable breadth. This lake is bounded by a verdant lawn surrounded with extensive plantations of various kinds of trees, and is terminated by a fine cascade, a view of which is obtained from a bridge on the high road over the rivulet formed by the waste water of the lake, and running into the Thames near Chertsey. On the margin of the lake, an elegant temple and a fishing gallery, of very light and beautiful design, have been erected: there is also a large ruin, consisting of numerous ancient columns of marble brought from the ruins of Corinth, and classically arranged and re-constructed by Sir Jeffrey Wyatville. The grounds are planted with shrubs and flowers, and laid out in pleasant walks; the surface of the lake is enlivened with pleasure-boats, and with several beautiful models of ships, among which is an elegant model of the Euryalus frigate, presented by Captain Inglis. After its partial restoration and improvement, George IV., on the 9th of December, 1828, took possession of the castle; which, from the extent and grandeur of its buildings, the richness of the surrounding scenery, diversified with hills and vales enlivened by the frequent windings of the Thames, and the peaceful waters of an inland lake; the luxuriant woodlands within the inclosures, and the majestic forest in the vicinity; must unquestionably be regarded as one of the most magnificent palaces in Europe.
The Town of Windsor is pleasantly situated on the acclivities of the hill on which the castle is built. It has six principal streets, intersected by several smaller; is well paved, lighted with gas, and amply supplied with water: the houses are in general of brick, and of respectable appearance, and several in the more modern part are handsome and well built. The approach from Datchet is strikingly beautiful; and at the other extremity is an elegant iron bridge of three arches, resting on piers of granite, the first stone of which was laid in 1822, by the Duke of York, connecting the town with Eton, on the opposite side of the Thames. Considerable improvements liave been made within the last 20 or 30 years, among which are, the removal of the ancient edifices of lath and plaster, and the erection of some lines of building fronted with stone, in which the materials of the lodges that were taken down for the improvement of the castle have been used: among the more recent erections are, York Place, Brunswick Terrace, and Augusta Place. On the west side of High-street is a meadow comprising more than two acres, called the Bachelors' Acre, which has been from time immemorial appropriated to the commonalty of the borough for their amusements. It is bounded on the east and south sides by a high bank; on the summit is a broad terrace, at the end of which is an obelisk, with inscriptions on the pedestal, commemorative of the fiftieth anniversary of the accession of George III., and of the visit of Her Majesty and the princesses, upon that occasion, to partake of the old English fare provided for the assembled populace. The infantry barracks form a commodious range of building, erected in 1795, and enlarged to their present extent in 1803: the cavalry barracks, about half a mile from the town, on the road to Winkfield, are handsomely built, and occupy an open, healthy, and pleasant situation. The theatre, in Thames-street, a small convenient building, erected in 1815, at an expense of £6000, advanced on transferable shares, is open during the Ascot races and the vacations at Eton. A public library in Castlestreet, is well supported; and there is also a subscription circulating library.
Windsor, though possessing the advantages of a navigable river, and other favourable circumstances, among which may be reckoned a station on the Great Western railway at Slough, about two miles distant, has no particular branch of manufacture, and the trade is almost confined to what is necessary for the supply of the inhabitants. The town is indebted equally for its origin and its continued prosperity to the erection of the castle, and to its selection as a royal residence. It has, however, long been celebrated for the quality of its ale, of which considerable quantities are sent to London and other towns. An act was passed in 1847 for a railway to Richmond, there to join the London and Richmond line. The market-days are Wednesday and Saturday, the latter chiefly for corn, which is pitched in the market-place; the fairs are on Easter-Tuesday, July 5th, and Oct. 24th. A commodious market-place has been constructed for the sale of butchers' meat and other provisions: the area underneath the guildhall is appropriated as a corn-market.
The inhabitants were first incorporated in the fifth of Edward I., from which time this was the county town till 1314, when Edward II. transferred that distinction to Reading. The charter was extended and confirmed in various successive reigns; but the corporation at present consists of a mayor, six aldermen, and eighteen councillors, under the act 5th and 6th of William IV., cap. 76. The borough is divided into two wards, and the municipal and parliamentary boundaries, which comprise 2625 acres, are co-extensive; the mayor, late mayor, and recorder, are justices of the peace, and the number of other magistrates is six. Quarterly courts of session are held for all offences not capital. The powers of the county debt-court of Windsor, established in 1847, extend over the registration-district of Easthampstead, and part of the districts of Windsor, Eton, and Cookham. The borough first exercised the elective franchise in the 30th of Edward I., and sent members to parliament till the 14th of Edward III., from which time it discontinued till the 25th of Henry VI.; since that period it has regularly returned two members: the mayor is returning officer. The guildhall, a spacious and handsome building in High-street, erected in 1686, is supported on columns and arches of Portland stone, and ornamented at the north end with a statue of Queen Anne, and at the south with one of Prince George of Denmark: the chamber in which the public business of the corporation is transacted, is decorated with portraits of all the sovereigns from James I. to Queen Anne, of George III. and his queen, and George IV.; also with portraits of Prince Rupert, Archbishop Laud, and some others. The common gaol and house of correction for the borough was rebuilt at the expense of George III.
The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £15. 3. 4., and in the patronage of the Crown; net income, £400; impropriator, Frederick Walpole Keppell, Esq. The church is a handsome structure in the later English style, with a lofty square embattled tower crowned by pinnacles, erected in 1822, upon the site of an edifice which, having become greatly dilapidated, was taken down in 1820. The expense amounted to £14,040, towards defraying which, George III. contributed £1050, and the Incorporated Society £750; £4000 were raised by subscription, and the remainder by a rate on the inhabitants. The interior is elegantly arranged. The altar is embellished with an excellent painting of the Last Supper, found in one of the chantries in St. George's chapel, where it is supposed to have been secreted during the parliamentary war: after having been restored to its place over the altar of that chapel, it was presented to this church by George III., in 1788. The screen is of oak, richly carved, to correspond with two massive chairs presented by the Princess Augusta; and the rail which surrounds the chancel, is elaborately carved with beautiful devices of pelicans feeding their youug, and with fruit and foliage, thought to be the work of the celebrated Gibbons, and formerly belonging to St. George's chapel. Under small arches at the east end of the church, are the royal closets, fitted up with crimson drapery; the corporation seat is ornamented with tabernacle-work, and surmounted by an enriched canopy. There are several ancient monuments, among which may be noticed the sarcophagus of Chief Justice Reeve, with busts of himself and his lady, by Schemacker; and that of Edward Jobson and Eleanor his wife, with their effigies, and those of their ten children, in the costume of the 16th century. The first stone of a military church dedicated to the Holy Trinity, was laid by Prince Albert, on the 4th of April 1842, a site having been presented by Mr. Bedborough. The edifice is of white brick and Bath stone, and is cruciform, in the early English style, having two large transepts, and a beautiful tower and spire together 148 feet in height. Three sides of the interior are fitted up with extensive galleries, of which those in the transepts are for the military, and that at the west end for the children; the body of the edifice is laid out with richlycarved oak benches, affording 1000 sittings, for the inhabitants of Windsor and Clewer. The expense, about £10,000, was raised chiefly by subscription, towards which Her Majesty contributed £200, and Prince Albert 100 guineas. The living is a perpetual curacy; patron, the Crown; income, £200. There are places of worship for Independents, Wesleyans, and Baptists.
On the north side of the church is a charity school, established in 1705, which has several benefactions vested in the funds, and an annual payment of £24. 15. from the exchequer, together amounting to £167; the school-house was erected by means of £500 bequeathed by Theodore Randue, Esq. A ladies' charity school was established in 1784, by subscription, under the patronage of Queen Charlotte; the income, arising from endowments, is £56. Another school is endowed for twelve boys; a national school is supported by subscription, and there are funds left by Mrs. Barker and Mr. Marrat, for teaching children, and by Mr. Panton, for the endowment of a Sunday school. Archbishop Laud bequeathed £50 per annum to the parish, to be employed for two following years in apprenticing five boys; and every third year in giving marriage portions to three maidens: this charity was augmented with a bequest of £1000 by Mr. Randue, with which, increased by £250 added by his executors, an estate was purchased now yielding a rental of £128. An hospital for eight men and women was endowed by Thomas Brotherton in 1510, and Richard Gallis in 1666, with funds now producing £102. 16. per annum; the almshouses were rebuilt in 1702, on an enlarged scale, and the number of inmates has been augmented to twelve. An almshouse for twelve women, founded by a bequest from Henry Franklyn, in 1575, and situated in Park-street, is supported from money vested in the parish. Near the Pitfields, now called the Bachelors' Acre, four almshouses were founded in 1687, by Richard Reeve, who endowed them with funds from which the inmates receive £10 per annum. A college for seven indigent gentlemen, situated in Datchet Lane, and called "Travers's College for Naval Knights of Windsor," was founded by a bequest made by Samuel Travers, in 1724, settling upon each of the inmates £60 per annum; the endowment was augmented in 1805, by Lieutenant Robert Brathwaite, and the whole income now amounts to £564. Mrs. Phebe Thomas, in 1821, bequeathed funded property from the proceeds of which twelve widows receive £10 per annum each. There are also bequests for apprenticing children, and for other charitable purposes. The union of Windsor comprises six parishes or places, and contains a population of 20,502.
Among the illustrious natives of Windsor were, John, eldest son of Edward I., who died in his infancy, and was interred at Westminster, in 1273; Eleanor, eldest daughter of the same monarch, born in 1266, and married to Henry, Earl of Burg, in France, from whom the house of Anjou and the kings of Sicily are descended; Margaret, third daughter of Edward I., born in 1275, and married to John, second duke of Brabant, from whose son John, the third duke, the dukes of Burgundy were descended; Mary, sixth daughter of the same monarch, born in 1279, who, when ten years of age, entered a nunnery at Amesbury, in the county of Wilts; Edward III.; William, the sixth son of Edward, who died in his infancy; and Henry VI. Her present Majesty gave birth to the infant Prince Alfred at the castle, on the 6th of August, 1844. Windsor confers the title of Earl upon the family of Stuart, marquesses of Bute.
WINDSOR, a suburb of the town of Liverpool, in the extra-parochial district of Toxteth-Park, union and hundred of West Derby, S. division of Lancashire, 1½ mile (S. E. by E.) from the Exchange, Liverpool. It consists principally of terraces and other handsome ranges of houses, the residence of merchants and gentry; the ground is elevated, the air very salubrious, and fine views are obtained of the Cheshire hills and Welsh mountains. Here are a large foundry and a brewery. St. Clement's church, Windsor, erected in 1841 at a cost of £3400, is a neat stone structure in the early English style, with a low spire: the district annexed to it, contains a population of 5000; and the living is a perpetual curacy, in the gift of Trustees. Near the church are some excellent schools.
Windsor, Old (St. Peter)
WINDSOR, OLD (St. Peter), a parish, in the union of Windsor, hundred of Ripplesmere, county of Berks, 2 miles (S. E. by S.) from Windsor; containing 1600 inhabitants. This place is said to have been the residence of several Saxon kings, but after the improvements made by Henry I. in the fortress erected at (New) Windsor by William the Conqueror, it speedily lost its original importance. The parish comprises 4349a. 2r. 17p., of which about 3000 acres are comprehended in Windsor Great Park; it is beautifully situated on the river Thames, and includes Cumberland Lodge, Virginia Water, part of the Long Walk, and other interesting features. A pleasure-fair is annually held. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £8. 6. 8., and in the patronage of the Crown; net income, £270; impropriator, the Rev. G. Isherwood. The church is a very ancient structure: in the churchyard are several tombs of noble and distinguished personages. There is a chapel in the Great Park, a royal donative, built by George IV. for the accommodation of his household, and now used for the gentry, tenants, and keepers connected with the royal domains. At Sunningdale is a church dedicated to the Holy Trinity, which was completed in October, 1840, at a cost, including the endowment, of about £3000; the edifice is an exact model of the Lombardo-Gothic style, and the first of the kind erected in England. The living is in the gift of the Bishop of Oxford. A parochial school (now an almshouse), and four cottages with gardens attached, were erected in 1797, and endowed with land, which is divided into allotments, and let to 40 poor persons. Here is the Onslow and Jubilee school of industry, founded by a bequest of £23 per annum by Lady Onslow, for teaching gardening and agriculture to boys during one-half of the day, and instructing them during the other half on the national plan; and also for preparing girls for creditable service. The workhouse for the Windsor union is situated here; and in the vicinity of Cumberland Lodge are schools where more than 100 boys and girls are clothed, boarded, and lodged, at the Queen's expense. The Roman road from Silchester passes through the parish.
WINDY-NOOK, an ecclesiastical district, in the parish of Jarrow, union of Gateshead, E. division of Chester ward, N. division of the county of Durham, 2 miles (S.) from Gateshead; containing 2009 inhabitants. This district, which was separated from the chapelry of Heworth in 1843, occupies an elevated situation, and abounds with wildly romantic scenery. The substratum is principally freestone of excellent quality, of which there are numerous quarries; the produce is chiefly formed into grindstones, for which the place has long been celebrated. An extensive pottery for common earthenware has been established; there are also two windmills, and a mill driven by water. The church (St. Alban's), consecrated on the 25th of August, 1842, was erected at an expense of £880, of which £200 were a grant from Her Majesty's Commissioners, £175 from the Incorporated Society, £75 from the Diocesan Society, and the remainder was raised by subscription; it is a neat structure in the early English style, with a campanile turret. The living is a perpetual curacy, in the patronage of the Incumbent of Heworth, with a net income of £150. A national school built also in 1842, is supported by subscription.