A Topographical Dictionary of England. Originally published by S Lewis, London, 1848.
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Hyckham, North (All Saints)
HYCKHAM, NORTH (All Saints), a parish, in the Lower division of the wapentake of Boothby-Graffo, parts of Kesteven, union and county of Lincoln, 4¾ miles (S. W. by S.) from the city of Lincoln; containing 367 inhabitants. The living is a perpetual curacy, valued in the king's books at £19. 16. 3.; net income, £208; patron, the Bishop of Lincoln. The tithes were commuted for corn-rents in 1769. The church is in ruins.
Hyckham, South (St. Michael)
HYCKHAM, SOUTH (St. Michael), a parish, in the Lower division of the wapentake of Boothby-Graffo, parts of Kesteven, union and county of Lincoln, 6 miles (S. W. by S.) from Lincoln; containing, with a portion of the township of Haddington, 147 inhabitants. The living is a rectory, in the patronage of the Crown, with a net income of £340: the tithes were commuted for corn-rents, under an inclosure act of the 39th and 40th George III.
HYDE, a town, and a township, in the parish and union of Stockport, hundred of Macclesfield, N. division of the county of Chester, 7½ miles (E. S. E.) from Manchester; containing 10,151 inhabitants. So early as the reign of John, a part of the manor of Hyde was held by a family of the same name, of which the great Lord Chancellor Hyde, Earl of Clarendon, was a descendant; the remaining portion was acquired by them in the reign of Edward III. Half the township is now the property of the Clarke family, by the marriage of George Clarke, Esq., lieutenant-governor of New York, with Anne, one of the daughters and eventually sole heiress of Edward Hyde, Esq. The township remained until of late years a mere agricultural district, thinly inhabited; but has now become a rapidly improving place by the establishment of the cotton manufacture, for which there are some of the largest spinning and power-loom factories in the kingdom, employing more than 5000 hands. The township is on the Manchester and Mottram turnpike-road, and comprises 890 acres, whereof 731 are arable and pasture, 33 woodland, and 126 in roads, streets, buildings, &c.; it contains extensive coal-mines, the property of Edward Hyde Clarke, Esq., and stone is also wrought. The river Tame separates Hyde from Haughton, in Lancashire. Water conveyance to Manchester is had by the Peak-Forest canal, which passes through the township, and unites with the Ashton canal; and the Sheffield and Manchester railway passes within a quarter of a mile of Hyde: a proposed branch from this railway will be made through the town, and thence to Whaley-Bridge.
Hyde is a flourishing place with many good streets and handsome shops; the inhabitants are supplied with water from reservoirs situated at Werneth Lowe, about a mile distant. A literary and scientific institution, and a mechanics' institute, have been established. A market is held on Saturday, and is numerously attended by the residents of the populous districts around. The magistrates of the division of Hyde hold a session every Monday, at the court-room in the town, where is also a police-office for the district. The police officers are appointed by the magistrates, under a constabulary act for Cheshire (that county being excepted from the general Rural-Police act for England and Wales); the common township constables are appointed at the court leet of the Queen's forest and manor of Macclesfield. A court baron is held at Hyde Hall on the first Wednesday after the 21st of November. The powers of the county debtcourt of Hyde, established in 1847, extend over part of the two registration-districts of Stockport and Ashtonunder-Lyne. St. George's church, here, for which the site was given by Mr. Clarke, was erected in 1832, at a cost of £4310, raised by parliamentary grant and local subscriptions; it is in the early English style, with a tower. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £170; patron, the Rector of Stockport, whose tithes in the township have been commuted for £12. A church district named St. Thomas's has been formed by the Ecclesiastical Commission: the living is in the gift of the Crown and the Bishop of Chester, alternately. There are places of worship for Independents, Wesleyans, and Unitarians: the last recently erected a new meetinghouse of great beauty, in the pointed style, at Gee-Cross, in the township, in lieu of that built there in 1708.
Hyde, with Pinnock.—See Pinnock.
Hyde, East and West
HYDE, EAST and WEST, a hamlet, in the parish and union of Luton, hundred of Flitt, county of Bedford, 3¾ miles (S. E.) from Luton; containing 631 inhabitants. At East Hyde is a church dedicated to St. Thomas, in the Norman style, of which the first stone was laid by Mrs. Ames, of The Hyde, in 1840. It was built through the exertions of Mr. Ames and his family, and contains 500 sittings; the painted windows, font, communion-plate, and organ, were all presented by Mrs. Ames. The living is in the gift of the Bishop of London.
HYDE-PASTURES, a hamlet, in the parish of Hunningham, union of Hinckley, Southam division of the hundred of Knightlow, S. division of the county of Warwick, 2¼ miles (E.) from Nuneaton; containing 21 inhabitants. It is situated on the borders of Leicestershire, and consists of 408 acres.
HYLTON, a township, in the parish of Monk-Wearmouth, union of Sunderland, E. division of Chester ward, N. division of the county of Durham, 3 miles (W. N. W.) from Sunderland; containing 550 inhabitants. This township, which is in the vale of the Wear, and on the road from Sunderland to Newcastle, comprises Hylton Castle, a baronial mansion, which has been much modernised, the centre only possessing any claim to antiquity. The grounds to the north and north-east are laid out in slopes and terraces. It was the residence of the Hyltons from the time of King Athelstan to the year 1746, and the building has the arms of that ancient family and its alliances engraven on it in numerous places; its battlements are ornamented with statues, and its corners with circular turrets. The domestic chapel is first mentioned in a record of the date 1157, when the prior of Durham granted that the knight of Heltun might have his own chaplain; it was dedicated to St. Katherine, but before 1322 there was a chantry founded within it in honour of the Virgin. The chapel was resigned into the hands of the prior before the Dissolution, but was afterwards restored by the family as a domestic place of worship, and was again used during the residence of Simon Temple, Esq.
Hylton Ferry, county Durham.—See Ford.
Hythe (St. Leonard)
HYTHE (St. Leonard), a borough, parish, and one of the cinque-ports, having separate jurisdiction, in the union of Elham, and locally in the hundred of Hythe, lathe of Shepway, E. division of Kent, 33 miles (S. E. by E.) from Maidstone, and 67 (S. E. by E.) from London; containing 2265 inhabitants. This place, which is of great antiquity, was noted for the security of its haven, from which circumstance it appears to have derived its Saxon name, signifying "harbour." In 456, a sanguinary battle occurred on this part of the coast, between the Britons and the Saxons, when many were slain on both sides: their bones, whitened by long exposure on the sea-shore, having been collected, were deposited in the crypt under the chancel of the parochial church. Hythe, from its maritime importance, was constituted one of the cinqueports, rated at five ships, with a complement of 21 men each, for the service of the king, and invested with ample privileges. In 1036, the town, with the manor of Saltwood, was given to the see of Canterbury, the archbishops of which built a castle at Saltwood, about a mile to the north. In the early part of the reign of Henry IV., according to Lambarde, "Hythe was grievously afflicted, in so much, beside the furie of the pestilence which raged all over, there were in one day 200 of the houses consumed by fire, and five of the ships with 100 men drowned;" the inhabitants impoverished and dispirited by this calamity, thought of abandoning the town, but were prevented by the interposition of the king, who released them for a time from their services as inhabitants of a cinque-port. At the Reformation, Archbishop Cranmer exchanged the manor of Saltwood, and the town of Hythe, with Henry VIII.; and they continued vested in the crown until the 17th of Elizabeth, who granted the place at a fee-farm rent of £3 to the inhabitants, whom she incorporated, by the style of "the Mayor, Jurats, and Commonalty of the town and port of Hythe." Since the maritime survey made in that reign, the haven has been entirely choked up with sand, and the beach is now nearly three-quarters of a mile from the town.
Hythe consists principally of one long street, running parallel with the sea, and intersected nearly at right angles by several smaller streets: the houses are irregularly built; those on the higher grounds command a fine view of the sea, Romney-Marsh, and the adjacent country, which abounds with romantic scenery, and affords numerous pleasing walks and rides. The town is much frequented during the season for bathing. At the entrance from the London road are the barracks, in which about 50 of the Royal Sappers and Miners are stationed. The theatre, a small building, is opened occasionally, and there is a public library. The coast is defended by a range of strong forts and a line of martello towers, erected during the late war with France. The Royal Military canal from Hythe to Rye affords a facility of conveyance for goods; a passage-boat plies daily on it, and the South-Eastern railway runs near Hythe. The market is on Saturday, and a corn-market is held on Thursday; fairs take place on July 10th and December 1st. Under a charter granted in the 20th of Charles II., the corporation consisted of a mayor, 12 jurats, and 34 common-councilmen, aided by a recorder, town-clerk, two chamberlains, and other officers; but by the act of the 5th and 6th of William IV., cap. 76, the government is now vested in a mayor, 4 aldermen, and 12 councillors, the total number of magistrates being 9. The municipal borough comprises 1717 acres, and the parliamentary 2622. The town formerly returned two members to parliament, but now sends only one; the mayor is returning officer. A court of quarter-sessions is held before the recorder; and petty-sessions occur on the last Thursday in the month: a court of record is held on alternate Saturdays. The county magistrates for the division hold a meeting here on the third Monday in every month: the powers of the county debtcourt of Hythe, established in 1847, extend over part of the registration-district of Elham. The court-hall is a convenient building in the centre of the town; the market-place was formed by Viscount Strangford, in the reign of Charles II. There is a small borough gaol and house of correction.
The living is annexed to the rectory of Saltwood. The church is a spacious and handsome structure, partly Norman and partly early English, with a tower at the west end in the former style, and a central tower of the latter character. It has been repaired and renovated by the present rector, the Archdeacon of Canterbury; and contains some monuments of considerable antiquity to the family of Deedes, one of which is to the memory of Julius Deedes, who represented the borough as a baron in parliament, and was mayor of Hythe, in the time of Charles II. Under the chancel is a very fine crypt, beautifully groined, and having a door on each side with highly-enriched mouldings. Over the porch is a large apartment used as the town-hall, in which the mayor and other officers of the corporation are chosen. Formerly there were two other churches, the sites of which were taken by government when the canal was cut. Here are places of worship for Independents and Wesleyans. St. Bartholomew's hospital for four men and eight women, was founded by Haimo, Bishop of Rochester, about 1336, and is endowed with land producing about £270 per annum. An almshouse for nine persons, called St. John's Hospital, is also endowed with landed property; and there are some other charitable benefactions. Near the end of Stane-street, the Roman road from Canterbury, is the ancient port Lemanus, or Limne, where the remains of the walls of that station are still visible.
HYTHE, a district chapelry, in the parish of Fawley, union of New-Forest, hundred of Bishop's-Waltham, Southampton and S. divisions of the county of Southampton, 3 miles (S.) from the town of Southampton. This place is agreeably situated on the bank of the Southampton Water, opposite to the town, with which a communication is kept up by passage-boats. An act was passed in 1844, for making a landing-place here. There are numerous respectable houses, and an extensive yard for ship-building. The living is a perpetual curacy, in the patronage of the incumbent of Fawley; net income, £92. The chapel, dedicated to St. John, was built in 1823.
Hythe, West (St. Mary)
HYTHE, WEST (St. Mary), a parish, in the union, and partly within the liberties, of Romney-Marsh, but chiefly within the liberties of the town and port of Hythe (of which it is a member), partly in the hundred of Hythe, and partly in that of Worth, lathe of Shepway, E. division of Kent, 2 miles (W. by S.) from Hythe; containing 237 inhabitants. The haven of West Hythe was a place of great resort for shipping so early as the first settlement of the Saxons; and in the reign of Edward the Confessor, the town, from its maritime importance, had the privileges of a cinque-port; but on the subsequent retirement of the sea, it yielded to the growing importance of the new town of Hythe. The parish comprises 1253 acres. The Military canal passes through. The living is a vicarage, valued in the king's books at £8. 14. 4½.; net income, £34; patron, the Archdeacon of Canterbury. The church has been demolished.