A Topographical Dictionary of England. Originally published by S Lewis, London, 1848.
This free content was digitised by double rekeying. All rights reserved.
Ifield (St. Margaret)
IFIELD (St. Margaret), a parish, in the union of North Aylesford, hundred of Toltingtrough, lathe of Aylesford, W. division of Kent, 2½ miles (S. by E.) from Gravesend; containing 172 inhabitants. It comprises 312 acres. The village, which is comprehended in the hamlet of Shinglewell, is usually called Shinglefield-street, and is situated on the line of a Roman road, traces of which are yet visible. The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at £4. 7., and in the gift of William Edmeads, Esq.: the tithes have been commuted for £149. 1. 6., and the glebe comprises 8½ acres. The church, which is the smallest in the diocese, was built in 1596, and the rector added a vestry to it in 1838.
Ifield (St. Margaret)
IFIELD (St. Margaret), a parish, in the union of Horsham, hundred of Burbeach, though locally in that of Singlecross, rape of Bramber, W. division of Sussex, 1¾ mile (W.) from Crawley; containing 1061 inhabitants. It comprises 3948 acres, of which 2650 are arable, 870 pasture, 120 wood, and 300 are waste; the soil is chiefly a stiff clay. The surface is undulated, rising into hills of moderate elevation, and the low grounds are watered by the river Mole. The living is a vicarage, valued in the king's books at £6. 8. 4., and in the patronage of Miss Dehany; impropriator, the Rev. Spencer J. Lewin. The great tithes have been commuted for £455. 17. 6., and the vicarial for £216. 15.; the glebe comprises 3 acres. The church has portions in the early and decorated English styles; several of the Hollys family have been buried here, and the edifice contains recumbent figures of a Knight Templar and a lady, and the remains of the coronet and hatchment of Denzil, Lord Hollys, of Ifield, in the reigns of Charles I. and II. Here is a place of worship for the Society of Friends.
Ifley (St. Mary)
IFLEY (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Headington, hundred of Bullingdon, county of Oxford, 1½ mile (S. E. by S.) from Oxford; containing, with part of the liberty of Littlemoor, 958 inhabitants. This parish, anciently Yeoffley, is situated on the left bank of the Thames, and adjoins the road from London to Oxford; it comprises 1092 acres, of which 104 are common or waste. A remarkably hard kind of limestone is quarried, suitable for coarse buildings and the repair of roads. An inconsiderable fair is held in the week after Michaelmas-day. The living is a perpetual curacy, valued in the king's books at £8; net income, £61; patron, the Archdeacon of Oxford. The church is principally of Norman architecture, and has a low square tower between the nave and chancel, with a handsome south porch, and a western doorway embellished with chevron mouldings and other decorations. The chancel is partly in the early English style, and has a stone roof boldly groined, the ribs springing from clustered columns and others of dissimilar character; the great west window is in the decorated style. Alice Smith, in 1678, gave lands yielding a rent of about £100, for apprenticing boys, and other purposes. In 1805, a school for girls was founded in pursuance of the will of the Rev. Thomas Nowell, D.D., who left property producing £39 per annum.
Iford (St. Nicholas)
IFORD (St. Nicholas), a parish, in the union of Newhaven, hundred of Swanborough, rape of Lewes, E. division of Sussex, 2¼ miles (S. by W.) from Lewes; containing 174 inhabitants. This parish is bounded on the east by the river Ouse, and comprises by computation 2117a. 1r. 29p., of which 513a. 1r. 23p. are arable, and the remainder down and pasture. The village is pleasantly situated, and contains some well-built houses. The living is a vicarage, with that of Kingston united, valued in the king's books at £10. 10. 2½.; the net income is £343, and the patronage and impropriation belongs to Mrs. Hurley. The church, which is in the early English style, with some remains of Norman architecture, has a tower rising from between the nave and chancel, surmounted by a spire, and contains some monuments to the Hurleys. There are some remains of an ancient fort, and on the Downs are some barrows. In the Saxon times, here was a shrine or statue of a pagan deity, called Niorde, of which the present name of the parish is a corruption.
IFTON, a parish, in the union of Chepstow, division of Christchurch, hundred of Caldicot, county of Monmouth, 6 miles (S. W.) from Chepstow; containing 41 inhabitants. The parish is situated at the mouth of the river Severn, and contains about 680 acres; the soil is of a sandy and loamy quality, resting on limestone. The living is a rectory not in charge, united to that of Roggiet: the glebe consists of 75 acres. The church has been demolished.
IGHTENHILL-PARK, a township, in the ecclesiastical parish of All Saints, Habergham, parish of Whalley, union of Burnley, Higher division of the hundred of Blackburn, N. division of Lancashire, 2 miles (N. W.) from Burnley; containing 158 inhabitants. This place, anciently Hightenhull, belonged to the Lacy family in the reign of Henry III.: in the 14th of Henry VIII., Sir John Townley was lessee under the crown; and in the 12th of James I., the manor, and the chase of Pendle, appear to have been held by Christopher Hartley. A court baron is held twice a year at Burnley for Ightenhill manor. Gawthorpe Hall, in the township, was the baronial residence of John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster, and some remains still exist of the ancient mansion: the present Hall, the seat of P. Kay Shuttleworth, Esq., is a splendid specimen of the Elizabethan style, much visited by antiquaries. The township is bounded on the north-west and north-east by the river Calder, and comprises 690 acres of land. Coal is obtained. The impropriate tithes have been commuted for £20. 13.
Ightfield (St. John the Baptist)
IGHTFIELD (St. John the Baptist), a parish, in the union of Wem, Whitchurch division of the hundred of North Bradford, N. division of Salop, 4¼ miles (S. E. by E.) from Whitchurch; containing 368 inhabitants. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £7. 14. 9½.; patron, H. Justice, Esq.: the tithes have been commuted for £160, and the glebe consists of 72 acres.
Ightham (St. Peter)
IGHTHAM (St. Peter), a parish, in the union of West Malling, hundred of Wrotham, lathe of Aylesford, W. division of Kent, 1¾ mile (S. W.) from Wrotham; containing 1039 inhabitants. The ancient name of this parish was Eightham, expressive of its having eight hams, or villages: it comprises 2400 acres, of which 350 are common or waste, and 760 woodland. A fair is held in Whitsun-week. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £15. 16. 8.; patron and incumbent, the Rev. S. W. Cobb: the tithes have been commuted for £650, and the glebe comprises 6 acres. The church is ancient. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans; and a national school is partly supported by an endowment left by the family of James. On Old Berry Hill are the remains of a Roman castra æstiva, which occupied a space of 137 acres; in the centre of the inclosure are two fine springs.
Iken (St. Botolph)
IKEN (St. Botolph), a parish, in the union and hundred of Plomesgate, E. division of Suffolk, 5 miles (N. by W.) from Orford; containing 342 inhabitants. The navigable river Ore runs on the north of the parish, which on the east is bounded by the sea. The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at £6. 13. 4., and in the gift of T. W. Allen, Esq.: the tithes have been commuted for £425, and the glebe comprises 20½ acres of land. In the year 1814, the Marquess of Hertford granted a rent-charge of £36 per annum on his estate, in exchange for the town lands of this place.
Ilam (Holy Cross)
ILAM (Holy Cross), a parish, in the N. division of the hundred of Totmonslow and of the county of Stafford, 5 miles (N. W.) from Ashbourn; containing, with the hamlets of Castern, Rushley, and Throwley, 263 inhabitants. The parish is situated on the banks of the river Dove, near the great road from London to Manchester, and comprises by measurement 3000 acres, almost the whole of which is pasture land. Jesse Watts Russell, Esq., is proprietor of 986 acres, whereof 125 consist of woods and plantations: a vein of copper, lately discovered upon this property, has been let to some Cornish miners, who are also working veins of lead-ore. Ilam Hall is delightfully situated on a gentle eminence, with two verdant terraces and a fine lawn in front; behind the Hall, on the south-west bank of the Manyfold, is a flourishing wood of oak, ash, elm, &c., rising in the form of an amphitheatre, and above this is a cultivated acclivity crowned by a coppice, which may be seen at a distance of several miles. The village is small and secluded, picturesquely seated in the vale of the Manyfold, and within half a mile of its junction with the deepest, narrowest, and most romantic part of Dovedale. It has lately been entirely rebuilt in the Elizabethan style, and the beauty of its appearance rendered more striking by the erection of a highly ornamented cross, about 45 feet in height, to the memory of Mrs. Mary Watts Russell, first wife of J. W. Russell, Esq. This beautiful structure is hexagonal in form, and much resembles the crosses generally known by the name of Queen Eleanor's crosses: in the niches on each face are figures of angels holding scrolls with suitable inscriptions, executed in Caen stone by Westmacott; and around the base of the cross runs a stream of clear water, which serves the purpose of a well to the inhabitants, and to which allusion is made in an inscription on the monument.
The living is a vicarage, endowed with the rectorial tithes, valued in the king's books at £6. 13. 4., and in the gift of Mr. Russell: the tithes have been commuted for £410, and the glebe, with house, &c., is valued at £30. The church was rebuilt about the year 1500: an octagonal chapel with stained glass windows, has been added by the patron, who has erected in it an elegant white marble monument in memory of his lady's father, the late D. P. Watts, Esq., who is represented on his death-bed in the act of taking leave of his daughter and her three children; the whole group being admirably executed, by Chantrey. Much interest appertains to the church from its containing the tomb of St. Bertram, a hermit who passed the latter years of his life in the neighbourhood, and whose memory is still preserved in numerous legends among the poor. Congreve, the dramatic poet, retired to this secluded and romantic spot, after his return from Ireland, and here wrote his first comedy, The Old Bachelor.
Ilchester (St. Mary)
ILCHESTER (St. Mary), a parish and incorporated town, and formerly a representative borough and a market-town, in the union of Yeovil, hundred of Tintinhull, W. division of Somerset, 4 miles (S. S. E.) from Somerton, and 122 (W. S. W.) from London; containing 1068 inhabitants. This place, called by the Britons Pont Ivel Coit, signifying "the bridge over the Ivel in the wood," was the Ischalis of Ptolemy, and, from having been a Roman station on the river Ivel, obtained the Saxon appellation of Ivelceastre, of which its present name is an obvious contraction. It was anciently a town of much greater extent and importance than it is at present, and was encompassed by walls, and defended by a deep moat: of the former, the foundations are plainly discernible in various places, and of the latter there are still vestiges at Belles-Pool, and also in Yard-lane, to the north of the town. The ancient gates are supposed to have occupied the site of the present entrances from Ilminster and Yeovil, and near the bridge may be traced the stones of a ford across the river. The Roman Fosse-way from London to Exeter, which passed through the town, still forms the principal turnpike-road; and there are some remains of a fortification, which is supposed to have been built by the Romans. At the time of the Norman Conquest it appears to have had 107 burgesses; and in 1088, during a rebellion against William Rufus, it was successfully defended from the attack of Robert Mowbray, a leader of the insurgents.
The town is pleasantly situated on the south bank of the river Ivel, in a rich and fertile parish comprising 664 acres, of which 121 are arable, and the remainder meadow and pasture; it is connected with the parish of Northover by a stone bridge of seven arches. The houses, with few exceptions, are indifferently built; and there are extensive piles of building, originally erected for electioneering purposes, consisting of several stories, and comprising, on each, different small tenements formerly inhabited by burgage tenants at a nominal rent. The market-place is a commodious area, at the lower end of which is the town-hall, and at the upper a handsome pillar of the Doric order, supporting a vertical sun-dial with four faces directed to the four cardinal points. Assemblies occasionally take place in the townhall: the races, held on Kingsmoor, have been discontinued. There are no particular branches of manufacture: some of the females are employed in making gloves for the Yeovil manufacturers; but the town derives its chief trade from its situation as a thoroughfare. The market, on Wednesday, is now disused: the fairs are on the Monday before Palm-Sunday, July 2nd, and Aug. 2nd, for cattle and pigs; but the two last fairs are rapidly falling into neglect. About the close of the 18th century, an attempt was made to render the river lvel navigable to this place from Langport, but after the expenditure of several thousands of pounds, it eventually failed. Ilchester, a borough by prescription, was incorporated by charter of King John, by which the government is vested in a bailiff and twelve capital burgesses. The inhabitants first exercised the elective franchise in the 26th of Edward I., and made regular returns till the 34th of Edward III., from which time its privileges were suspended until the 12th of Edward IV., when it resumed them; it again discontinued until the 19th of James I., from which period it regularly returned two members to parliament until the 2nd of William IV., when it was disfranchised. The corporation have power to hold courts of assize, a privilege they have not exercised for a very considerable length of time; and the assizes for the county, formerly held in the town, are now held at Taunton, Wells, and Bridgwater. At the court leet of the lord of the manor, constables and other officers are appointed. The town-hall is a neat modern structure, containing a large assembly-room; the county gaol is a spacious building, on the northern bank of the Ivel. The election of the members for the western division of the county takes place here.
The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £7. 16. 10½.; net income, £282; patron, the Bishop of Bath and Wells: the tithes have been commuted for £51. 10., and the glebe comprises about 45 acres. The church, an ancient building with a small octagonal tower, appears to have been rebuilt at a remote period; in the chancel is a monument to the memory of the daughter of William Evers, servant to Henry VIII., Edward VI., and Queen Mary, and serjeant-at-arms to Queen Elizabeth. There is a place of worship for Independents. The almshouses here appear to have been founded in the reign of Henry VI., by Robert Veal, who endowed them with lands producing upwards of £150 per annum, for aged men; they were rebuilt of stone in 1810, by the bailiff and burgesses. A few years since, in removing part of the old wainscoting in the house anciently occupied by the family of Masters, a beautiful specimen of carved ivory was found, inclosed in a wooden frame in two compartments, and representing the Annunciation of the Virgin; and in digging a garden nearly opposite the house, a ring of massy gold was discovered, in which was set a coin of the Emperor Severus, in excellent preservation. Among the monastic institutions existing here, was a nunnery, originally founded about 1220, by William Dacres, as an hospital for poor travellers, and dedicated to the Blessed Trinity, but which, prior to the Reformation, had dwindled into a free chapel. Here was also a convent of preaching friars, in which the celebrated Roger Bacon, who is usually stated to have been a native of Ilchester, but whose birthplace is uncertain, was educated. Mrs. Rowe, author of Devout Exercises of the Heart, and other works, was a native of the parish. Ilchester gives the title of Earl to the family of Fox.
Ilderton (St. Michael)
ILDERTON (St. Michael), a parish, in the union of Glendale, N. division of Coquetdale ward and of Northumberland; consisting of the townships of Ilderton, Middleton-Hall, North and South Middleton, Roddam, and Roseden; and containing 585 inhabitants, of whom 121 are in the township of Ilderton, 4½ miles (S. S. E.) from Wooler. The parish is intersected by the Coldgate, Lilburn, Roddam, and several minor streams, and comprises by computation 13,000 acres, of which about 5000 are in Ilderton township; of the latter, 1000 acres are arable, 60 wood, and 3940 moorland. The eastern portion has a light, gravelly, sharp soil, and the western portion is chiefly moss, heather, and bent; the surface is hilly, and in some parts mountainous. The road from Edinburgh to Newcastle passes through, and the river Breamish on the south side. The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at £4; net income, £96; patron, the Duke of Northumberland: the glebe contains about 50 acres. The church is a modern edifice, situated on an eminence, and consisting of a nave, chancel, and square tower. A parsonage-house was built in 1843. On Roseden-Edge are the remains of a square encampment; and between the village of Ilderton and Hedgehope is a temple of the Druids, consisting of ten large unequal stones, placed in the form of an oval, 38 yards in diameter from east to west, and 33 from north to south.
Ilford, Great (St. Mary)
ILFORD, GREAT (St. Mary), an ecclesiastical parish, in the union of Romford, hundred of Becontree, S. division of Essex, 8 miles (N. E. by E.) from London, on the road to Chelmsford, containing 3742 inhabitants. This place, until 1830 a chapelry in the parish of Barking, is pleasantly situated on the eastern bank of the river Roden: the village has one principal street, containing several good houses, and here is a station on the line of the Eastern Counties railway, which passes on the north in its course to Romford. A pleasure-fair is held in July, on the site of the wellknown Fairlop Oak, in Hainault Forest; and the pettysessions for the division are held in the village every Saturday. The living is a vicarage, in the patronage of All Souls College, Oxford; net income, £430. The church was erected in 1831, at an expense of £3521, and is a handsome structure in the later English style, with a square embattled tower surmounted by a spire. In the reign of Stephen, the abbess of Barking founded an hospital at Ilford for thirteen lepers: the present buildings, occupying three sides of a small quadrangular area, are appropriated to six poor persons, and contain also an ancient chapel, dedicated to St. Mary, which has been improved and repaired. In a field behind Valentines House, a stone coffin was found in 1724, containing a human skeleton; and in 1746, an urn filled with burnt bones. Various fossil remains, in a high state of preservation, have been discovered in a brickfield.—See Barking.
Ilford, Little (St. Mary)
ILFORD, LITTLE (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of West Ham, hundred of Becontree, S. division of Essex, 7 miles (E. N. E.) from London; containing 189 inhabitants. The parish comprises by measurement 763 acres, of which 428a. 3r. 16p. are arable, 276a. 19p. pasture, and the remainder roads and waste. The village, which is small, is situated a little to the west of Great Ilford; and a large mart for cattle from the north of England, and from Wales and Scotland, is held here, in conjunction with several of the neighbouring parishes, from February till May. A house of correction for the county was erected in 1831. The Eastern Counties railway passes through the parish. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £11. 13. 9., and in the gift of W. Hibbitts, Esq.: the tithes have been commuted for £310, and the glebe comprises 36 acres. The church is a plain edifice containing several interesting monuments.
Ilfracombe (Holy Trinity)
ILFRACOMBE (Holy Trinity), a sea-port, markettown, and parish, in the union of Barnstaple, hundred of Braunton, Braunton and N. divisions of Devon, 11 miles (N. by W.) from Barnstaple, and 187 (W. by S.) from London; containing 3679 inhabitants. This town, which derives its chief importance from its situation on the shore of the Bristol Channel, is not distinguished by many events of historical interest. In the latter part of the 13th century, a grant was obtained for holding a market and a fair; and the place became a sea-port of so much consideration as to furnish six ships and 96 men towards the armament of Edward III. against Calais, to which Liverpool contributed only one vessel and five men. During the civil war of the 17th century, the royalists, under the command of Sir Francis Doddington, took possession of it. The town is near the northern extremity of the county, opposite to the coast of Wales; it is irregularly built on the side of a hill, and consists principally of one long street, extending from the church to the harbour, and which, being inconveniently narrow, has been widened. At the outskirts are several good houses and villas, and some ranges of buildings called Montpelier, Hillsborough, and Coronation terraces, in the centre of the last of which are the public-rooms, with a handsome front of the Ionic order. Many other improvements have been made of late years, among which is a new line of road, passing along a winding valley, between this place and Barnstaple. The beach affords great facilities for sea-bathing; several lodging-houses have been opened, and the town is rapidly rising into reputation. A regatta was established in the summer of 1828, which has since been regularly held, and is fashionably attended.
To the west of the town are seven hills called the Tors, forming a conspicuous landmark, and the descent from which terminates in a fine opening towards the sea, named Wildersmouth, where is a bathing-place. On the east is the rock of Hillsborough, on the summit of which, 500 feet above the level of the sea, are the remains of a Danish fortification. Capstone Hill, another eminence, 300 feet above the level of the sea, and on which is a flag-staff and signal-post, commands an extensive view of the Welsh coast, Swansea, the Bristol Channel, and Lundy Island with its lighthouse. Between Hillsborough and a smaller eminence to the west, called Lantern Hill, on which a lighthouse has been erected, is the entrance to the harbour, which is surrounded by a series of rocks, and protected towards the sea by a pier, constructed by the family of Bourchier, lords of the manor. The pier, being injured by the violence of the sea, was repaired and enlarged under the provisions of an act obtained in 1731 for the regulation of the harbour, which has been since greatly improved from the harbour dues, by the present proprietor of the manor. It affords shelter to vessels of 500 tons' burthen, which may lie here in safety in all states of the weather.
The trade of the port, which has lately been united as a creek to Barnstaple, consists chiefly in the shipping of corn, and in the importation of goods from Bristol, and coal from South Wales; several vessels are employed in bringing timber from America, and live-stock from Ireland. A packet sails every Monday and Thursday to Swansea, and a steam-packet to the same place every Tuesday and Saturday during the summer; a steampacket leaves the port for Bristol every Saturday. The market, chiefly for provisions, is on Saturday; and fairs for cattle are held on April 14th, and the Saturday next after August 23rd. There are courts leet annually for the manor, at which a portreeve and constables for the town and parish are appointed. Ilfracombe constitutes a prebend in the cathedral of Salisbury, which, being tenable by a layman, was held by Camden, the antiquary. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £50. 4.; net income, £150; patron and appropriator, the Prebendary. The church is an ancient edifice, situated on a hill at a short distance from the town; it has been repaired, and the number of sittings increased by the erection of four galleries and an organ-loft. A chapel has been built and endowed at Lee, containing 120 free sittings. There are places of worship for Independents and Wesleyans.
Ilkeston (St. Mary)
ILKESTON (St. Mary), a market-town and parish, in the union of Basford, hundred of Morleston and Litchurch, S. division of the county of Derby, 8½ miles (W. by N.) from Nottingham; and 128 (N. W. by N.) from London; containing, in 1841, 5326 inhabitants. This place, anciently called Elchestane, obtained a grant of a market and a fair in 1251. It is situated on a hill, near the river Erewash, commanding beautiful prospects in every direction: the Erewash divides the parish from the county of Nottingham. Here is a mineral spring of considerable power, said to be different from any other spa in England, and to resemble the Seltzer water of Germany. The spa is at the north end of the town, where a building with a neat front has been erected, affording every accommodation for bathing; many persons afflicted with rheumatism, lumbago, and paralysis, resort annually hither, and derive much benefit from the warm baths, and from drinking the water. The parish comprises 2474a. 1r. 37p., of which 55 acres are woodland; it abounds with various and extensive veins of coal and ironstone. The principal branches of manufacture are those of stockings, lace, silk gloves, and mittens, the last being very much on the increase; these products employ about two-thirds of the labouring population, the remainder being chiefly engaged in mining operations. The Erewash and Nutbrook canals pass through, and the Erewash-Valley railway has a station here. The market, which is chiefly for fruit, vegetables, and earthenware, is held every Thursday; and there are fairs on March 6th, Whit-Thursday, and the first Thursday after Christmas-day, for horses, cattle, sheep, and hogs. Courts leet and baron for the manor are held under the Duke of Rutland.
The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £5. 7. 9.; net income, £250; patron, the Duke of Rutland; impropriators, his Grace, the family of Denison, and the possessors of Mr. Outram's property. The tithes were commuted for land and money payments in 1794. The church is a very handsome specimen of the early decorated style, and contains a beautiful stone screen supported on pillars of Petworth marble, and monuments of a Knight Templar and the founder of the edifice: the tower, which is lofty, was erected in 1737, when a large part of the church had fallen down. A district called Cotmanhay was formed and endowed in 1845, by the Ecclesiastical Commissioners. There are places of worship for General Baptists, Independents, Ranters, Unitarians, and Wesleyans; the last have two. A school, now amalgamated with a national school, is endowed with £10 per annum from a benefaction by Richard Smedley, who in 1744 gave a rent-charge of £60 for the establishment of this and other schools, and for the foundation and endowment of almshouses for six women. About £40 are distributed annually in doles to the poor.
Ilketshall (St. Andrew)
ILKETSHALL (St. Andrew), a parish, in the union and hundred of Wangford, E. division of Suffolk, 2½ miles (S. E. by E.) from Bungay; containing 548 inhabitants. It comprises 1530 acres, of which 100 are common or waste. The living is a discharged vicarage, annexed in 1591 to the mastership of the free grammar school at Bungay, and valued in the king's books at £5. 13. 4.; net income, £139: the impropriation belongs to Mrs. Scott. The glebe comprises 22 acres. The church is in the early and later English styles, with a circular tower and south porch in the Norman style.
Ilketshall (St. John)
ILKETSHALL (St. John), a parish, in the union and hundred of Wangford, E. division of Suffolk, 2 miles (S. E.) from Bungay; containing 71 inhabitants. It comprises by survey 744 acres; the soil is partly a stiff clay, and partly of a mixed quality, and the surface rather flat. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £8. 13. 4., and in the patronage of the Crown: the tithes have been commuted for £217, and the glebe comprises 42 acres. The church is chiefly in the early English style, with a square embattled tower; the interior has been beautified, and the windows embellished with stained glass.
Ilketshall (St. Lawrence)
ILKETSHALL (St. Lawrence), a parish, in the union and hundred of Wangford, E. division of Suffolk, 3¼ miles (S. E. by S.) from Bungay; containing 221 inhabitants. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £47; patron, the Rev. J. C. Safford; impropriators, the family of Day. The church consists of a nave and chancel, with a square embattled tower; it was repewed in 1841.
Ilketshall (St. Margaret)
ILKETSHALL (St. Margaret), a parish, in the union and hundred of Wangford, E. division of Suffolk, 2¾ miles (S. S. E.) from Bungay; containing 315 inhabitants. It comprises by measurement 2000 acres, of which the soil is generally a strong heavy clay. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £5. 13. 9., and in the gift of the Duke of Norfolk: the great tithes, which belong to the family of Paterson, have been commuted for £536. 8., and the vicarial for £120; the glebe comprises 30 acres. The church is in the later English style, with a circular Norman tower.
Ilkley (All Saints)
ILKLEY (All Saints), a parish, chiefly in the Upper division of the wapentake of Claro, and partly in the Upper division of that of Skyrack, W. riding of York, 5¾ miles (N. N. W.) from Otley; containing, with the townships of Middleton, and Nesfield with Langbar, 1174 inhabitants, of whom 778 are in the township of Ilkley. This place is by most antiquaries supposed to be the site of the Roman station Olicana, and three sides of the fortifications may still be distinctly traced. Many Roman coins have been found at various times, and, among other relics, an altar dedicated by the Romans to Verbeia, the nymph of the river Wharfe, which is deposited in the cabinet of William Middleton, Esq., lord of the manor. There are remains of intrenchments, also, plainly discernible on the hills of Castleburgh, Counter Hill, and Woofa. The parish comprises by computation 7600 acres, of which a very considerable portion is high moorland, and the remainder arable and pasture in cultivation. Its surface is diversified with hill and dale, and the scenery is in some parts exceedingly beautiful; the higher grounds command extensive and richly-diversified prospects, and from a vast rock called the Hanging Stones is obtained a most magnificent view. The moors abound with grouse, and the river Wharfe with trout and other kinds of fish. Here are some quarries of excellent freestone for building.
The village, which is romantically situated on the banks of the Wharfe, and on the road from Otley to Skipton, is much frequented during the summer months for its salubrious air, and for the virtues of a remarkably clear and cold spring, which issues from the side of a lofty hill in a copious stream, and which, though combining few chemical ingredients, is found to be efficacious in various diseases. Two bathing establishments have been formed; one of them for the benefit of the poor, and the use of the patients of the Ilkley Bath charity, an institution productive of great benefit to the poor of the manufacturing districts. In 1844, a hydropathic establishment was opened; and there are several lodging-houses for visiters. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £7. 13. 9., and in the patronage of the Hartley family; net income, £110; impropriator, Mr. Middleton. The church is an ancient structure, containing a monument to the Middletons dated 1312: in the churchyard are three crosses. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans. The free school was founded by Mr. Marshall, who in 1608 bequeathed £100 for its endowment, which was augmented with a bequest of £200 by R. Heber, Esq., in 1691; these sums, with other bequests, now produce about £66 per annum.