A Topographical Dictionary of England. Originally published by S Lewis, London, 1848.
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Illington (St. Andrew)
ILLINGTON (St. Andrew), a parish, in the union of Wayland, hundred of Shropham, W. division of Norfolk, 3½ miles (N. W. by W.) from East Harling; containing 93 inhabitants. The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at £6. 19. 2., and in the patronage of the family of Long: the tithes have been commuted for £145, and there are nearly 26 acres of glebe. The church is a handsome structure in the later English style, with a square embattled tower.
Illingworth, West riding of the county of York.—See Ovenden.
Illmire (St. Peter)
ILLMIRE (St. Peter), a parish, in the union of Wycombe, hundred of Ashendon, county of Buckingham, 4½ miles (E. by S.) from Thame; containing 79 inhabitants. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £6. 10. 8.; patron and impropriator, the Earl of Chesterfield. The great tithes have been commuted for £71. 10., and the vicarial for £104. 4., and the glebe comprises nearly 2 acres.
Illogan (St. Illogan)
ILLOGAN (St. Illogan), a parish, in the union of Redruth, E. division of the hundred of Penwith, W. division of Cornwall, 2¾ miles (N. W.) from Redruth; containing 7815 inhabitants. The parish is situated on the shore of the Bristol Channel, and is intersected by a small river which here falls into the sea; it comprises by measurement 8078 acres, of which 2195 are common or waste. The substratum is rich in mineral wealth, and several mines are in operation, producing abundance of copper-ore; granite of good quality is found in large quantities, and there are extensive quarries of building-stone. Portreath, or Bassett's Cove, a small haven for the exportation of copper-ore to the smelting-works in Wales, is a flourishing place, and carries on a considerable trade also in the importation of coal and lime. The railway from Hayle into the mining district of Gwennap passes through the parish, and a branch diverges from it to Portreath. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £22. 7. 6., and in the gift of Lady Bassett; the tithes have been commuted for £670, and the glebe comprises 77 acres. The church, an ancient structure, contains a beautiful monument to Francis Bassett, Esq., and another to James Bassett, Esq., in which are four brasses with his effigy and those of his lady and their children. A chapel was erected at Trevenson, in the parish, by the late Lord de Dunstanville, who endowed it with land producing about £42 per annum; and another has been erected by subscription, at Portreath. The Wesleyans and Bryanites have places of worship, and the Redruth union workhouse is situated in the parish. There are numerous Druidical remains, the principal of which is Carn Brea, considered by antiquaries to have been the chief seat of the Druidical ceremonies in this part of the country. The remains of this work occupy the eastern extremity of a hill, 700 feet above the level of the sea; they are founded upon several of the rocks with which the hill abounds, and the rocks not being contiguous, are connected by arches over the intervals. The ancient part, which is pierced with loop-hole windows, is supposed to have been built by the Britons, and the modern part to have been constructed simply as an object to embellish the view from the grounds of Tehidy House. About 300 yards to the west, are the remains of a circular fortress called the Old Castle, which appears to have been surrounded by a strong wall. There are also some remains of fortifications on the cliffs along the coast. On the side of Carn Brea, Roman coins and British gold coins have been found.
Illsfield, Hants.—See Ellisfield.
Ilmington (St. Mary)
ILMINGTON (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Shipston-upon-Stour, partly in the Upper division of the hundred of Kiftsgate, E. division of the county of Gloucester, but chiefly in a detached part of the hundred of Kineton, S. division of the county of Warwick, 4 miles (N. W. by W.) from Shipston; containing 891 inhabitants, of whom 18 are in Gloucestershire, in the hamlet of Lark-Stoke. This parish, the name of which is derived from its hilly position, is divided into four hamlets, Ilmington, Foxcote, Compton-Scorpion, and Stoke. Ilmington anciently belonged to Simon de Montfort, Earl of Leicester; and the celebrated Heriot, the goldsmith (who died in 1624), was proprietor of the principal part of the hamlet: the manor was sold with the chief and quit-rents, in 1699, by Algernon Capel, Earl of Essex, to Martin Bedwell, Esq.; whose representative, C. L. Greaves, Esq., is the present proprietor. The parish comprises by computation 3700 acres; the scenery is strikingly romantic, and well wooded. Stone is quarried for the repair of the roads, and a few of the inhabitants are employed in winding silk manufactured at the mills of Blockley and Chipping-Campden. The road from Chipping-Campden to Stratford, and the tramway from Stratford to Shipston and Moreton, pass through the parish. Foxcote was formerly the seat of the Cannings, but now belongs to P. H. Howard, Esq., by his marriage with the heiress of that family.
The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £30, net income, about £700; patron and incumbent, the Rev. E. J. Townsend. The commons were inclosed in 1782, when lands were allotted to the rector in lieu of tithes for Ilmington and Foxcote; an annual rentcharge of £45 is payable from Stoke, and a small modus from Compton. The glebe altogether consists of about 420 acres, and there is a modern rectory-house, at some distance from the village: the former house stood near the church. The church is ancient, and exhibits many varieties of style; on the north side is a chapel, appropriated chiefly to the inhabitants of Stoke and Compton, and in it are many memorials of interments of the families of Palmer of Compton, and Brent of Stoke, both long extinct: the church has very lately been restored and much enlarged. Attached to Foxcote mansion is a Roman Catholic chapel. There is a national school. A strong chalybeate spring, about a quarter of a mile to the north-west of the village, was formerly much frequented; the ground around it was given to the public in 1684 by Algernon Capel, Earl of Essex, then lord of the manor, who also inclosed it with a wall, and erected a house for the accommodation of visiters. The water, however, is now hardly to be recognised, from long neglect and disuse.
Ilminster (St. Mary)
ILMINSTER (St. Mary), a market-town and parish, in the union of Chard, hundred of Abdick and Bulstone, W. division of Somerset, 13 miles (S. W. by W.) from Ilchester, and 136 (W. S. W.) from London; containing 3227 inhabitants. This place, which even prior to the Conquest had the privilege of a weekly market, is situated within a mile of the river Ile, from which, and from the church, its name is derived. It was formerly more extensive than it is at present, having been repeatedly damaged by conflagrations, of which that in 1491 destroyed the greater part of the town. The Duke of Monmouth on the day before the battle of Sedgemoor, dined in public under an ancient chesnuttree in White Lackington Park, the seat of Colonel Speke, whose son was afterwards executed at Ilminster for his adherence to the interests of that nobleman, and for the part he took in the rebellion. The town consists principally of two streets, the larger of which is more than a mile in length; the houses are neat and well built, and the general appearance of the place is cleanly and prepossessing. The neighbourhood abounds with interesting scenery: from one eminence is an extensive prospect, comprehending not less than 30 churches, and the course of the river, over which to the west of the town, is a neat stone bridge of four arches. The woollen manufacture formerly flourished to a considerable extent, but at present there is only one factory: a silkmill has been established; here are some tanneries, and a considerable trade in malt is carried on. The market is on Wednesday; and there is a fair on the last Wednesday in August. The market-house is a neat and commodious building. The town is in the jurisdiction of the county magistrates, who hold a petty sessions for the division every month during the winter; and constables or tythingmen are annually appointed at the court leet of the lord of the manor.
The living is a vicarage, valued in the king's books at £25. 5.; patron, J. Lee Lee, Esq.; appropriators, the Dean and Chapter of Bristol. The great tithes have been commuted for £350, and the vicarial for £499; the glebe comprises 5 acres. The church is a venerable and spacious cruciform structure, in the decorated English style, with a tower of light and beautiful design rising from the centre, and crowned with twelve pinnacles: increased accommodation has been provided, the Incorporated Society having granted £300 in aid of the expense. Among the several ancient and interesting monuments, are those of Nicholas and Dorothy Wadham, the munificent founders of Wadham College, Oxford. There are places of worship for Independents, Wesleyans, and Unitarians. The free grammar school was founded by Edward VI., in the third year of his reign, and endowed with lands, producing an income of £490 per annum, of which part is appropriated to the repairs of the bridge and the high roads. In 1824, William Hanning, Esq., gave land for the establishment of four exhibitions to the University, for boys of the school. A secondary establishment for boys and girls is supported by the trustees, and a third school in which young children are taught to read. Here is also a national school; and various bequests are distributed among the poor.
Ilsington (St. Michael)
ILSINGTON (St. Michael), a parish, in the union of Newton-Abbott, hundred of Teignbridge, Teignbridge and S. divisions of Devon, 4¾ miles (N. N. E.) from Ashburton; containing 1093 inhabitants. This parish, which is intersected on the north-east by the Stover railway, includes the Haytor granite-works, and abounds with pipe and potters' clay of good quality. It comprises 5956 acres, of which 1662 are common or waste; the surface is varied, and the scenery diversified with the grounds of Ingsdon House. The living is a vicarage, valued in the king's books at £17. 9. 7.; patrons and appropriators, the Dean and Canons of Windsor. The great tithes have been commuted for £340, and the vicarial for £300; the appropriate glebe comprises 12 acres, and the vicarial 80 acres. The church contains some screen-work of oak. Jane Ford, in 1663, bequeathed a rent-charge of £26, for instruction.
Ilsley, East, or Market-Ilsley (St. Mary)
ILSLEY, EAST, or Market-Ilsley (St. Mary), a market-town and parish, in the union of Wantage, hundred of Compton, county of Berks, 9 miles (N. by E.) from Newbury, and 56 (W.) from London; containing 733 inhabitants. This place was originally called Hildesley, as appears from an inscription on a brass plate in the church, where the name occurs as belonging to an ancient family. The town is pleasantly situated, about seven miles from the Great Western railway, on rising ground forming a part of the chalk hills, or downs, which extend across the county from east to west; and on the road from Newbury to Oxford. The inhabitants are principally employed in agriculture; and the town is noted for its sheep-market, which, with the exception of that of the metropolis, is the largest in the kingdom, the number of sheep and lambs sold in one day sometimes amounting to more than 25,000. The place has also long been celebrated for the quality of its ale; and there is a small manufactory for whiting. The market is on Wednesday; great sheep-markets are held on alternate Wednesdays from Easter to Midsummer, and there is occasionally one before Easter. The fairs for sheep are on the Wednesdays in Easter and Whitsun weeks, August 1st and 26th (the last chiefly for lambs), and the Wednesdays next after September 19th, October 17th, and November 12th. A wool-fair is held in July, and a fair for hiring servants on October 11th. The town is a polling-place for the county, and the petty-sessions for the district are held here. The parish comprises 2945a. 1r. 26p., of which about 1846 acres are arable, 937 pasture, including downs, and about 200 woodland. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £22. 13. 4., and in the gift of Magdalen College, Oxford: the tithes have been commuted for £700, and the glebe comprises 63 acres. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans. The Rev. Richard Wightwick, who, conjointly with Thomas Teesdale, Esq., founded Pembroke College, Oxford, in 1624, was rector. In this parish are three tumuli called the Cross Barrows, two of which, on being opened, were found to contain one human skeleton each, and the third six skeletons: the graves in which they were, had been dug in the native chalk, and filled up with mould brought from a distance; in some of them were discovered the bones of birds and animals, and in others implements of war.
Ilsley, West (All Saints)
ILSLEY, WEST (All Saints), a parish, in the union of Wantage, hundred of Compton, county of Berks, 10 miles (N.) from Newbury; containing 404 inhabitants. It comprises 3011a. 2r. 29p., of which 2580 acres are arable, and about 400 down and pasture. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £22. 7. 1.; net income, £537; patrons, the Dean and Canons of Windsor: the tithes were commuted for land in 1825. In the church is a handsome monument to the ancient family of Head, of Hodcott. The learned Mark Antony de Dominis, Archbishop of Spalatro, who abjured the errors of the Romish church in 1622, was, in the reign of James I., Dean of Windsor and rector of this parish; he was considered by Sir Isaac Newton to be the first person who philosophically explained the colours of the rainbow. In the reigns of Charles I. and II., Calybute Downing, a celebrated divine, was rector.
ILSTON-ON-THE-HILL, a chapelry, partly in the parish of Carlton-Curlieu, and partly in that of King's-Norton, union of Billesdon, hundred of Gartree, S. division of the county of Leicester, 9 miles (E. S. E.) from Leicester; containing 151 inhabitants. The chapel is dedicated to St. Michael.
Ilton (St. Peter)
ILTON (St. Peter), a parish, in the union of Chard, hundred of Abdick and Bulstone, W. division of Somerset, 2½ miles (N. N. W.) from Ilminster; containing, with the hamlets of Ashford, Hurcott, and Ilford, 557 inhabitants. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £6. 19. 4½., and in the patronage of the Prebendary of Ilton in the Cathedral of Wells. The great tithes have been commuted for £275, and the vicarial for £120; the impropriate glebe comprises 26 acres, and the vicarial 5 acres.
ILTON, with Pott, a township, in the parish of Masham, union of Bedale, wapentake of Hang-East, N. riding of York, 3 miles (S. W.) from Masham; containing 237 inhabitants. The township comprises 2220 acres, of which a large portion was not inclosed until 1820: the village is scattered. The vicarial tithes have been commuted for £30, and the impropriate for £92, payable to Trinity College, Cambridge.
Imber (St. Giles)
IMBER (St. Giles), a parish, in the union of Warminster, partly in the hundred of Heytesbury, S. division, and partly in that of Swanborough, Warminster and N. divisions, of Wilts, 4 miles (N. N. E.) from Heytesbury; containing 405 inhabitants. This parish, which is situated on Salisbury Plain, and surrounded by extensive downs, comprises by measurement 3033 acres; chalk, alternated with flint, is the prevalent substratum. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £141; patron, the Marquess of Bath: the tithes have been commuted for £409. 4. 11., and the glebe comprises 81 acres. The church is an ancient structure, in the early and decorated English styles, with some relics of Norman detail, and contains two monuments with the recumbent effigies of Knights Templars of the family of Le Rouse, chamberlains to Henry II. and Edward III. There are several British and Roman antiquities.
Imingham (St. Andrew)
IMINGHAM (St. Andrew), a parish, in the union of Caistor, E. division of the wapentake of Yarborough, parts of Lindsey, county of Lincoln, 10 miles (N. W.) from Great Grimsby; containing 221 inhabitants. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £7. 18. 4.; net income, £105; patrons, the Earl of Yarborough and others.
Impington (St. Andrew)
IMPINGTON (St. Andrew), a parish, in the union of Chesterton, hundred of Northstow, county of Cambridge, 3¼ miles (N.) from Cambridge; containing 248 inhabitants. This place, which had anciently a market and a fair, is situated near the road from Cambridge to Cottenham, and comprises 1200 acres. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £8. 7.; net income, £128; patrons, the Dean and Chapter of Ely. At the inclosure of the parish, in 1806, the tithes were commuted for about 58 acres of land. The church has portions in the decorated, with insertions in the later, English style.
Ince (St. James)
INCE (St. James), a parish, in the union of Great Boughton, Second division of the hundred of Eddisbury, S. division of the county of Chester, 8 miles (N. N. E.) from Chester; containing 475 inhabitants. This place was distinguished for a monastic institution that belonged to the abbots of St. Werburgh's, Chester. The dormitory, refectory, and chapel still remain; the two former have been converted into a farmhouse, and the chapel into a barn, an object of great beauty, the eastern side being thickly covered with ivy. The walls are about six feet in thickness, with eight large bay windows, now bricked up; and the monastery was surrounded by a moat, still traceable by parts of its outer walls. The parish comprises by measurement 1500 acres, and is bounded on the north by the river Mersey, where a pier has been constructed, at the distance of half a mile from the village. The central portion is rising ground, and each extremity consists of marsh land protected by an embankment from the tides of the Mersey, which flow up two small brooks forming the eastern and western boundaries of the parish. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £104; patron and impropriator, the representative of the late Edmund Yates, Esq.: the glebe consists of about an acre and a half of land, on which is the glebe-house. The church, situated on the highest point of a rock, has some traces in the Norman style, but the greater part of the building is of later date. The late Mr. Yates erected a free school for children.
Ince, or Ince-in-Makerfield
INCE, or Ince-in-Makerfield, a township, in the parish and union of Wigan, hundred of West Derby, S. division of Lancashire, l½ mile (E. S. E.) from Wigan, on the road to Bolton and Manchester; containing 2565 inhabitants. The family of Ince were anciently lords of this manor, which, in the reign of Henry IV., was conveyed by their heiress to the Gerards. It remained the property of the latter family for several centuries, and was sold by William Gerard, Esq., to the late Earl of Balcarres. The township comprises 2221 acres, whereof 212 are arable, 1692 pasture, and 317 common, waste, &c.; the surface is level, the soil various, mostly a stiff clay, and the entire substratum excellent cannel and other coal, with about fifteen collieries at work, varying generally from 40 to 300 yards deep, and one of them 600 yards in depth. At a short distance from the Ince road, was discovered lately, by Mr. McCormick, a contractor of the Liverpool and Bury railway, a valuable stone-quarry, of singular strata, a great quantity of the material of which was used in the construction of the bridges upon that part of the line for which he contracted. There is a cotton-mill in operation. The Leeds and Liverpool canal, and the NorthUnion and the Liverpool and Bury railways, run through the township. William Gerard Walmsley, Esq., of Platts, possesses 400 acres of the land: John Walmsley, Esq., of Bath, is owner of the manorial Hall, and 440 acres; and Colonel Anderton, owner of Ince Hall, with 360 acres. The tithes have been commuted for £117. 11. 11. payable to an impropriator, and £33. 17. 3. to the rector.
INCE-BLUNDELL, a township, in the parish of Sefton, union and hundred of West Derby, S. division of the county of Lancaster, 8½ miles (N. by W.) from Liverpool; containing 451 inhabitants. The Blundells are said to have been lords of the manor from the time of the Conquest, and William Blundell is mentioned as having a seat here in the reign of Henry III. The township lies on the south west side of the river Alt, and comprises 2201 acres, of which 82 are common or waste. In the midst of Ince-Blundell park is the Hall, the family seat of the Blundells, a large handsome mansion with stone dressings, at the eastern angle of which is a building called "The Pantheon," erected by the late Henry Blundell, Esq., and precisely similar in its architecture and proportions to the Pantheon at Rome, but one-third less. The building contains a splendid collection of paintings, statuary, sarcophagi, urns, and other relics of antiquity, procured by the founder, and said to be unequalled by any similar collection in the kingdom: there are upwards of 360 statues, busts, and basso-relievos in this temple of the arts. The tithes have been commuted for £263. A Roman Catholic chapel has existed from time immemorial within the Hall. Henry Blundell, Esq., in 1808, gave a rent-charge of £10 for teaching children.
Ingatestone (Virgin Mary)
INGATESTONE (Virgin Mary), a parish, and formerly a market-town, in the union and hundred of Chelmsford, S. division of Essex, 6 miles (S. W.) from Chelmsford, and 23 (N. E. by E.) from London; containing 856 inhabitants. This place was anciently called Ing-atte-stone, a name derived from the Saxon word Ing, a "meadow," and a Roman military stone on the road to Colchester. The parish comprises 2678 acres, of which 226 are woods and plantations, 104 common and waste, and the remainder arable and pasture; the lands are chiefly luxuriant, meadow and pasture. Ingatestone Hall, the mansion-house of the principal manor, a quadrangular structure erected by Sir W. Petre, ancestor of the present Lord Petre, in 1565, has been partly taken down, and the remainder converted into private dwellings. The town, which extends into the adjoining parish of Fryerning, is lighted with oil; and has a station of the Eastern Counties railway. There is a large fair for Scotch and Welsh cattle on December 1st and 2nd. The living is a rectory, with the perpetual curacy of Buttsbury annexed, valued in the king's books at £16. 13. 4., and in the gift of Lord Petre: the tithes have been commuted for £560, and the glebe contains one acre, with a house. The church has a lofty embattled tower of brick at the west end: adjoining the chancel is a sepulchral chapel belonging to the Petre family, which contains several handsome monuments, especially a fine altar-tomb to the memory of Sir William Petre, treasurer to Edward IV., and his lady, with their statues in Parian marble; also a sumptuous monument to John, the first Lord Petre, with his lady. There is a place of worship for Independents. An almshouse for seven men and three women was founded and endowed by Sir William Petre, in 1557.