A Topographical Dictionary of England. Originally published by S Lewis, London, 1848.
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Prestwich (St. Mary)
PRESTWICH (St. Mary), a parish, in the hundred of Salford, S. division of Lancashire; comprising the parochial chapelry of Oldham (in which are the townships of Oldham, Chadderton, Crompton, and Royton), and the townships of Alkrington, Great and Little Heaton, Pilkington, and Tonge; the whole containing 78,548 inhabitants, of whom 3180 are in the township of Prestwich, 4 miles (N. W. by W.) from Manchester, on the road to Bury. The founder of the knightly family of Prestwich, Adam de Prestwych, held lands here in the reign of Henry III.; and the family appear to have been proprietors until they removed to Hulme, on acquiring that manor, previous to the 12th of Henry VI. About the same time, the estate of Prestwich came by marriage to the Langleys. Sir Robert Langley died seised of the manor of Prestwich in 1561: his eldest daughter married Alexander Reddish, of Reddish, a coheiress of whom brought the manor to a son of Sir Edward Coke, the celebrated lawyer; and it continued with the Cokes of Norfolk, until Mr. Coke, afterwards Earl of Leicester, wishing to increase his landed property in Norfolk, sold his estates in Lancashire, and with them this manor, to the father of Thomas Drinkwater, Esq., of Irwell House.
The parish is about fifteen miles in length, and four in breadth; much of the land is in pasture, and laid out for dairy-farming, the produce affording to the inhabitants of Manchester a large portion of their daily supplies. Within the last century, the number of families in the parish, even exclusively of Oldham, has immensely increased; and manufactures, spreading in this direction from Manchester, have made considerable progress, though less generally than in the chapelry of Oldham. A large portion of the population is employed in the weaving of cotton and silk, in spinning, calicoprinting, &c. In Prestwich township, the inhabitants are principally engaged in hand-loom weaving and in the dye-houses of the vicinity, and to some extent in agricultural pursuits. Its elevated position, the salubrity of the air, and its contiguity to Manchester, have led to the erection of numerous handsome mansions and villas, occupied by the bankers and merchants of that town. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £46. 4. 9.; net income, £1230; patron, the Earl of Wilton. The tithes of the township have been commuted for £160, and the glebe consists of 116 acres. The church is a stately structure in the pointed style, with a lofty tower, that forms a fine object in the landscape: it was rebuilt in the 16th century. The rectoryhouse was rebuilt in 1837. There are churches at Ringley, Stand, and Unsworth, all in Pilkington township; a church at Tonge, and numerous incumbencies in the parochial chapelry of Oldham. In the parish are also numerous places of worship for dissenters; in Prestwich township is one for Wesleyans.
PRESTWICK, a township, in the parishes of Dinnington and Ponteland, union, and W. division, of Castle ward, S. division of Northumberland, 6½ miles (N. W. by N.) from the town of Newcastle; containing 161 inhabitants. It comprises 767 acres. Prestwick Carr, an extensive marsh, is in wet seasons so completely inundated by the river Pont, as to form one vast lake; but in summer, when the waters retire, it affords excellent pasturage for the neighbouring townships. The impropriate tithes have been commuted for £145. 12. 6., payable to Merton College, Oxford; and the vicarial for £14. 7.
Prestwold (St. Andrew)
PRESTWOLD (St. Andrew), a parish, in the union of Loughborough, hundred of East Goscote, N. division of the county of Leicester, 2½ miles (E. N. E.) from Loughborough; containing, with the townships of Barton-on-the-Wolds and Cotes, and the chapelry of Hoton, 1043 inhabitants, of whom 60 are in the township of Prestwold. The parish is situated on the road between Loughborough and Nottingham; and facilities of communication are also afforded by the Midland railway and the Loughborough canal. Prestwold Hall, the residence of C. W. Packe, Esq., has a collection of family portraits by Cornelius Jansen, Sir Godfrey Kneller, Sir Peter Lely, Reinagle, and other masters. The living is a donative, in the gift of Mr. Packe; net income, £24. The church contains several monuments. There is a chapel of ease at Hoton. Miles Newton, in 1657, devised forty-two acres of land, now producing £35 per annum, for a school.
PRESTWOOD, a township, in the parish of Ellastone, S. division of the hundred of Totmonslow, N. division of the county of Stafford, 7 miles (N.) from Uttoxeter; containing 68 inhabitants. It comprises 450 acres of land, chiefly the property of the Earl of Shrewsbury. The Churnet-Valley railway passes close to the township.
Priddy (St. Lawrence)
PRIDDY (St. Lawrence), a parish, in the union of Wells, hundred of Wells-Forum, E. division of Somerset, 4¼ miles (N. N. W.) from Wells; containing 313 inhabitants. The parish comprises 1361a. 1r. 9p., and lies in a hollow on the summit of the Mendip range, at an elevation of nearly 1000 feet above the sea, which is distant about fourteen miles. Here are traces of numerous mines, which yielded lead and silver, and were worked by the Belgic Britons, and by the Romans. In the neighbourhood are vestiges of a Roman encampment, and nine barrows. One of the largest fairs in the county is held at Priddy on August 21st, for cattle, horses, and sheep. The living is annexed to the vicarage of Westbury: the impropriate tithes, payable to the Duke of Buckingham, have been commuted for a yearly rentcharge of £40, and the vicarial tithes for one of £43. The church is a large and handsome edifice. There is a place of worship for Independents.
PRIESTCLIFFE, a township, in the parish and union of Bakewell, hundred of High Peak, N. division of the county of Derby, 3 miles (S. S. W.) from Tideswell; containing 98 inhabitants. The Rev. Roger Wilkinson, of this place, gave £400 for the endowment of a charity school, and the sum having been vested in land, produces £80 per annum.
PRIME-THORP, a township, in the parish of Broughton-Astley, union of Lutterworth, hundred of Guthlaxton, S. division of the county of Leicester, 5½ miles (N. by W.) from the town of Lutterworth; containing 286 inhabitants.
Prince's-Risborough, in the county of Buckingham.—See Risborough, Prince's.
PRINCETHORPE, a township, in the parish of Stretton-upon-Dunsmoor, union of Rugby, Rugby division of the hundred of Knightlow, N. division of the county of Warwick, 6¼ miles (N. by W.) from Southam; containing 278 inhabitants. It comprises 973 acres; and the roads from Warwick to Rugby, and from Southam to Coventry, cross each other in the township. Here is a convent for nuns, capable of receiving 200 inmates. The site for it, and about 200 acres of land, were purchased by Madame du Chastelet, abbess of a similar institution at Orrel Mount, near Wigan, in Lancashire, which has been removed to this place. The buildings are situated on an eminence, and have a very imposing appearance; the chapel was opened in September, 1837.
PRINKNASH-PARK, an extra-parochial district, in the Middle division of the hundred of Dudstone and King's-Barton, E. division of the county of Gloucester, 3¼ miles (N. by E.) from the town of Painswick; containing only 7 inhabitants, and comprising 224 acres of land.
Prior's, Ash, county of Somerset.—See Ash-Priors.
PRIOR'S-LEE, a chapelry, in the parish and union of Shiffnall, Shiffnall division of the hundred of Brimstree, S. division of Salop, 3 miles (W. N. W.) from Shiffnall; containing 2470 inhabitants. The population is principally employed in extensive collieries, and in the manufacture of iron, for which there are numerous blast-furnaces, rolling and slitting mills, and foundries. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £150; patron, the Vicar of Shiffnall. The chapel, which is a brick edifice with stone windows and corners, was consecrated August 24th, 1837.
Priston (St. Luke)
PRISTON (St. Luke), a parish, in the union and hundred of Keynsham, E. division of Somerset, 5¼ miles (S. W. by W.) from Bath; containing with the hamlet of Wilmington, 322 inhabitants. The parish comprises 1674 acres, and is situated to the right of the road from Bath to Wells; the village is in a valley, the land around being for the most part hilly. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £12. 18. 4., and in the gift of W. Vaughan Jenkins, Esq.: the tithes have been commuted for £400, and the glebe comprises nearly 48 acres.
Prittlewell (St. Mary)
PRITTLEWELL (St. Mary), a parish, in the union and hundred of Rochford, S. division of Essex, 19 miles (S. E.) from Chelmsford; containing 2239 inhabitants. The parish borders on the Thames, and includes Southend, a pleasant bathing-place, a short distance above which is Crow Stone, marking the extreme eastern boundary of the jurisdiction of the mayor of London, as conservator of the river. The village of Prittlewell is agreeably situated, and contains several handsome modern houses. A fair is held on the 15th of July. The living is a vicarage, valued in the king's books at £18. 13. 4.; net income, £308; patron, the Bishop of London; impropriator, Sir Thomas Neave, Bart. The church is in the later English style, with a fine pinnacled tower, which serves as an excellent landmark. At Southend is a separate incumbency. In the parish is a school on the national system, partly supported by an endowment of £23 per annum. A Cluniac priory in honour of St. Mary, subordinate to the abbey of Lewes, in Sussex, was founded here in the reign of Henry II., by Robert Fitz-Swaine: at the Dissolution it had a revenue of £194. 14. 3.—See the article on Southend.
PRIVETT, a parish, in the union of Petersfield, hundred of Fawley, Petersfield and N. divisions of the county of Southampton, 5¾ miles (N. W. by W.) from Petersfield; containing 273 inhabitants. The living is annexed to the rectory of West Meon. The church has been enlarged. There is a national school.
Probus (St. Probus)
PROBUS (St. Probus), a parish, in the union of Truro, W. division of the hundred of Powder and of the county of Cornwall; containing, with part of the ancient borough of Grampound, 1586 inhabitants. This place, which is situated on the road from Plymouth to the Land's End, was at the time of the Norman survey distinguished for its college, founded and endowed for a dean and four prebendaries, and afterwards given by Henry I. to the bishop and church of Exeter. A market was formerly held; and large fairs for horses and cattle still take place on April 5th and 23rd, July 5th, and September 17th. The living is a vicarage, to which anciently the livings of Cornelly and Merther were annexed, but from which they were separated in 1532; it is valued in the king's books at £13. 16. 8.: patron, the Bishop of Exeter. The great tithes have been commuted for £883, and the small for £549: there is a vicarial glebe of 37 acres. The church is in the later English style, of which it is a very fine specimen. Some remains of a chapel are to be seen at Golden; and at Hellan, Treworgy, Trelowthas, Trennoth Wood, and Tresilian Bridge, were anciently other chapels. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans; also a free school, founded in 1688 by Mr. John Williams, who endowed it with £10 per annum, to which was subsequently added by Mr. William Williams a small endowment in land. In the neighbourhood are vestiges of an intrenchment, inclosing an area of about one acre.
PROVOSTS-FEE, a manor, in the parish of Walkington, union of Beverley, Hunsley-Beacon division of the wapentake of Harthill, E. riding of York; containing 282 inhabitants. This place, which is usually returned as a constablewick, was anciently the fee of the provost of Beverley.
PRUDHOE, a township, in the parish of Ovingham, union of Hexham, E. division of Tindale ward, S. division of Northumberland, 12½ miles (W. by S.) from Newcastle; containing 369 inhabitants. The township comprises about 1400 acres of land, mostly arable; the soil is somewhat inferior in the hilly parts, but near the turnpike-road is of better quality, producing good turnips and barley. A small land-sale colliery is in operation, and there is excellent clay for fire-bricks, for which a manufactory has been erected. The Duke of Northumberland and Mr. Capper are the principal owners of the township. On Mr. Capper's property is a farmhouse, which has evidently been a chapel; in the wall on the south side is a handsome Norman arch, and a porch was removed some years since. The tithes have been commuted for £157.
PRUDHOE-CASTLE, a township, in the parish of Ovingham, union of Hexham, E. division of Tindale ward, S. division of Northumberland, 12¾ miles (W.) from Newcastle; containing 126 inhabitants. Here was formerly a chapel, dedicated to St. Thomas. On an eminence sloping to the southern bank of the Tyne stood the castle of Prudhoe, the chief baronial seat of the Umfravilles from the Conquest until about 1381; it has been long in ruins, its ivy-mantled towers and lofty keep forming venerable monuments of its ancient grandeur and importance. The present possessors are the Percy family, of whom Algernon, only brother of the late Duke of Northumberland, was created Lord Prudhoe, Baron of Prudhoe Castle, in 1816: he succeeded to the dukedom in 1847. The Newcastle and Carlisle railway passes under the ruins. A rent-charge of £6 has been awarded as a commutation for the impropriate tithes.