A Topographical Dictionary of England. Originally published by S Lewis, London, 1848.
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Clareborough (St. John the Baptist)
CLAREBOROUGH (St. John the Baptist), a parish, in the union of East Retford, North-Clay division of the wapentake of Bassetlaw, N. division of the county of Nottingham, 2½ miles (N. E. by E.) from East Retford; containing, with the hamlets of Bollom, Gringley, Little Gringley, Moorgate, and Walham, 2207 inhabitants. This parish, which is situated on the great north road, intersected by the Chesterfield and Gainsborough canal, and skirted on the west by the river Idle, comprises 3407a. 2r. 21p., whereof the township of Clareborough contains 1230a. 3r. 20p. The soil is in general a good productive clay. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £9. 15. 4.; net income, £331; patrons, the Trustees of the late Rev. C. Simeon; impropriators, the family of Hutchinson, and others. The tithes were commuted for land and a money payment in 1776; the glebe contains altogether 90 acres, with a glebe-house. The church is a small edifice, built by Archbishop Roger, and endowed by Sewell, Archbishop of York, in 1258; it consists of a nave, chancel, and aisles, with a square embattled tower. A handsome chapel of ease was opened in 1829, which is dedicated to St. Saviour, and contains 1065 sittings.
CLARENCE-PORT, a small port, in the parish of Billingham, union of Stockton, N. E. division of Stockton ward, county of Durham. This port was lately formed, at the base of Haverton Hill, on the north of the river Tees, near its mouth, for the greater facility of shipping the coal conveyed by the Clarence railway. The quantity of coal averages 400,000 tons annually; and by means of four drops constructed for the purpose, 81 keels can be loaded in the short space of twelve hours.
CLARENDON-PARK, an extra-parochial liberty, in the union and hundred of Alderbury, Salisbury and Amesbury, and S. divisions of Wilts, 3½ miles (E. by S.) from Salisbury; containing 181 inhabitants. At this place were anciently two palaces, termed the King's and the Queen's; and at a very remote period it was a royal chase. Here Edward the Martyr spent the day preceding his assassination. Henry II. frequently kept his court here, and in 1164 held the council which enacted the celebrated edicts called "The Constitutions of Clarendon," defining the limits of ecclesiastical authority in England. Richard I., John, and Henry III., often resided at the place; and in 1357, when the plague was raging in London and in many of the principal towns in the kingdom, Edward III., with his royal prisoners, the kings of France and Scotland, passed the summer at his palace of Clarendon; of which only a lofty wall is now standing. The park was inclosed by act of parliament in the sixteenth of Charles II., and granted to General Monk, who had been created Duke of Albemarle; and in the same reign, Clarendon gave the title of earl to Edward Hyde, a native of Dinton, in this county, lord high chancellor of England, ancestor of the queens Mary II. and Anne, and author of the History of the Rebellion. The Roman way from Winchester to Old Sarum passes through the liberty.
CLARETON, a township, in the parish of Allerton-Mauleverer, Upper division of the wapentake of Claro, W. riding of York, 5¼ miles (E. N. E.) from Knaresborough; containing 19 inhabitants. The township is the property of Lord Stourton, and comprises by computation 486 acres of land. The village is situated to the west of the road between Wetherby and Boroughbridge. Claro Hill, which gives name to the wapentake, is in the township, and is supposed to have been the place on which the Wittenagemote, or public meetings of the district, were held.
CLAREWOOD, a township, in the parish of Corbridge, union of Hexham, E. division of Tindale ward, S. division of Northumberland, 8½ miles (N. E. by E.) from Hexham; containing 55 inhabitants. It is a small village, seated on an eminence, north from the Roman station of Halton-Chesters. Adjoining is a small colliery.
CLATFORD, a tything, in the parish of Preshute, union of Marlborough, hundred of Selkley, Marlborough and Ramsbury, and N. divisions of Wilts, 1½ mile (W. S. W.) from Marlborough; containing 90 inhabitants. An alien priory under the abbey of St. Victor, in Caleto, Normandy, was founded here by Sir Roger Mortimer in the time of William the Conqueror, and granted by Henry VI. to Eton College.
Clatford, Goodworth (St. Peter)
CLATFORD, GOODWORTH (St. Peter), a parish, in the union of Andover, hundred of Wherwell, Andover and N. divisions of the county of Southampton, 2 miles (S.) from Andover; containing 414 inhabitants. It is intersected by the Southampton and Andover canal. The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at £10; patron and impropriator, W. Iremonger, Esq. The tithes have been commuted for £165, and the glebe comprises 75 acres. A parochial school was endowed with £1000 by the late Rev. Lascelles Iremonger.
Clatford, Upper (All Saints)
CLATFORD, UPPER (All Saints), a parish, in the union and hundred of Andover, Andover and N. divisions of the county of Southampton, 1¼ mile (S.) from Andover; containing 620 inhabitants. It comprises 2131a. 2r., of which the principal portion is good arable land, and 99 acres are common or waste; the surface is varied with hills, and is intersected by the Southampton and Andover canal. The manufacture of paper is carried on to some extent, and there is an iron-foundry. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £22, and in the patronage of the Rev. Edward Frowd: the tithes have been commuted for £525, and the glebe comprises 38 acres. At Bury Hill, in the parish, are the remains of an encampment.
CLATTERCOTT, an extra-parochial liberty, in the union and hundred of Banbury, county of Oxford, 6 miles (N.) from Banbury; containing 15 inhabitants. Here was a small religious house, dedicated to St. Leonard, and endowed by Beauchamp, Earl of Warwick, for brethren of the Sempringham order; it was once an hospital for lepers, and the establishment, at the Dissolution, consisted of a prior and four canons, whose revenue was estimated at £34. 19. 11. per annum. There are some very slight remains.
Clatworthy (St. Mary)
CLATWORTHY (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Williton, hundred of Williton and Freemanners, W. division of Somerset, 3 miles (N. W.) from Wiveliscombe; containing 309 inhabitants. It is situated on the small river Tone, which falls into the Bristol Channel at Bridgwater, in confluence with the river Parret; the number of acres is 2943, whereof 280 are or were common and waste. The soil is tolerably fertile, and has a substratum of clay-slate, interspersed with white flint or quartz: slate for roofing was formerly quarried. An act for inclosing lands was passed in 1842. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £13. 10. 5., and in the gift of G. W. Carew, Esq.: the tithes have been commuted for £268, and the glebe comprises 93 acres. The church is a very ancient structure. There is an encampment about 14 acres in extent, but whether of Roman or British origin is not clearly known.
Claughton, with Grange
CLAUGHTON, with Grange, a township, in the union, and Lower division of the hundred, of Wirrall, S. division of Cheshire; containing, in 1841, 240 inhabitants. The manor was the property of the convent of Birkenhead, upon the dissolution of which it was granted to the Worsleys, and thus descended to F. R. Price, Esq., by whom the manors of Birkenhead and Claughton were lately sold to William Jackson, Esq., M.P. The township is situated to the north-west of Birkenhead, and comprises 575 acres, the soil of which is a loamy clay. The whole of it, with a small part of the township of Oxton, has by a recent act of parliament been annexed to the adjoining town, the three places now forming one district or township under the control of commissioners. The surface is dotted over with villas and other handsome suburban residences, amongst which is the Manor-House, lately called Claughton Hall, the seat of Mr. Jackson. Stretching down from this mansion, in a south-eastern direction, lies the fine public park of Birkenhead; and almost opposite the park entrance are the house and grounds of J. R. Pim, Esq., by whom a meeting-house for the Society of Friends has been erected on his own property. Several churches, also, and other public buildings, have been raised; an account of which will be found under the head of Birkenhead.
CLAUGHTON, a township, in the parish and union of Garstang, hundred of Amounderness, N. division of the county of Lancaster, 2 miles (S. S. E.) from Garstang; containing 772 inhabitants. This place gave name to a local family, of whom Richard de Clacton appears in a deed without date as a benefactor of Cockersand Abbey. The Banastre family held a moiety of the manor in Edward II.'s reign; and Claughton is afterwards found in possession of the Brockholes, whose descendant, in the last century, devised his estates to William Fitzherbert, Esq., of Swynnerton Hall, Staffordshire, with injunction to take the name and arms of Brockholes. The township lies on the road from Lancaster to Preston, and comprises 3785a. 2r. 4p. of land: the Lancaster and Preston railway and canal also pass through it. Claughton Hall, the seat of the family of Fitzherbert Brockholes, is a noble stone mansion, surrounded by a well-wooded park of 500 acres, abounding with game, and commanding beautiful views. The vicarial tithes have been commuted for £350. At a short distance from the Hall is a Roman Catholic chapel, a neat building in the Grecian style; the interior is very handsome, especially the altar: adjoining is the house of the priest, the Rev. Henry Gradwell. There is a small cotton-mill.
Claughton (St. Chad)
CLAUGHTON (St. Chad), a parish, in the hundred of Lonsdale south of the Sands, N. division of the county of Lancaster, 7 miles (N. E. by E.) from Lancaster, on the road to Hornby, containing 118 inhabitants. This place was early erected into an independent parochial jurisdiction under its own lords, probably the Kellets. It would appear from an inquisition, 18th of Edward II., that the manor had passed to Hugh de Carnetbye; and a John de Claughton, and subsequently the Flemings, are mentioned as proprietors here. The Crofts were lords of a third part of the manor in the 15th and 16th centuries, and in the reign of Henry VIII.: Simon Croft appears afterwards to have held the whole manor. In 1712 the Fenwicks became lords of Claughton. The parish comprises a large tract of land, which is beautifully diversified, rising on one side into hills, and on the other spreading into a rich and fertile vale, through which the river Lune pursues its serpentine course. The soil is favourable for grazing; and there are some good quarries of flagstone. Claughton Hall is an interesting specimen of the domestic architecture of the reign of Elizabeth; the north-west front is ornamented by two square towers rising some height above the building, evidently erected for the purpose of enjoying the fine prospects up and down the valley of the Lune. It was in possession of Sir W. Croft in the time of Charles I., of whose cause he was a firm supporter. The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at £9. 13. 10., and in the patronage of the Heir of the late Thomas Fenwick, Esq.; net income, £145. The original church was built in 1070; the present edifice in 1815. There is a day and Sunday school.
Claverdon (St. Michael)
CLAVERDON (St. Michael), a parish, in the union of Stratford-on-Avon, Henley division of the hundred of Barlichway, S. division of the county of Warwick, 3½ miles (E. by S.) from Henley; containing, with the hamlet of Langley, 711 inhabitants. The parish is situated on the road from Henley to Warwick, and comprises by measurement 3580 acres; its northeastern boundary is skirted by the canal from Stratford to Birmingham. The living is a discharged vicarage, with that of Norton-Lindsey annexed, valued in the king's books at £5. 12. 1.; net income, £265; patron, the Archdeacon of Worcester. The great tithes have been commuted for £672. 3., and the vicarial for £229. 10.; the impropriator's glebe comprises 33 acres, and the vicar's 5 acres, with a glebe-house. The church, with the exception of the chancel and tower, was rebuilt in the years 1827-8, and contains a handsome monument, in the chancel, belonging to the Spencer family, who formerly possessed a large mansion in the parish. John Matthews, about the year 1526, left property for the repair of the church, now worth about £96 per annum, out of which a village school is also supported.
Clavering (St. Mary and St. Clement)
CLAVERING (St. Mary and St. Clement), a parish, in the union of Saffron-Walden, hundred of Clavering, N. division of Essex, 7½ miles (N. by W.) from Bishop-Stortford; containing 1172 inhabitants. The parish borders on the county of Hertford, and comprises by computation 3691 acres, of which about 500 are in woods and plantations; the soil is various, consisting of chalk, clay, sand, and a light gravel. A small stream, rising in Arkesden, unites with a rivulet from Langley, and pursues its course through the parish to the river Stort. The village is irregularly built, but contains some respectable houses, and the surrounding scenery is agreeably diversified. The living is an endowed vicarage, with that of Langley annexed, valued in the king's books at £22. 13. 11½.; patrons and impropriators, the Governors of Christ's Hospital: the great tithes have been commuted for £504, and the vicarial for £465. 6., and the glebe contains 7¼ acres, with a glebe-house. The church is a spacious and handsome edifice of stone, with an embattled tower. There is a place of worship for Independents.
Claverley (All Saints)
CLAVERLEY (All Saints), a parish, in the union of Bridgnorth, Hales-Owen division of the hundred of Brimstree, S. division of Salop, 6 miles (E.) from Bridgnorth; containing 1669 inhabitants. This parish comprises the townships (for highway purposes) of Beobridge, Broughton, Gatacre, Ludstone, Shipley, and Sutton, which, in the manor court of Claverley, are denominated "foreign towns," being distinct manors; and Ashton, Dallicott, Farmcott, Heathton, Hopstone, and Woundale, which are called "king's towns," and are part of the forest of Morfe. The lordships of Beobridge and Broughton were part of the possessions annexed to the abbey of Haughmond, but after the Dissolution they became the property of the Levesons, who also became possessed of Ludstone. Throughout the copyhold lands, the Borough-English custom prevails, of descent to the younger son. The parish lies on the eastern confines of the county, and consists of 8141a. 3r. 28p., about three-quarters of which are arable, and the rest pasture, with 43 acres of waste. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £300; patrons and impropriators, the family of Whitmore: the great tithes have been commuted for £2060, and the remainder for £12. The church is a handsome structure in the later English style, with a high tower surmounted by pinnacles; the pews have been lately re-arranged, and galleries built. A school was founded in 1659, by Richard Dovey, who endowed it with an estate; in 1702, John Sanders devised £5 a year for clothing the boys; and Richard Bennett, in 1794, left £100 in aid of the charity, which is now united with a national school. In Gatacre-Park House, here, the Earl of Derby took shelter immediately after the battle of Worcester, and shortly before he was brought to the scaffold.
CLAVERTON, a parish, in the union of Bath, hundred of Hampton and Claverton, though locally in the hundred of Bath-Forum, E. division of Somerset, 2½ miles (E. S. E.) from Bath; containing 177 inhabitants. This parish, which is situated on the new road to Warminster, and separated from Bath by a hill round which the river Avon winds its picturesque course, comprises by computation 1200 acres: there are some quarries of excellent freestone. The old baronial manor-house, which retained the marks of an assault from Cromwell's army, who fired some cannon-shot, by which the walls were perforated, was removed by the late John Vivian, Esq., who had recently purchased the property and erected a handsome modern seat on a different site. The village is situated in a romantic valley, which is environed by bold and beautifully wooded hills, and through which passes the Kennet and Avon canal. The valley is remarkable for its rich variety of botanical specimens. In the reign of Henry III. a grant was obtained, whereby Claverton and the village of Hampton were exempted from the jurisdiction of the hundred, and constituted a liberty. The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at £10. 6. 10½., and in the gift of George Vivian, Esq.: the incumbent's tithes have been commuted for £162. 11., and a rent-charge of £18. 10. is paid to the rector of St. Mary's on the Hill; the glebe contains upwards of 34½ acres, with a glebe-house. The church is an elegant structure in the later English style, having a square embattled tower overspread with ivy, and from its beautiful situation forms an attractive feature. A sunken tract across the Downs, said to be traceable to the river Severn, is supposed to be the Wansdyke, which formed the boundary of the West Saxon kingdom. Richard Graves, author of the Spiritual Quixote, and other works, was rector of the parish, where he died in 1804, having held the incumbency fifty-four years. Mr. Allen, the inventor of the plan for the cross-post delivery of letters, who built the mansion of Prior Park, and was the friend and patron of Pope and other poets, was interred in a large mausoleum in the churchyard.
CLAWTON, a parish, in the union of Holsworthy, hundred of Black Torrington, Holsworthy and N. divisions of Devon, 3½ miles (S.) from Holsworthy; containing 639 inhabitants. The parish comprises 3537 acres, of which 1130 are common or waste. The living is a discharged perpetual curacy; net income, £75; patron and incumbent, the Rev. T. Melhuish. There is good freestone for building in the neighbourhood.
Claxby (St. Andrew)
CLAXBY (St. Andrew), a parish, in the union of Spilsby, Wold division of the hundred of Calceworth, parts of Lindsey, county of Lincoln, 3 miles (S.) from Alford; containing 132 inhabitants. It comprises by measurement 1047 acres, the soil of which lies on chalk interspersed with marl; limestone is obtained, and, mixed with marl, is used for manure. In the centre of the parish is a fine spring, issuing from a chalk hill, and affording a good supply of water. The living is a discharged vicarage, united to the rectory of Well, and valued in the king's books at £5. 3. 1½.: the church is a small thatched building. Here are vestiges of a Roman camp, and several tumuli covered with trees.
Claxby (St. Mary)
CLAXBY (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Caistor, N. division of the wapentake of Walshcroft, parts of Lindsey, county of Lincoln, 4 miles (N. E.) from Market-Rasen; containing 220 inhabitants. It comprises by measurement 1679 acres. Coal is supposed to exist, but no attempt has been made to work it; there are quarries of stone of good quality for roadmaking, and great quantities are raised for the supply of the neighbourhood. A pleasure-fair is held about the end of August or beginning of September. The living is a discharged rectory, to which the rectory of Normanby-on-the-Wolds was united in 1740, valued in the king's books at £8. 10. 10.; net income, £844; patrons, the family of Atkinson. The church is in the early English style, and contains some ancient monuments. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans. Several Roman coins, one of them of the reign of Constantine, and some Roman pavements, have been discovered.
Claxby-Pluckacre (St. Andrew)
CLAXBY-PLUCKACRE (St. Andrew), a parish, in the union of Horncastle, hundred of Hill, parts of Lindsey, county of Lincoln, 4 miles (S. E. by E.) from Horncastle; containing 29 inhabitants. It is situated on the road from Horncastle to Boston, and comprises by computation 900 acres, with a light sandy soil adapted to barley and oats, which form the chief produce. The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at £6. 10. 10., and in the gift of the family of Dymoke: the tithes have been commuted for £140. The church fell down some years since, and has not been rebuilt: the inhabitants have sittings in Moorby church by consent of the rector and parishioners, and an annual payment of £5 is made to the minister of Moorby as officiating minister.
CLAXTON, a township, in the parish of Greatham, union of Stockton-upon-Tees, N. E. division of Stockton ward, S. division of the county of Durham, 7 miles (N. N. E.) from Stockton; containing 52 inhabitants. A branch of the Norman family of Heriz, settling here, assumed the local name; and numerous notices of the Claxtons occur in the records during the 13th, 14th, and 15th centuries: from this family Thomas Claxton, a celebrated antiquary, and the friend and correspondent of Camden, was descended. Of the ancient manorhouse, which was deserted for Horden, no traces exist. The township comprises 866 acres: the great tithes have been commuted for £125, and the vicarial for £33.
Claxton, or Long Clawson (St. Remigius)
CLAXTON, or Long Clawson (St. Remigius), a parish, in the union of Melton-Mowbray, hundred of Framland, N. division of the county of Leicester, 6 miles (N. N. W.) from Melton-Mowbray; containing 838 inhabitants. It is situated in the vale of Belvoir, and comprises by admeasurement 2800 acres: the canal navigation from Nottingham to Grantham runs from west to east, through the lower part of the manor. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £9. 10. 2.; net income, £105; patron, Lord Godolphin: 126 acres of land belong to the vicarage, and there is a glebe-house, with an acre of glebe. The Baptists and Wesleyans have places of worship. Here are two free schools, towards the endowment of which Anthony Wadd in 1758 gave land, the rent of which is now £62. 8.; in 1772, Mrs. Briggs bequeathed £100, for the same purpose.
Claxton (St. Andrew)
CLAXTON (St. Andrew), a parish, in the union of Loddon and Clavering, hundred of Loddon, E. division of Norfolk, 2½ miles (N. W. by N.) from Loddon; containing 200 inhabitants, and comprising by computation 920 acres. A charter for a market on Monday, and for a fair on the eve of the festival of St. John the Baptist, to continue four days, was granted in the reign of Edward III., to the Kerdiston family; but both have long been discontinued. The living is a vicarage, endowed with a small portion of the rectorial tithes; net income, £60; patron, Sir Charles Rich, Bart.: the glebe contains about 24 acres. The church, which consists of a nave and chancel, with a tower, is partly in the early, and partly in the decorated style, and appears, by some arches now filled up, to have had a north aisle. There is a place of worship for Baptists. Extensive ruins still remain of the seat of the Kerdiston family, whose manor-house Edward III. permitted to be converted into a castle.
CLAXTON, a chapelry, in the parish of Bossall, union of York, wapentake of Bulmer, N. riding of York, 8½ miles (N. E. by E.) from York; containing 168 inhabitants. It comprises by computation 813 acres of land: the village is situated about a mile to the east of the road between York and Malton. The pettysessions for the division are held at Lobster House. The chapel is a small edifice. There are places of worship for Wesleyans and Primitive Methodists.
Claybrooke (St. Peter)
CLAYBROOKE (St. Peter), a parish, in the union of Lutterworth; comprising the townships of Great and Little Claybrooke, the chapelry of Wigston Parva, the hamlet of Ullesthorpe, and the liberty of Bittesby, in the hundred of Guthlaxton, S. division of the county of Leicester; and the chapelry of Wibtoft, in the Kirby division of the hundred of Knightlow, N. division of the county of Warwick; the whole containing 1417 inhabitants, of whom 519 are in Great Claybrooke, 4 miles (N. W. by W.) from Lutterworth, and 104 in Little Claybrooke. The parish is situated on the road from London to Hinckley and Atherstone; the surface is pleasingly undulated, and the soil in some few places sandy, but in general a rich loam. A part of the population is employed in the stocking manufacture, which is carried on to a considerable extent. The Midland railway passes through the parish, and the Ullesthorpe station is within its limits. The living is a vicarage, valued in the king's books at £30. 10. 5., and in the patronage of the Crown; impropriators, the Earl of Denbigh, Trinity College, Cambridge, and others; net income, £451, with a glebe-house. The church is at Little Claybrooke, and is partly in the decorated and partly in the later English style. There are chapels of ease at Wibtoft and Little Wigston; and the Independents have a place of worship. A school was endowed by Mark Smith with £26 per annum, and is aided by an annual sum of £26 from Alderman Newton's charity: J. E. Dicey, Esq., of Claybrooke Hall, has erected a school for females, which he supports. This was the Roman station Benonœ, or Vennones; and at a place termed High Cross, two miles westward, two great Roman roads intersect, which traversed the kingdom obliquely.