A Topographical Dictionary of England. Originally published by S Lewis, London, 1848.
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IRBY, a township, in the parishes of Thurstaston and Woodchurch, union, and Lower division of the hundred, of Wirrall, S. division of the county of Chester, 5 miles (N. by W.) from Parkgate; containing 133 inhabitants. The manor was given to the convent of St. Werburgh in 1093, and continued in the possession of that establishment until the Dissolution, when it was granted to the Dean and Chapter of the new diocese of Chester, from whom it was soon afterwards obtained by the Cotton family, who sold it. The estate subsequently passed to the Harpurs and Leighs, and, by purchase, to the family of Glegg. The township comprises 744 acres, of which about one-half is the property of John Ralph Shaw, Esq., of Arrowe Hall. Irby Hall is a large fabric of timber and plaster, standing upon the boundary of the two parishes, and surrounded with ash-trees of great age and size. There are a few good houses in the village, which has a neat and respectable appearance.
Irby-in-the-Marsh (All Saints)
IRBY-IN-THE-MARSH (All Saints), a parish, in the union of Spilsby, Wold division of the wapentake of Candleshoe, parts of Lindsey, county of Lincoln, 5 miles (E. by S.) from Spilsby; containing 139 inhabitants. It comprises about 1000 acres, and is intersected by the road between Spilsby and Wainfleet. The living is a perpetual curacy, in the patronage of the Dean and Chapter of Lincoln, with a net income of £83: the tithes have been commuted for £105; there are about 20 acres of glebe. The church is a plain edifice of brick and sandstone, with a tower. Here are places of worship for Primitive and Wesleyan Methodists; and the parish receives about £40 per annum from Holden's charity, for the education and relief of the poor.
Irby-Upon-Humber (St. Andrew)
IRBY-UPON-HUMBER (St. Andrew), a parish, in the union of Caistor, wapentake of Bradley-Haverstoe, parts of Lindsey, county of Lincoln, 6 miles (S. W. by W.) from Grimsby; containing 215 inhabitants, and comprising about 1600 acres. This parish is situated on the road from Grimsby to Caistor, at the edge of the Wolds, commanding an extensive view of the river Humber and the coast of Yorkshire; and near the village is a romantic spot called the Dales, in which are several chalk-quarries. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £18; patrons, alternately, the Earl of Yarborough, and William Haigh, Esq., the estate being an undivided property: the tithes have been commuted for £240, and the glebe comprises 48 acres. The church is a small edifice, in the early English style, with modern alterations; the nave is divided from the aisles by arches of ancient character, supported by ponderous pillars.
Irchester (St. Catherine)
IRCHESTER (St. Catherine), a parish, in the union of Wellingborough, hundred of Higham-Ferrers, N. division of the county of Northampton, 3 miles (E. S. E.) from Wellingborough; containing, with the hamlet of Knuston, 907 inhabitants. The parish is situated between the navigable river Nene and the borders of Bedfordshire, the former being on the north-west, and the latter on the south-east. It comprises 2694a. 1r. 8p., whereof 866 acres are in Knuston; about 600 acres are grass-land. The surface is undulated, and the soil of a productive quality, partly clay, partly sand, but chiefly partaking of the nature of limestone, which forms the substratum, and of which there are quarries. The road from Wellingborough to Higham-Ferrers, passing along the right bank of the Nene, intersects the parish; as does also the railroad from Blisworth to Peterborough, the Wellingborough station being situated here. The living is a discharged vicarage, annexed to that of Wollaston, and valued in the king's books at £8; impropriator, the Rev. W. W. Dickins: the tithes were commuted for land and money payments in 1769. The church is partly in the early and partly in the later English style. The Wesleyans have a place of worship. Within the parish are vestiges of a Roman fortification, the area of which includes about 18 acres; it is the site of a farmhouse called Chester House.
IREBY, a parish, in the union of Wigton, Allerdale ward below Derwent, W. division of Cumberland; containing 472 inhabitants, of whom 158 are in the town of High Ireby, and 314 in that of Low Ireby, in which is the decayed market-town of Ireby, 6½ miles (S. by W.) from Wigton. This place is supposed by Camden to have been the Roman station called Arbeia, but no vestiges have been discovered to support the conjecture, nor is there any other evidence except the similarity of the ancient and modern names. The town, which is irregularly built, is situated in a secluded vale, on the western side of the small river Ellen, which takes its rise in the neighbouring lake of Overwater. The market, on Thursday, for provisions, is now but little attended: fairs are held on February 24th and October 18th. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £64; patrons and appropriators, the Dean and Chapter of the cathedral of Carlisle.
IREBY, a township, in the parish of Thornton-InLonsdale, hundred of Lonsdale south of the Sands, N. division of the county of Lancaster, 3½ miles (S. E. by E.) from Kirkby-Lonsdale; containing 145 inhabitants. This place is written "Irebi" in the Domesday survey, and then comprehended three carucates of land. In the reign of James I., lived Thomas Cooke de Irebye. The family of Cooke, the former possessors of the Hall, sometimes called Fothergill Hall, and sometimes Nether Hall, is extinct. George Marton, Esq., of Capernwray, is now lord of the manor and chief owner of the soil. This is the only township in the parish that lies in Lancashire, the rest of Thornton-in-Lonsdale being wholly in the county of York.
IRELETH, a chapelry, in the parish of Dalton-In-Furness, union of Ulverston, hundred of Lonsdale north of the Sands, N. division of Lancashire, 3 miles (N.) from Dalton; containing 744 inhabitants. Ogra-Mill, in this township, has been conjectured to be the Ouregrave of the Domesday survey: Roanhead is the point for crossing Dudden sands by the ancient road into Cumberland. Upon the east borders of Ireleth, also called Above Town, are the iron-mines of Whitridge, Lindal Moor, Cross Gates, and Inman Gill, the richest and most productive mines in Furness, with the exception of Cross Gates, the works of which have been suspended. Many thousand tons of ore are raised annually in the township. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £100; patron, the Vicar of Dalton. The chapel was built in 1608, by Giles Brownrigg, and was originally intended for a school.
Ireton, Kirk (Holy Trinity)
IRETON, KIRK (Holy Trinity), a parish, in the hundred of Wirksworth, S. division of the county of Derby, 2¾ miles (S. S. W.) from Wirksworth; containing 865 inhabitants, and comprising by measurement 2253 acres. On the 12th of May, 1811, the village and neighbourhood were visited by an awful tornado, accompanied by lightning and loud claps of thunder; large trees were twisted from their roots, most of the houses were unroofed, and the church was stripped of its lead, which was blown into the adjoining fields. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £7. 10. 10.; net income, £355; patron, the Bishop of Lichfield: the glebe consists of about 68 acres, with a house. The church, supposed to have been built about the 13th century, has several handsome arches in the Norman style. There is a place of worship for Primitive Methodists. A school was erected and endowed by the Rev. John Slater, in 1686; and an annuity of £5, arising from a bequest by John Bower in 1744, is paid for the instruction of girls. The Rev. Mr. Slater also bequeathed lands for the poor of the parish.
IRETON-WOOD, a township, in the parish of Kirk-Ireton, union of Belper, hundred of Wirksworth, S. division of the county of Derby, 4½ miles (S. by W.) from Wirksworth; containing 151 inhabitants. The township comprises 802 acres, and includes Blackwall, a hamlet, in which is an elegant mansion situated on the side of an abrupt acclivity, and surrounded with fine timber and thriving plantations. The hamlet was for many generations the seat of the Blackwall family, one of whom, Dr. Anthony Blackwall, wrote on the sacred classics.
Irmingland (St. Andrew)
IRMINGLAND (St. Andrew), a parish, in the union of Aylsham, hundred of South Erpingham, E. division of Norfolk, 5¼ miles (W. N. W.) from Aylsham; containing 13 inhabitants. It is bounded on the north-west by the river Bure, and comprises 714a. 2r. 38p., of which 572 acres are arable, 125 pasture and meadow, and 10 wood. Irmingland Hall formerly belonged to the Fleetwood family, one of whom, General Fleetwood, married the daughter of Oliver Cromwell, who frequently visited this place, and issued many of his ordinances hence; one wing only remains, which is now a farmhouse. The living is a discharged rectory, united to that of Heydon, and valued in the king's books at £5: the tithes have been commuted for £170. There are no remains of the church.
Irnham (St. Andrew)
IRNHAM (St. Andrew), a parish, in the union of Bourne, wapentake of Beltisloe, parts of Kesteven, county of Lincoln, 2½ miles (N. E. by E.) from Corby; containing 436 inhabitants. The parish comprises, with the township of Bulby with Hawthorpe, 3785a. 3r. 23p., chiefly arable land; there are about 600 acres of park and wood: the soil is generally a clay marl, with a small portion of stony brash. The living is a rectory, with the vicarage of Corby annexed, valued in the king's books at £13. 13. 9.; the patronage, and the impropriation of Corby, belonged to Lady E. Clifford. The tithes of Irnham have been commuted for £600, and there is a glebe-house, with about half an acre of garden. The church is in the early English style. At Irnham Hall is a place of worship for Roman Catholics; and a Roman Catholic school is supported by endowment. Six widows of that persuasion receive 4s. weekly, with an allowance of coal, from a bequest by John Thimbleby in 1712.
Iron-Acton (St. James)
IRON-ACTON (St. James), a parish, partly in the Lower division of the hundred of Grumbald's-Ash, but chiefly in the Lower division of that of Thornbury, union of Chipping-Sodbury, W. division of the county of Gloucester, 3½ miles (W. N. W.) from Chipping-Sodbury; containing 1342 inhabitants. This place is supposed to have derived its name Acton from the Saxon word for oaks, with which it anciently abounded, and its prefix from some iron-works that formerly existed here. The parish comprises by measurement 2928 acres; it is partially undermined by coal-pits, and borders on the extensive beds of coal found in the southern part of the county. Sandstone is quarried for ordinary building purposes. The railway between Bristol and Gloucester passes within a mile and a half, and the parish is crossed by the Bristol and Wotton road. The common lands were inclosed by act of parliament about 1780. Fairs, chiefly for cattle, are held on April 25th and September 13th. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £16. 10., and in the gift of the Dean and Chapter of Christ-Church, Oxford: the tithes have been commuted for £680, and the glebe consists of 60 acres. The church was built in the 15th century, by one of the family of Poyntz, who formerly resided here, and is a handsome structure in the later English style, with a tower: in the churchyard is a very beautiful cross raised on arches, but much mutilated. There are places of worship for Independents and Wesleyans.
Iron-Bridge, Salop.—See Madeley.
Irstead (St. Michael)
IRSTEAD (St. Michael), a parish, in the Tunstead and Happing incorporation, hundred of Tunstead, E. division of Norfolk, 12 miles (N. N. E.) from Norwich; containing 170 inhabitants. The parish comprises 1064a. 3r. 38p., of which 374 acres are arable. 436 marsh and pasture, 35 wood and plantation, and 119 lake. Facilities of communication are afforded by a wharf on an arm of the Broad, and another on the river Ant. The living is a discharged rectory, united to the vicarage of Barton-Turf, and valued in the king's books at £6. 13. 4.: the tithes have been commuted for £198.10., and the glebe comprises 11 acres. The church is chiefly in the decorated style, and consists of a nave, chancel, and south aisle, with a square embattled tower; the lower part of the ancient screen still remains, and the font is curiously sculptured. At the inclosure, 41 acres of heath were allotted to the poor for fuel. The late Rev. William Gunn, author of An Inquiry into the Origin and Influence of Gothic Architecture, and other works, was for nearly fifty years rector. William de Wykeham was also incumbent.
Irthington (St. Kentigern)
IRTHINGTON (St. Kentigern), a parish, in the union of Brampton, Eskdale ward, E. division of Cumberland; comprising the townships of Irthington, Laversdale, Newby, and Newtown; and containing 1049 inhabitants, of whom 270 are in the township of Irthington, 3 miles (W. by N.) from Brampton. The parish comprises by admeasurement 6266 acres, of which 5669 are arable, 408a. 1r. 38p. pasture, and 188a. 1r. 16p. woodland. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £6. 1. 5., and in the patronage of the family of Dacre; net income, £222. The church is in the Norman style. Near it is the site of a castle, said to have been the chief seat of the barony of Gilsland before the erection of Naworth Castle. Watch Cross, where Horsley fixes the Aballaba of the Romans, but which other antiquaries suppose to have been only an exploratory post, and where Roman inscriptions have been discovered, is in the parish.
Irthlingborough (All Saints, and St. Peter)
IRTHLINGBOROUGH (All Saints, and St. Peter), consolidated parishes, in the union of Wellingborough, hundred of Huxloe, N. division of the county of Northampton, 2 miles (N. W.) from Higham-Ferrers; containing 1339 inhabitants. This place, anciently Hyrtlingberi, in the Saxon signifying "Farmer's Town," is situated on the river Nene, which forms two branches here, and bounds the parish on the south-east; it is intersected by the road from Higham-Ferrers to Kettering, and the railway from Northampton to Peterborough also passes through. The area is 3602a. 2r. 20p. Stone is quarried for common building purposes, and the repairing of roads. A part of the population is employed in the manufacture of shoes. The living of All Saints' is a rectory, with the vicarage of St. Peter's annexed, valued in the king's books at £5. 6. 8.; net income, £266, arising from glebe and funded property; patron and impropriator, Earl Fitzwilliam. Under an inclosure act, in 1808, an allotment of land was assigned in lieu of tithes and moduses; the glebe consists of 80 acres. St. Peter's church is a venerable pile, built in the form of a cross, with aisles and chantry chapels; it has a tower in the early English style, surmounted by a lofty octagonal lantern of later date, which contains two fireplaces. In the reign of Richard II. it was made collegiate, and endowed by John Pyel, mayor of London, for a dean and five secular canons, four prebendaries, and four clerks, who at the Dissolution possessed a revenue of £64. 12. 10.: there are some remains of the collegiate buildings, with a unique semi-subterraneous chamber. The church of All Saints has been demolished. Here are places of worship for Baptists and Wesleyans. William Trigg, in 1728, founded a school which he endowed with a rent-charge of £17; it is now a national school. The same benefactor left a small endowment for almshouses for widows; and £10 per annum were given for charitable purposes by Richard Glover. In the middle of the village stands a stone cross, the shaft of which, raised upon steps, is thirteen feet high, and was the standard for adjusting the provincial pole, by which the portions of the adjacent meadows were measured. The Vaux family, a female member of which obtained some celebrity from her connexion with the Gunpowder Plot, had a castle here; part of the foundation was dug up a few years since by the present incumbent, in enlarging his garden: it is supposed to have been destroyed by fire.
Irton (St. Paul)
IRTON (St. Paul), a parish, in the union of Bootle, Allerdale ward above Derwent, W. division of Cumberland, 2½ miles (N. by E.) from Ravenglass; containing, with the townships of Melthwaite and Santon, 509 inhabitants. The parish takes its name from the river Irt, on which it is situated; and comprises by computation 5950 acres, whereof 2700 are arable, 800 meadow and pasture, and 1000 woodland. The surface is boldly undulated, and the lower grounds are watered by the river Mite. Granite is found in great variety near Irton Hall, and is extensively quarried. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £96; patron, S. Irton, Esq.; impropriator, Lord Muncaster. The church is an ancient structure, and in the churchyard are some sculptured stones, the remnants of an old cross. Henry Caddy, in 1716, gave £150 towards the foundation of a free school; this sum, and an allotment of land, produce about £12 per annum, which are duly applied.
Isell (St. Michael)
ISELL (St. Michael), a parish, in the union of Cockermouth, Allerdale ward below Derwent, W. division of Cumberland; containing with the townships of Isell-Old-Park and Sunderland, 535 inhabitants, of whom 347 are in the township of Isell with Blindcrake and Redmain, 3¾ miles (N. E. by E.) from Cockermouth. The parish is bounded on the south by the Derwent, which is crossed by a bridge, built in 1691. Isell Hall is of great antiquity, and has been fortified; one of the original towers is still standing, but the rest of the building has been much modernised. White freestone is obtained on Moothay Hill; and coal and copper mines were formerly wrought within the parish. The living is a vicarage endowed with the rectorial tithes, and valued in the king's books at £8. 13. 6½.; net income, £157; patron, Sir Wilfred Lawson, Bart.: the tithes were commuted for land in 1808. The church is in the Norman style.
Isfield (St. Margaret)
ISFIELD (St. Margaret), a parish, in the union of Uckfield, hundred of Loxfield-Dorset, rape of Pevensey, E. division of Sussex, 3¼ miles (S. W.) from Uckfield; containing 477 inhabitants. The parish is bounded on the west by the river Ouse, and comprises by admeasurement 1822 acres, of which 771 are arable, 508 permanent pasture, 503 woodland, and 40 in hop plantations; the surface is rather flat. There is a considerable traffic on the river, in coal, marl, chalk, and other commodities, which are sent for several miles up the country; a paper manufactory has been for some time established, and here is an extensive flour-mill. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £9. 12. 8½., and in the patronage of the Archbishop of Canterbury: the tithes have been commuted for £405, and the glebe comprises 50 acres. The church is principally in the decorated style, and contains numerous ancient monuments: in the Shirley chapel, on the south side of the chancel, is a splendid altar-tomb to Sir John Shirley, with recumbent figures of himself in armour, and two females; near the base are the effigies of nine of his children.