A Topographical Dictionary of England. Originally published by S Lewis, London, 1848.
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PUTFORD, EAST, a parish, in the union of Bideford, hundred of Shebbear, Great Torrington and N. divisions of Devon, 8½ miles (W. by S.) from Great Torrington; containing 197 inhabitants. It comprises 1597 acres, of which 708 are common or waste. The living is annexed to the vicarage of Buckland-Brewer.
PUTFORD, WEST, a parish, in the union of Bideford, hundred of Black Torrington, Holsworthy and N. divisions of Devon, 9 miles (W. S. W.) from the town of Great Torrington; containing 490 inhabitants. The parish comprises 2370 acres, of which 1120 are common or waste land. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £9. 11. 0½., and in the gift of W. May, Esq.: the tithes have been commuted for £195, and the glebe comprises 70 acres.
PUTLEY, a parish, in the union of Ledbury, hundred of Greytree, county of Hereford, 5 miles (W.) from Ledbury; containing 158 inhabitants. The parish is situated to the south of the road from Ledbury to Hereford; and comprises by measurement 589 acres, of which 224 are arable, 300 pasture, 13 wood, 24 glebe, 10 waste, and 18 road. The soil is clay, the surface undulated, and a hard clay-stone is quarried for the repair of roads. The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at £3. 18. 4., and in the gift of the Dean and Chapter of Hereford: the tithes have been commuted for £110, and there are 20 acres of glebe. The church is a small ancient edifice.
Putney (St. Mary)
PUTNEY (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Wandsworth and Clapham, W. division of the hundred of Brixton, E. division of Surrey, 4 miles (S. W.) from London; containing, with the hamlet of Roehampton, 4684 inhabitants. In Domesday book this place is styled Putelei, and it was subsequently called Puttenheath, or Pottenheath, since contracted into its present name. The village is situated on the southern bank of the Thames, opposite to Fulham, with which it is connected by a wooden bridge; it is lighted with gas, partly paved, and well supplied with water. Queen Elizabeth was a frequent visiter here at the house of a Mr. Lacy, who also had the honour to entertain James I. a short time before his coronation. During the civil war in the reign of Charles I., a bridge of boats was constructed across the Thames, and forts were erected on each side of the river, by order of the Earl of Essex, on the retreat of the royalists to Kingston, after the battle of Brentford; and in 1647, the head-quarters of the army under Cromwell were fixed at Putney, while the king was a prisoner at Hampton Court. An ancient ferry over the Thames at this place is mentioned in Domesday book, as yielding to the lord of the manor of Wimbledon a toll of twenty shillings per annum: in 1729, the bridge was erected, in pursuance of an act of parliament, at an expense of £16,000, subscribed by 30 shareholders, who purchased the ferry for £8000. The Richmond railway has a station here. On Putney Heath, to the south of the village, is an obelisk erected by the corporation of London, with an inscription commemorating the experiments made in 1776, by David Hartley, to prove the efficacy of a method of building houses fire-proof, for the trial of which he had in 1774 obtained a grant from parliament of £2500. The College of Civil-Engineers at Putney was founded in 1840, for the purpose of affording sound instruction in the theory and practice of civilengineering and architecture, and in all those branches of science and learning which are adapted to the present advanced state of society, and constitute an education that fits the student for any pursuit or profession.
The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £362; patrons and appropriators, the Dean and Chapter of Worcester. The church, founded as a chapel of ease to Wimbledon, was rebuilt about the reign of Henry VII., and in 1836 was again rebuilt, and the old tower restored, at an expense of £7000, defrayed by subscription, a rate, and a grant of £400 from the Incorporated Society. It is in the later English style, with the small chantry chapel (originally erected by Nicholas West, Bishop of Ely) removed from the east end of the south aisle, and rebuilt at the east end of the north side, the old style being preserved. At Roehampton is a separate incumbency. There is a place of worship for Independents. In 1684, Thomas Martyn bequeathed lands for the foundation and support of a charity school for twenty boys, sons of watermen; and by a decree of the court of chancery in 1715, the property was vested in trustees: the income is about £270. An almshouse for twelve men and women, dedicated to the Holy Trinity, was erected by Sir Abraham Dawes, who by will in 1639 endowed it with a rent-charge of £40, which subsequent benefactions have increased to £127 per annum. The proprietors of the bridge distribute £31 per annum to watermen, and watermen's widows and children; and the parish receives benefit from Henry Smith's and other charities.
Putney was the birthplace of Bishop West, already mentioned; of Thomas Cromwell, made Earl of Essex by Henry VIII.; and of Edward Gibbon, the celebrated author of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, who was born in 1737. John Toland, a noted free-thinking writer, died at Putney, in 1722, and was interred in the churchyard; and Robert Wood, under secretary of state, who published The Ruins of Palmyra, and other curious archæological works, was interred in the new burialground, in 1771. William Pitt, Earl of Chatham, died at a house on Putney Heath.
Puttenham (St. Mary)
PUTTENHAM (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Berkhampstead, hundred of Dacorum, county of Hertford, 3¾ miles (N. W.) from Tring; containing 136 inhabitants. This parish, which comprises 712 acres, is situated within a mile of the Aylesbury branch of the London and Birmingham railway; and a branch of the Grand Junction canal intersects the parish on the south. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £10. 1. 0½.; net income, £166, derived from 150 acres of land assigned in lieu of tithes in 1814; patron, the Bishop of Lincoln. The tower of the church is built of flint and stone in square compartments; the ceiling of the nave, which is of carved oak, is supported by figures representing some of the Apostles, and on the cross-beams are other figures habited as ecclesiastics.
Puttenham (St. John the Baptist)
PUTTENHAM (St. John the Baptist), a parish, in the First division of the hundred of Godalming, W. division of Surrey, 4½ miles (W. by S.) from Guildford; containing 384 inhabitants. The parish comprises 1896 acres, of which 608 are uninclosed common, about 20 woodland, 25 pasture, and the remainder arable. The Hog's Back, a high ridge embracing an extensive view of the surrounding country, separates the parish from Wanborough. On this ridge the soil is chiefly chalk; in other parts it is sand, and a sandy loam. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £11. 17. 11., and in the patronage of the Crown: the tithes have been commuted for £366. The church, which occupies a picturesque situation close to the mansion of Puttenham Priory, is in the later English style, and contains some ancient brasses, and several neat monuments to the Sumner and Cornish families, including one to Admiral Cornish.
Putton, or Podington
Puxton (St. Saviour)
PUXTON (St. Saviour), a parish, in the union of Axbridge, hundred of Winterstoke, E. division of Somerset, 6 miles (N. by W.) from the town of Axbridge; containing 162 inhabitants. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £60; patrons and appropriators, the Dean and Chapter of Bristol, whose tithes have been commuted for £164. There are 23½ acres of appropriate glebe.
Pycombe, county of Sussex.—See Piecombe.
Pylle (St. Thomas à Becket)
PYLLE (St. Thomas à Becket), a parish, in the union of Shepton-Mallet, hundred of Whitestone, E. division of Somerset, 3½ miles (S. by W.) from Shepton-Mallet; containing 216 inhabitants. The Roman fosse-way passes through. The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at £8. 19. 9½., and in the gift of Lord Portman: the tithes have been commuted for £174, and the glebe comprises 22 acres.
Pyon, King's, Hereford.—See Pion, King's.
Pyrford (St. Nicholas)
PYRFORD (St. Nicholas), a parish, in the union of Chertsey, First division of the hundred of Godley, W. division of Surrey, 1¾ mile (N. N. W.) from Ripley; containing 333 inhabitants. At the time of the Domesday survey the lands belonged to the abbey of Westminster, which held them till the Dissolution: in 1591 the place was given by Elizabeth to Sir John Wolley, who was often visited here by the queen. The Wey canal and the London and South-Western railroad pass through the parish, which comprises by computation between 1600 and 1700 acres. The living is a discharged vicarage, annexed to the rectory of Wisley. The church is a small edifice, standing on a commanding knoll, overlooking the ruins of Newark Abbey.
Pyworthy (St. Swithin)
PYWORTHY (St. Swithin), a parish, in the union of Holsworthy, hundred of Black Torrington, Holsworthy and N. divisions of Devon, 2 miles (W. S. W.) from Holsworthy; containing 758 inhabitants. It comprises about 5000 acres, of which 2060 are common or waste. The northern branch of the Bude canal intersects the north part of the parish, and the west branch passes near the west side; the road between Stratton and Holsworthy also runs through the parish. The quality of the land, which is rather hilly, varies, about one-half being good arable and pasture, and the remainder moor or marsh: stone is found in various places for making roads. A fair is held on the Monday after St. Swithin's day. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £27. 8. 4., and in the gift of the Rev. T. H. Kingdon: the tithes have been commuted for £370, and the glebe comprises 135 acres. The church, which is a plain building, contains an arch of great antiquity. There are places of worship for Primitive Methodists and Wesleyans. In 1820 some sepulchral urns were found.