A Topographical Dictionary of England. Originally published by S Lewis, London, 1848.
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Winterburn, with Flasby
WINTERBURN, with Flasby, a township, in the parish of Gargrave, union of Skipton, E. division of the wapentake of Staincliffe and Ewcross, W. riding of York, 7 miles (N. W. by N.) from Skipton; containing 140 inhabitants. It is situated on the east side of the Aire, and intersected by a tributary of that river. There is a place of worship for Independents.
Winteringham (All Saints)
WINTERINGHAM (All Saints), a parish, in the union of Glandford-Brigg, N. division of the wapentake of Manley, parts of Lindsey, county of Lincoln, 7½ miles (W.) from Barton-upon-Humber; containing 694 inhabitants. This place, which is situated on the line of the Roman Ermin-street, was formerly of considerable importance; about half a mile east of it, stood the town Ad Abum, which, according to Stukeley, was ploughed up at the close of the 17th century, when many curious relics of antiquity were discovered. The estates were anciently held by the Marmions, one of whom, in the reign of Edward II., obtained a charter for a market here, now no longer held. The parish is tolerably extensive, and the village, which is long and straggling, occupies a bold acclivity on the south side of the Humber, of which river and its northern bank pleasing views may be had, together with prospects of the more distant parts of Yorkshire. Two-thirds of the land are arable, and the rest grass, with a little wood. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £28, and in the gift of the Rev. T. F. R. Read, with a net income of £657: above 300 acres of land have been awarded in lieu of tithes, under an inclosure act. The church is a neat edifice, chiefly in the Norman style, and consists of a nave, aisles, and chancel, with a chapel on the north side. There are places of worship for Independents, Wesleyans, and Primitive Methodists; and a national school. A bequest amounting to £16 per annum, made by Thomas Boothby in 1682, is distributed among poor widows; and £13, left by various donors, are yearly given away in money and coal. Henry Kirke White was for some time at school here.
WINTERSETT, a township, in the parish of Wragby, wapentake of Staincross, W. riding of York, 5¾ miles (S. E. by E.) from Wakefield; containing 167 inhabitants. It comprises about 1170 acres, the property of Sir E. Dodsworth, Bart. The village is distant about a mile and a half south-west from Wragby.
Winterslow (All Saints)
WINTERSLOW (All Saints), a parish, in the union, and partly in the hundred, of Alderbury, and partly in the hundred of Amesbury, Salisbury and Amesbury, and S. divisions of Wilts; containing 838 inhabitants. East Winterslow is 7¼ miles (N. E. by E.), and West Winterslow 6½ (E. N. E.), from Salisbury. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £18. 13. 4.; net income, £784; patron, the Rev. H. E. Fryer. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans; also a school endowed with a small portion of an estate, the remainder of which, about £28 per annum, is distributed among the poor. A man and woman from the parish are entitled to £10 per annum each, charged upon the rectorial tithes of Pitton and Farley, under the will of John Thistlethwaite, who died in 1724. Near Winterslow-Hut are three barrows, in one of which was discovered, some years since, an arched vault constructed of rude flints wedged together, and inclosing two large sepulchral urns inverted. These urns were found to contain ashes enveloped in linen of a very fine texture, burnt bones, beads of red amber, a metal pin, and a two-edged lance-head of brass, with hair of a beautiful brown colour, and other relics, supposed to be those of some illustrious British female. The Roman road from Salisbury to Winchester passes through the parish.
Winterton (All Saints)
WINTERTON (All Saints), a small market-town, and a parish, in the union of Glandford-Brigg, N. division of the wapentake of Manley, parts of Lindsey, county of Lincoln, 8¼ miles (W. S. W.) from Bartonupon-Humber; containing 1373 inhabitants. This place, which is of some antiquity, is situated about half a mile west of the Ermin-street, and, from the discovery of various remains, appears to have been well known to the Romans. It occupies a salubrious position on the eastern side of one of the Wold hills, about two miles south of the Humber. A corn-market established some years since, takes place every Wednesday; and fairs for cattle are held on the Tuesday before Palm-Sunday, and on September 23rd. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £8, and in the gift of the Crown: the tithes have been commuted for £82, and some land is attached to the benefice. The church, a spacious cruciform structure in the Norman and early English styles, with a tower, was greatly injured during the civil war in the time of Charles, but was afterwards restored, and has recently been thoroughly repaired: the church land consists of about 3 acres. There are places of worship for Wesleyans and Independents. The antiquities above alluded to were found in 1747, and comprised three highly curious tessellated pavements discovered at the foot of the hill on the Cliff farm, some Roman bricks, the foundations of walls, and other interesting relics. On the Northlands farm, a well, thought to have been constructed by the Romans, was opened a few years since. A petrifying spring, called Holy well, was formerly much resorted to on account of its medicinal properties.
Winterton (All Saints)
WINTERTON (All Saints), a parish, in the East and West Flegg incorporation, hundred of West Flegg, E. division of Norfolk, 8¾ miles (N. by W.) from Yarmouth; containing 588 inhabitants. The parish comprises 1266a. 2r., of which 450 acres are arable, and the rest pasture, sand-hills, &c. It is situated on the sea-coast, and about 200 persons are employed in a fishery. On an eminence south-east of the village is a lighthouse of late erection, an hexagonal tower seventy feet high, lighted with patent argand lamps and reflectors. The place had a market and a fair, which have been long disused. The living is a rectory, with that of East Somerton annexed, valued in the king's books at £20. 13. 4.; net income, £478; patron, J. Hume, Esq. There is a parsonage-house, erected by the incumbent, the Rev. J. Nelson; and the glebe contains about 30 acres. The church is chiefly in the later style, with a tower 140 feet high, which serves as a landmark for mariners; the entrance on the south is by a handsome porch: the roof of the nave is supported by tiers of columns of chesnut wood, inserted in bases of brick. At the inclosure, 40 acres were allotted to the poor for fuel. Several large bones were found on the cliff in 1665, one of which, supposed to be that of a man's leg, was three feet two inches in length, and weighed 57lb. Winterton gives the title of Earl to the Tumour family.
Winthorpe (St. Mary)
WINTHORPE (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Spilsby, Marsh division of the wapentake of Candleshoe, parts of Lindsey, county of Lincoln, 11 miles (E. by N.) from Spilsby; containing 273 inhabitants. It is about a mile from the sea-coast, and comprises 2281a. 4p. The living is a discharged vicarage, united in 1729 to that of Burgh-in-the-Marsh, and valued in the king's books at £8; the glebe contains 2 acres.
Winthorpe (All Saints)
WINTHORPE (All Saints), a parish, in the union, and N. division of the wapentake, of Newark, S. division of the county of Nottingham, 1¾ mile (N. N. E.) from Newark; containing 225 inhabitants. It comprises about 635 acres; the soil is light and sandy. The village, which is picturesque and well built, occupies a richly-wooded eminence on the banks of the Trent; and Winthorpe Hall, an elegant mansion, is surrounded by extensive grounds and beautiful plantations. Here is a station of the Nottingham and Lincoln railway. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £7. 11. 0½.; net income, £170; patron, John Handley, Esq. The church, situated in the highest part of the village, was wholly rebuilt of brick, with the exception of the south wall, in 1779. The Fosse-road passes through the parish.
Wintney, Hartley.—See Hartley-Wintney.
WINTON, a township, in the parish of KirkbyStephen, East ward and union, county of Westmorland, 1¼ mile (N. N. E.) from Kirkby-Stephen; containing 358 inhabitants. It comprises 3383 acres, of which 1800 are common or waste: the village is large, and the houses are well built and of handsome appearance. A free school, erected in 1659, is endowed with £14. 8. a year. John Langhorne, D.D., translator of Plutarch, and author of Fables of Flora and other works; his brother William, who assisted in the translation; and Richard Burn, LL. D., the eminent law-writer and historian, were natives of this place, and received the rudiments of their education at the school.
WINTON, a township, in the parish of KirbySigston, union of Northallerton, wapentake of Allertonshire, N. riding of York, 3¾ miles (N. E. by E.) from Northallerton; containing 112 inhabitants. It comprises about 1340 acres, and includes the hamlets of Hallikeld and Stank, which are the property of the Earl of Harewood: a branch of his lordships family was formerly seated at Stank Hall, now a farmhouse. The village is on the road to Stokesley.
Wintringham (St. Peter)
WINTRINGHAM (St. Peter), a parish, in the union of Malton, wapentake of Buckrose, E. riding of York, 6½ miles (E. by N.) from Malton; containing, with the chapelry of Knapton, 603 inhabitants, of whom 339 are in the township of Wintringham. This parish is situated on the river Derwent, and comprises 8480 acres, of which 5740 are in the township, and, with the exception of the large farm of Linton, exclusively the property of Sir George Strickland, Bart., who is lord of the manor. The greater portion is arable, and the remainder principally sheep-walks, with plantations chiefly of ash and fir trees. Near the river the soil is clay, alternated with sand, but towards the south the land rises into wolds of fertile and chalky soil. The surface is diversified with numerous small streams. The village is situated at the foot of the Wolds, on the road from Scarborough to York, and consists mostly of one long street of ancient houses, built of stone and covered with thatch. The living is a donative, in the patronage of Sir George Strickland: the church is in the early English style, with a square embattled tower surmounted by a tall and graceful spire. At Knapton is a separate incumbency. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans; and a school is supported in the village. The farm of Linton, the property of Sir Tatton Sykes, was the site of a monastic cell subordinate to the abbey of Scarborough.
Winwick (All Saints)
WINWICK (All Saints), a parish, in the union of Oundle, partly in the hundred of Leightonstone, county of Huntingdon, and partly in that of Polebrook, N. division of the county of Northampton, 7 miles (S. E.) from Oundle; containing 373 inhabitants, of whom 207 are in the Huntingdon portion. This parish is situated about four miles from the road between Oundle and Huntingdon, and comprises 1800 acres, of which 400 are pasture, 5 acres wood, and the rest arable. The Northamptonshire portion consists of 959 acres. The soil is clayey. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £7. 16. 10.; net income, £66; patrons and impropriators, the Montagu family. The church contains about 300 sittings. Sarah Ruff in 1721 bequeathed an estate, the rent of which, amounting to £20 per annum, is distributed among the poor.
Winwick (St. Oswald)
WINWICK (St. Oswald), a parish, in the union of Warrington, hundred of West Derby, S. division of Lancashire; containing, with the township of Houghton with Middleton and Arbury, 896 inhabitants, of whom 603 are in the township of Winwick with Hulme, 3 miles (N.) from Warrington. Winwick is supposed, on good authority, to be the site of the British city Caer Guintguic, and to have been the seat of one of the twelve Saxon chiefs who formed their establishments in South Lancashire, before the institution of parishes. It also appears to have been the favourite residence of Oswald, King of Northumbria, who was slain in August 642 at a place which Bede calls Maserfelth. The district in which Winwick is seated has from a very distant period been denominated Makerfield, "a battle field;" and the parish claims to be the battle-field on which the gallant Oswald fell: a little more than half a mile north of the church, on the road to Golborne and Wigan, is an ancient well, known from time immemorial as St. Oswald's well. During the civil war, in 1643 and 1648, the parish was the scene of military operations. In the latter year, in an engagement between the parliamentarians and the Scots, Cromwell is said to have charged home upon the royalists, and to have driven them from their post, slaying 1000 men, and taking 2000 prisoners who had sought refuge in the church.
The parish was, until lately, of great extent, and included the now distinct parishes of Ashton-in-Makerfield, St. Thomas in Ashton, Croft with Southworth, Lowton, Newchurch, and Newton-in-Makerfield; all which, by acts of parliament passed in 1844 and 1845, were formed into separate parishes. Winwick now comprises 2281 acres, whereof 1441 are in the township of Winwick with Hulme: of the latter area, 915 acres are meadow and pasture, 421 acres arable, 40 wood, and the remainder gardens and waste. The country around is for the most part flat and unvaried; the soil is chiefly a strong loam, on clay and red-sandstone. The road from Warrington to Newton passes through the parish.
The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £102. 9. 9½., and in the patronage of the Earl of Derby: the net income, previously to the division of the parish, was £3616, arising chiefly from the glebe; the whole of the township, with the exception of an acre belonging to the free grammar school, being glebe land. The rectoryhouse is a large and substantial mansion, in a wellwooded park. The church stands on an eminence commanding a most extensive view. It consists of a nave, aisles, chancel, and a tower and spire; the fabric is large and irregular, of various ages, and evidently existed before the Conquest. The nave is separated from the aisles by five arches indented, resting on fluted capitals, bearing clustered columns adorned by the Tudor flower: on the south side of the nave is a chapel belonging to the family of Legh, and opposite to it on the north side is one belonging to Sir John Gerard, Bart. On the cornice or upper part of the south wall is an inscription in ancient Latin verse, in dedication of the church to St. Oswald. The remains of a cross, of great antiquity, exist in the churchyard. The free grammar school was founded in 1618, by Gwalter Legh, of Lyme, and was endowed by him with £10 per annum, since increased by benefactions to £34: the site of the school is supposed to have been the cell of some monks attached to the church.
Winwick (Holy Trinity)
WINWICK (Holy Trinity), a parish, in the union of Daventry, hundred of Guilsborough, S. division of the county of Northampton, 8¾ miles (N. N. E.) from Daventry; containing 165 inhabitants. The parish is intersected by the Grand Union canal, and comprises by measurement 2011 acres, about 300 of which are arable, and the rest pasture. The soil is very rich, and consists of clay and sand, the former greatly predominating. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £15. 6. 8., and in the patronage of the Bishop of Lincoln: the tithes have been commuted for £475; the glebe comprises 100 acres. The church is in the early English style, with a tower, and contains some handsome monuments of the Craven family. Some remains of an old mansion in the parish have been converted into a farmhouse; the gateway is a curious antique structure.
Wirksworth (St. Mary)
WIRKSWORTH (St. Mary), a market-town and parish, in the union of Belper, chiefly in the hundred of Wirksworth, but partly in that of Appletree, and partly in that of High Peak, county of Derby; containing 7891 inhabitants, of whom 4122 are in the town, 13 miles (N. N. W.) from Derby, and 139 (N. W. by N.) from London. This place, formerly written Wircesworth, Werchestworde, Wyrkysworth, is of very great antiquity. It is supposed to derive its name from some valuable lead-works in the neighbourhood, which, by an inscription on a pig of lead found in 1777, appear to have been worked so early as the time of the Emperor Adrian, at the commencement of the 2nd century. The Saxons subsequently carried on mining operations here on an extensive scale. In 714, Eadburga, abbess of Repton, to whom Wirksworth then belonged, sent hence to Guthlac, patron saint of Croyland Abbey, a leaden coffin; and in 835, Kenwara, another abbess of Repton, granted her estate at Wercesvorde to Humbert, on condition that he gave annually lead worth £15 to Archbishop Ceolnoth, for the use of Christ-Church at Canterbury. In Domesday book, Wirksworth is described as the property of the king, having a church, a priest, and three leadmines; and it remained in the crown until King John, in the fifth year of his reign, granted it to William de Ferrers, in whose family it continued till the attainder of his descendant, Robert, in the time of Henry III. By this monarch it was given in 1265 to his son, Edmund, Earl of Lancaster, and the manor has since that period constituted a part of the possessions of the duchy of Lancaster.
The town is situated in a valley nearly surrounded with hills, at the southern extremity of the mining district, and is supplied with water brought by pipes from the hills on its eastern side. Gas-works were erected in 1838. The chief employment of the inhabitants arises from the lead-mines, but some of them are engaged in the cotton manufacture; in the town and its immediate neighbourhood are three establishments for the manufacture of small-wares, and about 1500 quarters of malt are made here annually. The Cromford canal, and the Cromford and High Peak railway, commence in the parish; the former about a mile and a half north of the town, near where it crosses the river Derwent by means of an aqueduct; and the latter about half a mile north. The Midland railway passes a few miles on the southeast of the town. The mines and miners of the neighbourhood are governed by ancient customs, confirmed by a commission of inquiry in 1287; and all disputes and offences are determined at the Barmote courts, held twice a year before the steward, in the moot-hall, a handsome stone building erected in 1814 by the Hon. Charles Bathurst, then chancellor of the duchy. In this hall is deposited the ancient brass dish, the standard for those used for measuring the ore, which must be brought to be corrected by it, at least twice a year, by all the miners. The code of laws and regulations by which these courts are governed is very similar to that in force in the mining districts of the duchy of Cornwall. One remarkable custom is, that each person has the privilege of digging and searching for lead-ore in any part of the king's field, which, with a few exceptions, comprehends the whole wapentake; and should he discover a vein of lead, he has a right to work it, and erect buildings necessary for that purpose, without making any compensation to the owner of the land. A market on Wednesday, and an annual fair for three days, were granted by Edward I., in 1305, to Thomas, Earl of Lancaster: Tuesday is now the market-day; and there are fairs on Shrove-Tuesday, Easter-Tuesday, May 12th, July 8th, Sept. 8th, and the third Tuesday in November, for cattle, the last being also a statute-fair. The town is governed by a constable and headborough; and a petty-session is regularly held by the county magistrates. The powers of the county debt-court of Wirksworth, established in 1847, extend over part of the registration-districts of Ashbourn, Bakewell, and Belper. Two courts baron, at Easter and Michaelmas, and a court leet at Easter, occur for the king's manor, under the lessee of the crown; and a court is held for the rectorial manor. There is also a manor within the parish, which has no courts, called the Holland, or Richmond, manor, granted in 1553, by the crown, to Ralph Gell. The parish comprises 14,022a. 3r. 20p., and includes the chapelries of Alderwasley and Cromford; the townships of Ashley-Hay, Biggin, Hopton, Ible, and Idridgehay with Allton; and the hamlets of Callow, Ivonbrook-Grange, and Middleton.
The living is a vicarage, valued in the king's books at £42. 7. 8½.; net income, £164; patron, the Bishop of Lichfield. The church is a handsome structure in the later English style, with a square tower supported in the centre by four large pillars, and contains some ancient monuments. At Cromford, Alderwasley, and Middleton, are chapels, the two former built and endowed by individuals, and the latter by subscription. There are places of worship for Baptists, Independents, Wesleyans, and Primitive Methodists. The free grammar school, adjoining the churchyard, was established and endowed by Anthony Gell, of Hopton, in 1576, and was rebuilt in the English style, in 1828, at an expense of about £2000; the income is upwards of £250 per annum. This school, in common with those of Ashbourn and Chesterfield, is entitled, next after the founder's relatives, to two fellowships and two scholarships at St. John's College, Cambridge, founded by James Beresford, vicar of Wirksworth, who died in 1520. Almshouses for six men, near the school, were also founded and endowed by Anthony Gell. Elizabeth Bagshaw, in 1797, left £2000 three per cent, consols, for the poor, the dividends of which amount to £56 per annum; and there are many other donations and bequests, producing together a considerable sum. In 1736, a quantity of Roman coins was discovered; and spars, fluors, &c, have been found in great variety in the neighbourhood. Here were also some mineral springs, but they have been destroyed by draining the mines.
WIRSWALL, a township, in the parish of Whitchurch, union and hundred of Nantwich, S. division of the county of Chester, 5½ miles (E. S. E.) from Malpas; containing 91 inhabitants. It comprises 954 acres, of a light soil, with some bog. The Chester canal passes along its western boundary. A rent-charge of £70 has been awarded as a commutation for the tithes.