A Topographical Dictionary of England. Originally published by S Lewis, London, 1848.
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CLAYDON, a chapelry, in the parish of Cropredy, union and hundred of Banbury, county of Oxford, 6½ miles (N.) from Banbury; containing 337 inhabitants. The chapel is dedicated to St. James, and is a small edifice, with a north aisle divided from the nave by four arches of Norman character; the tower is of the 15th century. The village is situated in the northern extremity of the county: a small spring which rises in it has the peculiarity of emitting the largest quantity of water in the driest weather. Here is found the pyrites aureus, or golden firestone; also the asteria, or star-stone, called by Gesner sigillum stellœ, from its use in sealing: in splitting some of these, the figure of a rose is plainly discernible.
Claydon (St. Peter)
CLAYDON (St. Peter), a parish, in the union and hundred of Bosmere and Claydon, E. division of Suffolk, 3½ miles (N. N. W.) from Ipswich; containing 418 inhabitants. The Stow-Market and Ipswich navigation crosses the parish. The living is a rectory, with that of Akenham united, valued in the king's books at £10, and in the patronage of Miss Drury: the tithes of the two parishes have been commuted for £510, and there are 31 acres of glebe in Claydon, and 20 in Akenham. The church stands on a very high site, commanding an extensive prospect: the parsonage-house and grounds, which adjoin the churchyard, are neatly arranged, and ornamented with fine timber.
Claydon, East (St. Mary)
CLAYDON, EAST (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Winslow, hundred of Ashendon, county of Buckingham, 2¾ miles (S. W. by W.) from Winslow; containing 378 inhabitants. The living is a discharged vicarage, annexed to that of Steeple-Claydon, and valued in the king's books at £7. 17. The church was demolished during the civil war, by Cornelius Holland, one of the judges who sat upon the trial of Charles I.
Claydon, Middle (All Saints)
CLAYDON, MIDDLE (All Saints), a parish, in the hundred of Ashendon, union and county of Buckingham, 4 miles (W. S. W.) from Winslow; containing 127 inhabitants. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £15; net income, £540; patron, Sir Harry Verney. The church contains a monument to the memory of Sir Edmund Verney, standard-bearer to Charles I., who was killed at the battle of Edge-Hill, in 1642; and a monument, by Chantrey, to Gen. Sir Harry Calvert, adjutant-general of the British army, and father of Sir Harry Verney, the present baronet. Almshouses for six widows were built in 1694, by Sir Ralph Verney, who endowed them with a rent-charge of £15. 12.
Claydon, Steeple (St. Michael)
CLAYDON, STEEPLE (St. Michael), a parish, in the union, hundred, and county of Buckingham, 5½ miles (W.) from Winslow; containing 849 inhabitants. At the period of the Conquest, this was the most populous place in the hundred; in an adjoining wood, an earthen vessel filled with coins of Carausius and Alectus, has been discovered. The living is a vicarage, with that of East Claydon annexed, valued in the king's books at £13. 3. 9.; net income, £300; patron, Sir Harry Verney, Bart. The tithes were commuted for land and a corn-rent in 1795. Thomas Chaloner, in 1656, built a school, and endowed it with £12 per annum; but the gift has long been lost.
Clayhanger (St. Peter)
CLAYHANGER (St. Peter), a parish, in the union of Tiverton, hundred of Bampton, Cullompton and N. divisions of Devon, 4¾ miles (E. by N.) from Bampton; containing 294 inhabitants. This parish, which is situated on the new road from Wiveliscombe to Barnstaple, comprises by measurement 2082 acres. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £15. 7. 3½.; net income, £273; patron, the Rev. W. M. Harrison. The church contains a rood-loft and an ancient oak screen elaborately carved; it belonged to the Knights Templars, who had a preceptory here. There is a place of worship for dissenters; and a school, founded in 1747, has a small endowment.
Clayhedon (St. Andrew)
CLAYHEDON (St. Andrew), a parish, in the union of Wellington, hundred of Hemyock, Cullompton and N. divisions of Devon, 4 miles (S. S. E.) from Wellington; containing 849 inhabitants, and comprising 5089a. 2r. 35p., of which 100 acres are common or waste. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £38. 5.; patron and incumbent, the Rev. J. Clarke, whose tithes have been commuted for £600, and whose glebe consists of 110 acres, with a glebe-house. The church is a neat plain edifice.
CLAY-LANE, a township, in the parish of North Wingfield, union of Chesterfield, hundred of Scarsdale, N. division of the county of Derby, 5½ miles (S.) from Chesterfield; containing about 2000 inhabitants. This place was a few years ago but a small village; at present, George Stephenson and Co. have extensive collieries here, employing 600 persons, and having a steam power of 140 horses. Three-quarters of a mile to the north, is a station of the Midland railway. A mechanics' institution was established in 1845, and there is a place of worship for dissenters. The tithes have been commuted for £198.
Claypole (St. Peter)
CLAYPOLE (St. Peter), a parish, in the union of Newark, wapentake of Loveden, parts of Kesteven, county of Lincoln, 5 miles (S. E.) from Newark; containing 663 inhabitants. It is intersected by the river Witham. A small portion of the population is employed in weaving yarn. Oliver Cromwell is supposed to have slept at this place on the night previous to the siege of Newark, in an ancient house near the river, which still remains. The living is a rectory in medieties, the north mediety valued in the king's books at £16. 8. 4., and the south at £15. 15.; net income of the north, £389, and of the south, £348; patron, J. P. Plumptre, Esq. The tithes were commuted for land in 1769. The church is an ancient structure, in the early and decorated English styles, with a square embattled tower surmounted by a beautiful spire. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans.
CLAYTHORPE, a chapelry, in the parish of Belleau, union of Louth, Marsh division of the hundred of Calceworth, parts of Lindsey, county of Lincoln, 4 miles (N. W. by W.) from Alford; containing 69 inhabitants. The tithes have been commuted for £165.
CLAYTHORPE, a hamlet, in the township and parish of Burton-in-Kendal, Lonsdale ward, county of Westmorland, 1 mile (N. E. by N.) from Burton-inKendal. About a mile from the village is Farlton Knot, a huge limestone mountain, resembling in form the Rock of Gibraltar. On the edge of another mountain is a natural curiosity called Claythorpe Clints, consisting of a limestone rock, forming an inclined plane to the horizon, and deeply rent in many places by the supposed ebbing of a great body of water, or the retiring of the ocean, by which it is conjectured that this, with some other plains in the neighbourhood, was once covered.
Clayton, Lancaster.—See Droylsden.
CLAYTON, a township, in the parish and union of Stoke-upon-Trent, N. division of the hundred of Pirehill and of the county of Stafford, 2 miles (S. by E.) from Newcastle; containing 155 inhabitants. The township comprises 734 acres, whereof about 50 are woodland, and the remainder arable and pasture in nearly equal portions: it is the property of J. Ayshford Wise, Esq., in right of his lady, the heiress of the Lovatt family, seated here since the reign of Henry VIII. The village is composed of five farmhouses and a few scattered cottages, and is delightfully situated on a woody eminence north of Trentham Park, over which is a fine view of Stafford Castle, Cannock Chase, &c.
Clayton (St. John the Baptist)
CLAYTON (St. John the Baptist), a parish, in the union of Cuckfield, hundred of Buttinghill, rape of Lewes, E. division of Sussex, 2¼ miles (S. S. E.) from Hurst-Pierrepoint; containing 747 inhabitants. It is situated on the road from London to Brighton, by way of Cuckfield, and intersected by the London and Brighton railway, which proceeds for about a mile and a quarter under Clayton Hill, through a tunnel that commences near the church. The area consists of 2353 acres, whereof 201 are common or waste. The southern portion of the parish is fine down, and the northern comprises some rich arable, pasture, and woodland; the scenery is pleasing, and the views from Clayton Hill are extensive. Fairs are held on St. John's Common, for cattle and sheep, on the 6th of July, and the 26th of September. The living is a rectory, with that of Keymer annexed, valued in the king's books at £21. 0. 10., and in the patronage of Brasenose College, Oxford: the incumbent's tithes have been commuted for £400, and the glebe comprises 25 acres; certain impropriate tithes have been commuted for £39. The church is of the early English style, with some Norman details, among which is a fine arch separating the chancel from the nave; it was repaired in 1838. The Roman road from Portus Adriani passed over Clayton Hill to St. John's Common; and on opening a barrow near Clayton windmill, in 1805, the remains of a camp-kitchen were found, in which was a vessel of embaked clay, containing bones of various animals. In the rectory grounds, some years since, a Roman bath was discovered by the plough, with a beautiful tessellated pavement; celts and various Druidical relics have been found near Layton Mill, and numerous fossils in the chalk-pits.
CLAYTON, a township, in the parish and union of Bradford, wapentake of Morley, W. riding of York, 3½ miles (W. by S.) from Bradford; containing 4347 inhabitants. This place, which is noticed in the Domesday survey, where it is written Claitons, as part of the manor of Bolton, comprises by computation 1600 acres, of which about 150 are arable, and the remainder high land affording tolerable pasture, with four or five acres of wood. It contains the straggling villages of Clayton and Clayton-Heights, situated on the acclivities, and part of Queen's-Head on the summit, of a bold eminence; and the population is chiefly employed in the manufacture of worsted goods, and in hand-loom weaving. There are seven quarries of slate and flagstone, of which two are worked underground; the stone is of excellent quality, and is brought up through a shaft in the same manner as coal. In the upper part of the township, called the Mountain, is a valuable coal-mine. The Leeds and Halifax old road passes through the township. A living has been instituted, which is in the gift of the Vicar of Bradford; and there are places of worship for Baptists and Wesleyans.
Clayton, with Frickley.—See Frickley.
CLAYTON-GRIFFITH, a township, in the parish of Trentham, union of Stone, N. division of the hundred of Pirehill and of the county of Stafford; containing 56 inhabitants. This township adjoins the south-western suburbs of Newcastle-under-Lyme, and has a few scattered houses in the vicinity of the canal.
CLAYTON-LE-DALE, a township, in the parish, union, and Lower division of the hundred, of Blackburn, N. division of the county of Lancaster, 4¼ miles (N. by W.) from Blackburn; containing 511 inhabitants. In the reign of Henry VIII. John Talbot, of Salesbury, was the proprietor of this estate, which is now held by the noble family of Warren. Showley Hall, here, was once the seat of the Walmesley family. The township lies on the road from Preston to Clitheroe, and the river Ribble passes through it on the northwest, in which part there is much elevated land.
CLAYTON-LE-MOORS, a township, in the parish of Whalley, union, and Lower division of the hundred, of Blackburn, N. division of the county of Lancaster, 5½ miles (N. E. by E.) from Blackburn; containing 2602 inhabitants. Clayton-le-Moors, "the clayey district among the Moors," gave the name of Clayton to a family, who resided here as early as the reign of Henry II. From this family the manor came by female heirs to the Grimshaws and de Rishtons, and from them it descended in moieties to the Lomaxes and Walmesleys: by the marriage of Catherine Walmesley, who died in 1785, with the seventh lord Petre, a moiety passed to his lordship and devolved to his descendants. The township lies on the road from Blackburn to Burnley, and the village is distant about a mile and a half north-by-west from the town of Accrington. The river Henbury passes on the west side of the township. A district church, All Saints', was erected in 1839: the living is in the gift of Trustees. The Wesleyans have a place of worship; and at Enfield is a Roman Catholic chapel. The Baptist congregation originally at Oakenshaw, in Clayton-leMoors, removed to Accrington in 1735. Three schools are supported by subscription.
CLAYTON-LE-WOODS, a township, in the parish and hundred of Leyland, union of Chorley, N. division of the county of Lancaster, 4 miles (N. by W.) from Chorley, on the road to Preston; containing 795 inhabitants. This place was possessed by the Clayton family as early as the 11th century: a moiety passed by marriage to the Lees, and from them to the Hoghtons; and the second moiety has been held by various families, among whom have been the Orrells and Andertons. The township comprises 1450a. 1r. 21p., mostly pasture and meadow; about 24 acres are wood: the land is elevated, the soil various, and the views pleasing. The river Lostock flows through. Clayton Villa, with 40 acres around it, is the seat of Francis Anderton, Esq.; and at Clayton Green is the neat residence of Thomas Dewhurst, Esq. The tithes have been commuted for £100 payable to Lord Skelmersdale, and £82 to the vicar. The Wesleyans have a place of worship; and there is a Roman Catholic chapel, built in the year 1824. A school has the aid of an endowment of £9. 6. per annum.
CLAYTON, WEST, a township, in the parish of High Hoyland, wapentake of Staincross, W. riding of York, 9 miles (S. E. by E.) from Huddersfield; containing 1440 inhabitants. The township is situated on the Wakefield and Denby-Dale road, and comprises by computation 1080 acres, belonging to various proprietors. Several coal-mines are in operation. The manufacture of fancy silk and worsted goods, for waistcoats, trowsers, and ladies' dresses, is carried on to a considerable extent, and large mills have been erected for these branches of industry, in which the greater part of the population is employed: there is an extensive worsted spinning-mill; and clogs are also manufactured. The village is situated on a declivity, and the surrounding scenery is pleasingly diversified. There are places of worship for Independents, Baptists, Wesleyans, and Methodists of the New Connexion.
Clayworth (St. Peter)
CLAYWORTH (St. Peter), a parish, in the union of East Retford, North-Clay division of the wapentake of Bassetlaw, N. division of the county of Nottingham, 6 miles (N. N. E.) from East Retford; containing 627 inhabitants. This parish, which is bounded on the west by the river Idle, and intersected by the Chesterfield canal, comprises the townships of Clayworth and Wiseton, the former containing 2076, and the latter 930, acres of fertile land; the soil of Clayworth being a rich clay, and that of Wiseton a fine red sandy mould. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £26. 10. 10.; net income, £604, with a house; patron, the Bishop of Lincoln. The tithes have been commuted for a rentcharge of £3. 5. only, the greater part of the parish being tithe-free under an inclosure act passed at the close of the last century, when 281 acres were allotted to the incumbent, now called Clayworth-highfield, or the Tithefarm. The church contains many ancient monumental inscriptions. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans. The Rev. William Sampson, in 1700, bequeathed land now producing £57 per annum, as an endowment for a school.
CLEADON, a township, in the parish of Whitburn, union of South Shields, E. division of Chester ward, N. division of the county of Durham, 3½ miles (N. by W.) from Sunderland; containing 257 inhabitants. Cleadon, or, as anciently written, Clivedon, Tower, which was taken down at the close of the last century, is mentioned so early as 1587, and was a square building of two stages, leaded, and with a spiral stone staircase to the top; it was attached to the east end of the present old mansion, and commanded a very extensive prospect. Limestone is obtained; and near Marston rock is found a species of indurated marl, in thin laminæ, very pliant, and hence termed flexible limestone.