A Topographical Dictionary of England. Originally published by S Lewis, London, 1848.
This free content was digitised by double rekeying. All rights reserved.
Jacobstow (St. James)
JACOBSTOW (St. James), a parish, in the union and hundred of Stratton, E. division of Cornwall, 8½ miles (S. S. W.) from Stratton; containing 585 inhabitants. This parish, which is situated on the road from Barnstaple to Falmouth, and bounded on the south by the river Derrington, comprises by measurement 4200 acres; the soil is a strong clay, with a considerable portion of marsh and bog. Fairs are held in May, September, and November. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £19, and in the gift of the Earl of St. Germans: the tithes have been commuted for £310; the glebe comprises 60 acres. The church is a neat ancient structure, with a tower of granite, and was thoroughly repaired and repewed in 1831. There are places of worship for Bryanites, Primitive Methodists, and Thornites. Near Headon are two small barrows. Degory Wheare, the first Camden professor of history at Oxford, and author of a Treatise on the Method of Studying History, was born here in 1723.
Jacobstowe (St. James)
JACOBSTOWE (St. James), a parish, in the union of Oakhampton, hundred of Black Torrington, Black Torrington and Shebbear, and N. divisions of Devon, 3½ miles (S. E. by E.) from Hatherleigh; containing 309 inhabitants. It is situated on the river Okement, and comprises 2836a. 1r. 37p. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £11. 4. 4½., and in the gift of L. Burton, Esq.: the tithes have been commuted for £160, and the glebe comprises 80 acres. The church is a very small ancient edifice.
James, St., Wilts.—See Brome, South.
Jarrow (St. Paul)
JARROW (St. Paul), a parish, partly in the union of Gateshead, and partly in that of South Shields, E. division of Chester ward, N. division of the county of Durham; comprising the townships of Harton, Hedworth, Heworth, Jarrow, Monkton, South Shields, and Westoe; and containing 33,945 inhabitants, of whom 9082 are in the town and port of South Shields. Jarrow is of great antiquity, and appears, from various relics discovered at different times, to have been occupied by the Romans, either as a secondary station or a fortified village. Foundations of buildings, clearly of Roman origin, have been dug up in the fields north of the church; and in altering the direction of the road, two square pavements of Roman brick, a small coin of Aulus Vitellius, and a stone sculptured with a representation of an archer shooting at a stag, were found at the east end of Jarrow-row. Among other evidences of Roman occupation, discovered during the removal of old buildings, in 1782, are, a military trophy resembling those generally placed by that people in front of their public edifices, with an inscription implying that it was erected by the army on the extension of the Roman dominion in Britain from the western to the eastern sea; and the mutilated fragment of a votive altar to all the sons of Adrian. After the departure of the Romans from Britain, the Saxons, according to their usual policy, availing themselves of the stations which the former had occupied, a monastery was founded here by St. Benedict, to whom Egfrid, King of Northumbria, had granted 40 hides of land for that purpose. The church was completed in 685, and dedicated to St. Paul, as shown by an inscription originally inserted in the northern wall, but now placed over an arch of the tower, between the nave and chancel of the present edifice: "On the 9th of the Kalends of May, or the 23rd of April, in the 15th year of King Egfrid, and the 4th of Ceolfrid, abbot, and, under God, founder of the church." The monastery was frequently plundered and burnt by the Danes, but was restored, and according to an inscription built up in the church is supposed to have been refounded by the Normans. The establishment, soon after its original foundation, was united with that of St. Peter, at Wearmouth; in 1083, both were made cells to the convent of Durham by Bishop Carilepho, and as such that of Jarrow continued till the Dissolution, when its revenue was returned at £40. 7. 8.
The parish was originally more extensive than it is at present, including the parish of Wallsend, in the county of Northumberland, on the north side of the Tyne. The soil is poor and clayey, but rendered fertile by good manure, for obtaining which there is every facility: to the east of Jarrow, towards South Shields, is a wide expanse called Jarrow Slake, covering 338 acres of land, which might easily be reclaimed by embankment. The district abounds with coal, and there is a colliery in operation, 195 feet in depth, and employing about 250 hands; others of the population are engaged in a shipbuilding yard, and some large works for burning coke, on the banks of the Tyne, where, also, are coal-staiths. On the Don, which empties itself into the Tyne, an extensive paper-mill was established in 1841; the machinery is on the best and newest principle, and one of the engines, which is of upwards of 100-horse power, is the largest standing-engine for driving paper-machinery in England. The village is kept in the neatest order; it is about a mile in length, and chiefly inhabited by persons employed in the colliery and other works. The living is a perpetual curacy, in the patronage of Sir T. Clavering, Bart., and C. Ellison and Drewett Brown, Esqrs., with a net income of £197; impropriators, the Dean and Chapter of Durham, C. Ellison, Esq., and others. The church, formerly the church of the monastery, is an ancient structure, of which the nave was rebuilt in 1783; the tower and chancel are in the early Norman style. In the tower is the original bell that was placed in it by St. Benedict, the founder; it is marked with two fleurs-de-lis, and has the inscription, "Sancte Paule, ora pro nobis," in large characters. In the vestry is preserved an ancient oak chair of rude formation, said to have been that of Venerable Bede. The chancel was restored in 1846, in an effective manner; two carved oak stalls have been carefully repaired, and placed one on each side of it, and other stalls have been fitted up similar to those of St. Peter's, at Newcastle. A painting of the Crucifixion, by Vandyke, from the chapel of Hylton Castle, occupies a position above the altar. Close to the church is a national school, built by subscription in 1840, partly from the stones of the monastery. There are chapels at South Shields, Nether Heworth, Windy-Nook, and Harton; and the Presbyterians, Wesleyans, Methodists of the New and the Old Connexion, and others, have places of worship in the parish. The remains of the monastery, adjacent to the church, have suffered much dilapidation within the last century, and now consist of little more than a few of the low Norman columns, and some ancient tombs scattered over the site. In a field belonging to John Straker, Esq., considerable foundations are visible, probably the site of the village of Bilton, to which the river Don penetrates, and where small ships formerly came.
JARROW, EAST, in the parish of Jarrow, union of South Shields, E. division of Chester ward, N. division of the county of Durham, 3 miles (W.) from South Shields. This place is situated on the south-east side of the river Don, and forms the western boundary of the township of Westoe: the land, which is leasehold under the Dean and Chapter of Durham, is the property of John Straker, Esq., of Jarrow Lodge, with whom originated the project of converting the locality into a manufacturing district, and by whose exertions, surmounting all opposition, this object has been eminently accomplished. Operations were commenced in 1836, when there were but 16 inhabitants, and the first improvement was the formation of a better road further inland; the then road, round the verge of Jarrow Slake, being frequently impassable for hours, and sometimes dangerous from the overflowing of the tides of the Tyne. The new road terminates at the west end by a neat stone bridge of one arch over the Lesser Don; and a considerable quantity of land has been reclaimed from Jarrow Slake, at a great outlay. Among the works already established are some chemical-works, timber, and shipbuilding yards, iron-works, nail-works, a lamp-black manufactory, and a brick-yard; affording employment to between 400 and 500 families, and consuming upwards of 40,000 tons of coal annually. Small vessels and keels come up to the quays.
Jay, with Heath, Hereford.—See Heath.
JERSEY, ISLE of, the largest of a cluster of islands in the English Channel, dependent on the British crown, 10 leagues (S. S. W.) from Cape de la Hogue, and 7 (S. E.) from the Isle of Guernsey; containing 47,544 inhabitants, of whom 21,602 are males, and 25,942 females. This island has been identified with the Cæsarea of Antoninus, of which appellation its present name is thought to be a corruption; and that the district was in the possession of the Romans, is a fact evinced by the discovery of numerous vestiges of Roman antiquities. After the conquest of the western part of Gaul by the Franks, Jersey and the neighbouring isles were comprehended within the province of Neustria. About the middle of the sixth century, it was annexed by Childebert, King of France, to the see of Dol, in Armorica (Brittany), during the prelacy of St. Sampson, who had emigrated from Britain, and whose successor, St. Magliore, induced the islanders to embrace Christianity, the progress of which was subsequently much accelerated by the pious exertions of Prætexatus, Archbishop of Rouen, who, towards the close of the same century, lived here in exile for ten years. On the establishment of the duchy of Normandy, these islands, as part of the ancient province of Neustria, were, in 912, ceded by treaty to Duke Rollo, by Charles IV., King of France; and the Normans being about that time converted to Christianity, one of the principal nobles founded an abbey here, in honour of St. Helier, a venerable anchoret, who in the ninth century had been murdered by a band of Normans, in a descent upon the island. William I. having obtained possession of England, Jersey and the other isles, as part of Normandy, became dependent on the British crown; and on the conquest of Normandy by the French, an attempt was made to reduce these islands also: the whole of them, however, continued in the English interest, and such landowners as had possessions both in the isles, and on the main land of Normandy, were compelled to make choice of those they wished to retain, and abandon all claim to the rest. The majority became subjects of that prince in whose territory they owned the larger possessions; but the Seigneur de St. Ouen, of the name and family of Carteret, remaining firm in his allegiance to the crown of England, relinquished his lordship of Carteret, in Normandy, and retained possession of his smaller estates in Jersey. The English sovereigns thenceforward conferred upon the islanders various privileges, which being flagrantly violated by the judges of assize sent over from England for the administration of justice, in the reign of Edward II., the inhabitants of the two principal islands petitioned that monarch's successor for a redress of their common grievances, which was speedily granted.
The French have at different times made attempts to obtain possession of the islands, in which, with few exceptions, they have been signally defeated by the determined bravery of the inhabitants, aided occasionally by supplies from England. In the war between the houses of York and Lancaster, a secret agreement having been concluded between Margaret of Anjou and one of the courtiers of Louis XI., by which the latter was to receive a grant of these isles, to be held independently of the British crown, on the condition of landing a body of troops in England to aid the Lancastrian cause, they thus became vested in a French subject, who arrived and took possession of them; but the inhabitants refused submission to his authority, and in the following reign, aided by an English squadron, they attacked and overpowered the garrison of Mont Orgueil, and became again subject to Britain. The arbitrary and tyrannical conduct of the English governors and their deputies, and the rancorous broils which prevailed among the resident seigneurs under the feudal system, continued for many years to disturb domestic tranquillity, frequently provoking the interference of the British monarchs, and were not effectually repressed till the reign of Henry VII., who with that view obtained from the pope a comminatory bull, and issued ordinances, comprised in thirty-three articles, for the government of the island, which continued in force until superseded by a regular code of laws in 1771. In the reign of Edward VI. the French were repulsed in an attack upon Jersey; and in that of Elizabeth an additional fortress, called Elizabeth Castle, was erected, to guard more effectually against their assaults. This latter sovereign appointed two commissioners to remedy some abuses in the island, arising from the unequal distribution of justice, and issued an order in council, directing all appeals from the royal court of Jersey to be brought before the privy council.
On the breaking out of the parliamentary war, Capt. Sir George de Carteret, comptroller of the navy, having refused the appointment of vice-admiral under the parliament, retired with his family to Jersey, and openly declaring for the king, equipped a fleet of ten light vessels to intercept merchantmen trading under the parliamentary banners. Charles II., after the death of his father, being obliged to leave Holland, where he had been residing, landed here with a numerous retinue, and was joyfully received and proclaimed king. He remained several months, during which the inhabitants gave such demonstrations of their loyalty, as, coupled with the numerous captures effected by De Carteret's small squadron, provoked the vengeance of the parliament, and a fleet was accordingly despatched for the reduction of the islands, under the command of Admiral Blake, together with a formidable land force under Major-Gen. Haines. The assailants, after experiencing some difficulty and delay, disembarked their troops, and the inhabitants, unable to meet such superior numbers in the open field, and determined on resistance to the last extremity, prudently retired to their fortresses; but the fort of St. Aubin and Mont Orgueil Castle, having been neglected for some time previously, were soon captured, and the complete subjugation of the island was effected by the surrender of Elizabeth Castle, notwithstanding the heroic defence made by the garrison, consisting of 350 men, under the command of Sir George de Carteret, who finding all hope of relief vain, capitulated on honourable terms, and went over to join the king, who was then in France. At the Restoration, Charles II., after conferring on Sir George various marks of distinction, presented to the corporation a silver-gilt mace, with the appropriate motto, Tali haud omnes dignantur honore; which is borne before the bailiff and magistrates on all important public occasions.
In 1779, the Prince of Nassau, commanding a force of 6000 men, appeared with a fleet off St. Ouen's bay, destined for the reduction of the island; but on attempting to disembark his troops, they were gallantly repulsed by the regiment then stationed here, assisted by the militia, and supported by a body of artillery. After some delay, during which dissensions arose amongst the officers of the fleet, another attack was resolved upon; but, before it could be carried into execution, the squadron appointed to cover the assault was met by a British naval force, under Sir James Wallace, and almost totally annihilated. The last determined attempt made by the French to obtain possession of the island was in the beginning of 1781, when a fleet arrived unexpectedly, though much diminished in numbers in consequence of the disasters of the voyage, under the command of Baron de Rullicourt, who, having secretly landed his men by night, obtained possession of the town of St. Helier, and at first gained a few advantages from the suddenness of the attack. Major Corbet, the lieutenantgovernor, being made prisoner, was induced by a false representation of the number of the enemy to sign terms of capitulation, and despatched an order to the commanding officers of the several stations to remain in their quarters. This order, however, was disregarded; and when part of the French troops proceeded to demand the surrender of Elizabeth Castle, according to the terms of the extorted capitulation, they were answered only by a discharge of artillery, and were compelled to retire into the town, to concentrate their forces for the approaching conflict. Major Pierson, on whom the command had devolved, experienced much difficulty in restraining the ardour of the militia till the various troops had arrived at their respective points of destination, which was not fully accomplished before an impetuous attack was made upon the enemy, who, hopeless of escape, fought with desperate obstinacy, but were at length signally vanquished: Rullicourt and the greater number of his men were slain, a few escaped to their ships, and the rest surrendered. Though freed from foreign aggression, the inhabitants did not yet obtain domestic repose: from the year 1779 to 1793, the tranquillity of the island was disturbed by intestine dissensions, the most inveterate animosity being cherished by the parties into which the islanders were unhappily divided; and notwithstanding that these feuds have subsided, their effects may still be traced in the acrimony displayed in more recent disputes. In 1814, the Duke de Berri, nephew of Louis XVIII., took up his abode for a short time in Jersey: the only other event of interest that has occurred of late years, is the visit of Her Majesty the Queen to the island, on the 3rd of September, 1846.
The Island is about twelve miles in length, of an average breadth of six miles, and about sixty miles in circumference, measuring the indentations of the bays. It is greatly elevated on the north side, and shelves considerably towards the south-east. The cliffs on the northern coast are in general about 100 feet in height, though in some places they rise to double that elevation. The whole of this side is indented with small coves and bays, and a precipitous ridge of granite rocks stretches for a considerable distance from east to west; the remainder consists of rocks of sienite, of various elevation, exhibiting broad and perpendicular masses towards the sea, every where intersected by perpendicular veins of granite to the north and south, and, where they have been exposed to the action of the waves, forming numerous caverns of remarkable appearance. The rocks of Mont Mado, in the centre of this northern coast, particularly abound with felspar of a flesh colour, susceptible of a high polish. The east, west, and south sides of the island are formed of shelving shores, with wide sand bays, separated by lofty rocks. About four leagues to the south are the Minquais, a dangerous group of rugged rocks of considerable elevation, stretching more than ten miles from east to west; the passage between them and the island is always hazardous, even at high water, as the flood tide sets in upon them with a direct current. A little further to the south-east is an extended chain of rocks, the largest forming Chausez, or Chozé, isle.
The bay of St. Ouen, a large flat tract of sand, occupies the principal part of the western side of the island, and is bounded by an extensive ridge of sienitic rocks, terminating in the Corbieries, a cluster which stems the current of the Atlantic tide, and is rendered extremely dangerous from the number of sunken reefs lying near it to the north-west. From this point the bay of St. Aubin, by which the south side of the island is deeply indented in the centre, and to the west of which is the smaller bay of St. Brelade, is a succession of points of the same sienitic rocks, their sides every where covered with schistus: the castle of St. Aubin, to the west of the bay, and Elizabeth Castle, to the east of it, are built on rocks of similar composition. On the eastern side of Jersey is Mont Orgueil, where the rocks of granite become continuous, and on one of the most prominent of which the castle of that name is built. From Mont Orgueil the coast, with the exception only of a flat-shore in the centre of St. Catherine's bay, is an uninterrupted cliff, extending to Rosel harbour, at the northern extremity of the island. At this point commences a rock of very singular appearance, which seems to occupy the whole of Boulay bay; it is of argillaceous breccia, consisting of large and small masses of schistus, cemented by a basis of the same nature.
The stupendous barriers that form the northern coast contrast finely with the interior, which is richly clothed with wood, and studded with cottages built of stone and thatched, with orchards attached to them. The island is intersected, in every direction, by beautiful valleys watered by numerous streams, which issue from wood-crowned banks, and, after irrigating the meadows and turning many mills, empty themselves into the sea. The coast abounds with a great variety of fish; most of those known in England are found here, but the haddock, the smelt, and the muscle, are rarely seen, nor is the cod found to any great extent. The climate, though tending to humidity, may be considered temperate and mild. Shrubs, which in Devonshire and Cornwall require to be sheltered during the winter months, flourish here in the open air; and carnations, and various other flowers when in a favourable aspect, blossom in the winter. Plants that cannot be raised in Guernsey will thrive here in the greatest luxuriance, owing to the inclination of the shore, which gradually slopes towards the south, while that of Guernsey shelves to the north. The climate and soil are particularly favourable to the growth of apple-trees, which are extensively cultivated, and constitute a source of considerable profit to the farmer; thriving orchards are to be seen in every part, and form a distinguishing feature in the landscape. The Chaumontel pear attains a degree of perfection, both in flavour and size, not elsewhere to be found; melons are also produced in perfection, the strawberries are remarkable for the richness of their flavour, and the peach and apricot attain a very large size. Jersey formerly produced more corn than was sufficient for the supply of the inhabitants, but at present it does not yield more than two-thirds of the quantity consumed. The decrease in the tillage of lands may be attributed to the improvement of navigation and foreign commerce, which, by furnishing employment to an additional number of the inhabitants, has increased the price of labour; to the introduction and growth of the stocking manufacture, which withdrew considerable numbers from agricultural pursuits; and to the increased exportation to England of cows of the Alderney breed, for which purpose considerable quantities of arable have been converted into pasture land. According to the most accurate calculations, the Jersey wheat is ascertained to be lighter than that produced in England, in the ratio of 521b. 13oz. to 621b.; but the produce per acre exceeds that of English wheat, in a ratio of 727 to 496, making the fertility of the former to that of the latter nearly in the ratio of 4 to 3; and the average crop of potatoes is in a ratio of 29 to 20 nearly.
The cows distinguished in England as the Alderney breed are common to all these islands, but at least ten times more are exported from Jersey than from Alderney, the number sent annually to England being about 1700. The breed of sheep has deteriorated, from the partial discontinuance of the manufacture of knit woollen stockings, the only branch which ever prevailed here, and which had attained such perfection that laws were framed to preserve its reputation by imposing penalties on such as, by deteriorating the quality, might injure the sale of the article. But the extent to which it was carried on being found injurious to the agricultural interest by withdrawing the labourers from the cultivation of the soil, a law was passed in 1608, to compel all persons above the age of fifteen to relinquish that employment and assist the farmers during the seasons of vraicking and harvest: the manufacture still exists, but is confined to females, and to the aged and infirm. The island affords various kinds of game; but the liberty of shooting, which was formerly confined to the jurats, the king's officers, and lords of manors, being now denied to no person, has very much contributed to reduce the quantity.
The civil government is vested in the royal court of Jersey, and in the assembly of the states; the military authority is entrusted to a governor appointed by the crown. The royal court is composed of a bailiff, also appointed by the crown, who acts as the queen's representative, and of twelve jurats, who are elected by the people. The bailiff sums up the opinions in all debates, and pronounces the sentence of the court: the dignity and prerogatives of his office are very great; he is the keeper of the public seal, which, however, he cannot affix to any act without the concurrence of three of the jurats. The jurats are appointed for life, but are removable at the pleasure of the sovereign, or may be dismissed on their own petition. The court is attended by the following officers; namely, le procureur de roi, or attorney-general; le vicompte, or high sheriff; I'avocat du roi, or solicitor-general; le greffier, or clerk, who has the custody of the rolls and records; two dénonciateurs, or under-sheriffs, who publish the injunctions of the court; six avocats du bureau, or pleaders at the bar; and I'huissier, or usher, whose duty it is to preserve order. There is also a functionary called I'enregistreur, or keeper of the register for hereditary contracts, but he is not essentially a member of the court. The royal court takes cognizance of all pleas arising within the island, treason alone excepted: the courts of Westminster have no authority within the island. After the hearing of a cause before a full court, an appeal may be made to the queen in council, under certain regulations and by consent of the court; but in every case these appeals must be determined according to the laws and customs of the island. Should the court refuse to grant an appeal, a doléance, or complaint to the queen, may be preferred: in criminal cases there is no appeal, nor can the governor even suspend the execution of a sentence till the queen's pleasure be known.
The assembly of the states is composed of the bailiff, who is perpetual president; the twelve jurats, representing the inhabitants of the first class; and the clergy and the twelve constables, representing the several parishes. The procureur and avocat du Roi, and the vicompte, are also admitted, but have no vote; and the greffier of the royal court is, by virtue of his office, clerk of the assembly of the states. The assembly is convened by the bailiff, or his lieutenant, but the governor's assent is necessary to authorize the meeting; if, however, he postpones their assembling for more than fourteen days, he is bound to assign a reason. The principal business brought before the assembly is, the granting of supplies for the public service, and the naturalization of foreigners; the governor possesses a veto on all deliberations. The constables, who are the principal magistrates in every parish, are chosen in the same manner as the jurats: their appointment is triennial, but they may be re-elected, and their office is similar to that of mayors of corporate towns in England; besides being members of the assembly of the states, they preside at all parochial meetings on secular business. Under each of the constables are two centeniers, who preside over a hundred families, and in the absence of the constable, the senior centenier represents him in the assembly of the states. There are several vigntainiers, each of whom has the charge of one of the vigntaines, or double tythings, into which every parish is divided, except the parish of St. Ouen, the divisions of which are called cuillettes. There are also officiers du connétable, officers of the constable, whose duties are similar to those of constables in England; and two procureurs du bien publique, whose business it is to conduct parochial lawsuits.
The laws may be comprised under two general heads; first, the ancient customs of Normandy, together with municipal and local usages; secondly, ordinances made by different sovereigns, and acts passed by the state and confirmed by the sovereign, together with such orders as have been at various times transmitted from the council board. A code of laws was compiled by the states in 1771, and sanctioned by the king, which superseded the laws previously enacted; and though the assembly of the states, or legislative body, can still make provisional statutes, yet they do not remain in force longer than three years, unless sanctioned and rendered permanent by an order of council; nor can any alteration be made in laws previously established, unless under the sanction of the same authority. As there is but one tribunal, before which a great variety of causes requiring different kinds of process must be brought, the court necessarily assumes four distinct characters, and, according to the functions which it has to discharge, is termed La Cour d'Heritage, which takes cognizance only of hereditary causes, such as the partition of estates, differences concerning boundaries, trespasses, &c.: La Cour de Catel, of rents and decrees; La Cour du Billet, chiefly for arrears of rents and the recovery of small debts; and La Cour Extraordinaire or La Cour de Samedi, for determining all personal actions. The procureur du roi is the prosecutor in all criminal cases, and every accusation is first examined by a petty jury, composed of the parochial constable and twelve of his officers, of whom it is necessary that seven should concur in opinion to find a prisoner guilty: should the prisoner disapprove of the verdict, he may appeal to a grand jury, composed of twenty-four persons chosen from the three neighbouring parishes; five concurrent voices are sufficient to acquit the accused party. Legal processes are conducted, and all public acts recorded, in the French language, which is spoken by the upper classes; but the general language of the island is what is called the Jersey French, a kind of patois, which differs in every parish, and also from the patois used in Guernsey.
The military government is vested in the governor, who enjoys the whole of the revenue arising from the royal demesnes. The lieutenant-governor, who is always a military officer, discharges all the duties of the governor, has under his immediate command the garrison of regular troops stationed in the island, and grants commissions to the officers of the militia, which is under his superintendence and control. The militia is a very numerous and efficient force: each regiment is composed of a certain number of men, furnished, in proportion to its extent, by a district comprehending a certain number of parishes; and to each is attached a company of artillery. During war the duty is very severe; and in time of peace, discipline is by no means neglected. Exclusively of the regular force under the more immediate command of the lieutenant-governor, there are five regiments of militia, at all times ready to assemble for the defence of the island. Besides its natural barriers, Jersey is strongly defended by forts at all those points where it is most easy of access; of these, the principal are Fort Regent, the castles of Mount Orgueil and St. Aubin, and Elizabeth Castle. The public revenue is principally derived from a new impost on wine and spirits, and from the sums paid for licences by the keepers of taverns and public-houses. The harbours are kept in repair by anchorage dues, and by an impost on wine imported which has been levied for that purpose time immemorially. The great military roads are repaired by the several parishes, but when any important or extensive improvement is to be accomplished, a grant is generally made by the assembly of the states. The various parochial expenses are defrayed by a rate levied on the landholders, of which the proportion for each parish is previously fixed by an assembly, consisting of the principal proprietors of land in the island.
The ecclesiastical government is vested in a dean, appointed by the crown, who holds an ecclesiastical court, in which he is assisted by the rectors of the several parishes. An appeal from his judgment lies to the Bishop of Winchester, and, in the event of a vacancy in that see, to the Archbishop of Canterbury; in these appeals the parties must attend in person, and the decision is irreversible. The ecclesiastical laws, which are regulated by the canons of James I., authorise the dean to grant special licences for marriage; also the probate of wills, which must be registered in his office and approved by his seal; and letters of administration of the goods of persons dying intestate. The Normans, to expiate their former cruelty, erected, upon their conversion to Christianity, numerous religious edifices in the island, and endowed them with ample revenues; and after the alienation of these isles from the parent state, the inhabitants remained under the spiritual control of its bishop till the reign of Elizabeth, when the islands were annexed to the see of Winchester. Various important changes subsequently took place in the religious government of the island, arising from the ecclesiastical and political conflicts which prevailed in England, until the year 1661; the service of the reformed church was then finally restored, and has ever since remained without interruption. The revenue of the church is inconsiderable: the corn-tithes of the parish of St. Sauveur, which belonged to the crown, were annexed to the deanery by James I. The income of the rectors of the other parishes is derived from the small tithes, with the addition of that portion of the great tithes which, in some of the parishes, was granted by the Norman abbots to their subordinate ministers. The incumbents of some of the benefices receive also the tithe on waste lands recently brought into cultivation, which were formerly claimed by the clergy, under the designation of "Novals," or "Deserts;" a parsonage-house is attached to each living, and is kept in repair at the expense of the parishioners.
The island of Jersey comprises the parishes of St. Brelade, containing 2170 inhabitants; St. Clement, 1491; Grouville, 2372; St. Helier, or La Ville, 23,988; St. Jean, 1846; St. Laurent, 2170; St. Marie, 1041; St. Martin, 2698; St. Ouen, 1041; St. Pierre, 2280; St. Sauveur, 2731; and La Trinité, 2491. The parish livings are all rectories in the deanery of Jersey, and in the patronage of the Governor.
The principal or the Town parish is that of St. Helier, so called from the ancient abbey; it is situated on the south side of the island, at the eastern extremity of St. Aubin's bay, and comprises about 3500 acres. A considerable portion of ground is occupied by the town, which is pleasantly seated under an extensive range of hills affording shelter from the northern winds, and is rapidly increasing in extent; the streets are spacious and well paved. A public subscription library was erected in 1736, and furnished with a valuable collection of books by the Rev. Philip Falle, the historian of the island; it was considerably augmented by the late Rev. Dr. Dumaresq. There is also a circulating library, with a reading-room, in the Royal square. The theatre royal, built by subscription, in 1827, at an expense of £3000, is a handsome edifice, forming the central compartment of a spacious crescent; in the front is a noble portico of six Doric columns, supporting a pediment, the cornice of which is continued to the extremities of the range. Opposite the post-office, in Minden-place, are some public baths.
From the increase of commerce it became necessary, for the protection of vessels frequenting the port, to enlarge the pier, which was done at an expense of £61,000; it is entirely constructed of a fine kind of sienite, resembling granite in appearance and hardness, obtained from Mont Mado, in the parish of St. John, and faced with blocks weighing nearly two tons each. The town and harbour are defended by Fort Regeut and Elizabeth Castle, the former situated on the Mont de la Ville, a solid rock rising to the height of 150 feet above the level of the sea at high water, and commanding the bay of St. Aubin: this extensive and massive fortress was erected by the British government, at a cost exceeding one million sterling; £11,280 were paid for the site, and the interest of that sum is appropriated annually to the improvement of the town. Elizabeth Castle, comprising three wards defended by strong batteries of heavy ordnance, and containing barracks for a considerable number of troops, is situated threequarters of a mile from the town, on an eminence surrounded by the sea at high water, but at the reflux of the tide connected with the main land.
The making of ropes, for which there are walks here, is carried on to a moderate extent; and some quarries of stone are worked, for building, and for the roads. The market is on Saturday: the market-place occupies three sides of a spacious quadrangle, of which the internal fronts are ornamented with piazzas, and the central buildings comprise two double ranges of shops for butchers, who are not allowed to expose meat for sale in any other place. Adjoining is a smaller market for the sale of fish, the supply of which is not very plentiful; and a cattle-market has been formed on a similar plan. The court-house, a substantial and handsome building, erected in 1647, occupies one side of the Royal square, formerly the old market-place, a spacious area, in the centre of which is a statue of George II. in the Roman costume, elevated on a lofty stone pedestal. The prison, situated at the extremity of the town, is substantially built of sienite stone, and ornamented in front with an arcade, 120 feet in length, which supports the upper range of the building. The living has a net income of £343: the glebe comprises 3 acres. The church, supposed to have been built about the year 1341, is in the decorated English style; the roofs of the edifice are richly groined, but its original character has been almost effaced by alterations and repairs. It contains several monuments, among which is that of Major Pierson, who fell at the head of the troops, in the defence of the island against the French, in 1781. The rector presents to two chapels, dedicated respectively to All Saints and St. Mark. There are also two proprietary chapels, St. James' and St. Paul's; the former in the later English style, and the latter a handsome edifice in the Grecian style, with a portico of four Doric columns of Jersey granite: in both, divine service is performed in the English language. A church district named St. Luke's was formed in 1846, by the Ecclesiastical Commissioners, out of the parishes of St. Helier, St. Clement, and St. Sauveur: the living is a perpetual curacy, in the patronage of the Bishop and the Crown, alternately. A church, of which the estimated cost is three thousand pounds, is in course of erection for the district. There are places of worship for Baptists, Bryanites, Independents, and Wesleyans; and two Roman Catholic chapels, one in Hue-street for an English, and one in Castlestreet for a French, congregation. A neat and commodious hospital, founded by Mrs. Bartlett, was endowed with the sum of £40 per annum, for a chaplain, by C. Robin, Esq.
The parish of St. Brelade, which includes the town of St. Aubin, is in the south-west part of the island, 5½ miles (W.) from St. Helier's, and comprises about 3500 acres, of which 1500 are arable, and the remainder pasture, heath, and downs; the substratum abounds with stone, which is quarried for paving and for building. The town of St. Aubin, situated on the western shore of the bay of that name, opposite to the town of St. Helier, about a mile and a half from the parish church, contains nearly one-half of the population, and, though irregularly built, has many good houses. It was formerly inhabited by some of the most opulent merchants in the island, but on the completion of the more commodious harbour of St. Helier's, they removed to that town. The bay has a pier; and is defended by the tower of St. Aubin, a fortress surrounded by the sea at high water, with a battery of fourteen pieces of heavy ordnance, and garrisoned with a proportionate number of troops. The living is endowed with a sixth part of the great tithes; net income, £150, with a glebe of 4 acres. The church was consecrated in 1111; and in the churchyard are the remains of a chapel of still greater antiquity, on the walls of which are represented various subjects from sacred history, still discernible. There is a chapel in the town; and the Independents and Wesleyan Methodists have places of worship.
The parish of St. Clement, 2¼ miles (E. by S.) from St. Helier's, extends to the south-eastern extremity of the island, called St. Clement's Point, and comprises about 1075 acres, whereof 435 are pasture and orchard land, and the remainder arable. The soil is fertile, producing corn and potatoes, and the lands are inclosed with hedges, and with banks planted with timber, which is chiefly oak and elm. The manor-house, called "La Seigneurie de Saumarez," is the property of the Hammond family. There are several clusters of houses on the coast; and near the church is Pontac, a place of public amusement, where balls and concerts are given, and parties of pleasure are entertained. The living has a net income of £120, with a glebe of 6 acres. The church is an ancient structure, in good repair. There are places of worship for Independents and Wesleyans.
Grouville is situated at the extremity of the island, 2½ miles (E. by N.) from St. Helier's, and is bounded on the east by the bay to which it gives name: the substratum contains stone, which is quarried for building, and for repairing the roads. The living has a net income of £180, with a glebe of 3 acres. The church is an ancient structure, in the decorated English style. There are three places of worship for Wesleyans.
The parish of St. Jean is on the north side of the island, 5¾ miles (N. W.) from St. Helier's. Its surface is undulated, and the scenery enriched with wood, of which the prevailing kinds are oak and elm: the soil is generally fertile, producing crops of corn and potatoes in abundance; the substratum abounds with stone of good quality for building, and several quarries are in operation. The manor of La Hogue Boete, which confers on its proprietor the title of Monsieur de St. Jean, is within the parish. There are a windmill and watermill, both employed in grinding corn. The living has a net income of £120, with a glebe of 2½ acres. The church is in the early English style. There are places of worship for Independents and Wesleyans. Some trifling remains exist of an ancient chapel, the site of which is now occupied by a dwelling-house.
The parish of St. Laurent is nearly in the centre of the island, 3 miles (N. W.) from St. Helier's; the surface is varied, and the lower grounds are watered by a stream which flows into the bay of St. Aubin. The living has a net income of £100, with a glebe. The church is ancient. A church has been erected by subscription, to which a district has been assigned, including also portions of the parishes of St. Helier and St. Pierre; the church is dedicated to St. Matthew, and the living is a perpetual curacy, in the gift of the three Rectors.
The parish of St. Marie is in the north-western portion of the island, 6 miles (N. W.) from St. Helier's. The surface is finely varied; the scenery is in some parts of picturesque character, and the valley leading to the Greve de Lecq, one of the finest bays on the coast, abounds with interesting features. The manufacture of paper is carried on to a small extent; and there are two watermills and a windmill, for grinding corn. The living has a net income of £120, with a glebe of 5¼ acres. The church is a neat structure in the early English style, and contains 370 sittings. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans.
The parish of St. Martin is situated in the northeastern part of the island, 4 miles (N. E.) from St. Helier's; and comprises 350 acres, of which 116 are arable, 116 pasture, and the remainder woodland and orchards. Its soil is fertile, and the chief produce, corn, potatoes, and apples; the surface is varied, and the scenery enriched with wood, principally oak. There are a wind and a water mill for grinding corn. The living has a net income of £171, with a glebe of 12 acres. The church was built in 1116, and contains 700 sittings. A chapel was erected in 1833, by subscription; the living is a perpetual curacy, in the gift of the Rector. The Wesleyans have a place of worship.
The parish of St. Ouen, at the north-west extremity of the island, 6 miles (N. W.) from St. Helier's, is bounded on the west by St. Ouen's bay, and comprises about 4000 acres; the substratum contains stone of inferior quality, which is quarried for the roads, and also used for building. The surface is varied, and the scenery combines some interesting features. On the heights at the north-western extremity of the parish, are the remains of Grosnez Castle, commanding a fine sea-view, and consisting chiefly of the entrance gateway; the arch is tolerably entire, but the other parts are a heap of ruins. The ancient manor-house was for many generations the residence of the de Carteret family, which became extinct in 1716 by the death of Sir Charles de Carteret, to whom a monument was erected in Westminster Abbey. The living has a net income of £150, and a glebe of three acres. The church is in the Norman style. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans.
The parish of St. Pierre, situated on the southwestern part of the island, 5 miles (N. W.) from St. Helier's, is bounded on the west by the bay of St. Ouen, and comprises a fertile tract of land, of which by far the greater portion is arable, and, with the exception of about 100 acres of wood, the remainder laid out in pasture and orchards. Its surface, though generally level, is intersected with some valleys of great natural beauty, whose sides are planted with oak and elm; and in the northern part of the parish is a lake, about a quarter of a mile in length, to which is a small inlet from the bay. The soil in some parts is light and sandy, but in others a black mould of great fertility; the chief produce is corn and potatoes, and apples, of which a considerable quantity of cider is made. The substratum abounds with stone, which is quarried for the roads. The small village of Beaumont is pleasantly situated about a mile and a half from the church, near the sea-shore. There are four watermills, two of which are also propelled by steam, and one windmill, for grinding corn. The living has a net income of £154, with a glebe of 5 acres. The church is an ancient structure, partly Norman, and partly in the early English style, with a lofty tower, and contains 1000 sittings. Here are places of worship for Independents and Wesleyans. The free grammar school of St. Anastase was founded under charter of Henry VII., by the Rev. John Neel, Dean of St. Arthur's chapel, and Vincent Tehy, a merchant at Southampton, both natives of the island, and endowed by them with a house and land, and 25 quarters of wheat, producing together £50 per annum. The scholars are eligible to three scholarships in Pembroke College, Oxford, founded by Dr. Morley, Bishop of Winchester, for natives of the island; and also to three fellowships in Jesus, Exeter, and Pembroke Colleges, founded by Charles I. for natives of Jersey and Guernsey. At the upper end of St. Peter's valley is a mineral spring, not much used at present. Sir John Dumaresq, Knt., for many years chief magistrate of the island, was born in the parish, where he resided till his death.
The parish of St. Sauveur lies in the south-eastern part of the island, 1 mile (N. E. by N.) from St. Helier's, and comprises about 4000 acres of fertile land. Its higher grounds command fine views of the sea, and of the spacious harbour of St. Helier's; the substratum contains stone, which is quarried for building and for the roads. The living has a net income of £150, with a glebe of 10 acres. The church is a spacious and handsome cruciform structure, in the early English style, with a lofty tower rising from the centre. There are places of worship for Independents and Wesleyans. The free grammar school of St. Maulier's was founded under charter of Henry VII., by Dean Neel and Vincent Tehy, who endowed it with a house and land, and with 30 quarters of wheat, producing together £100 per annum, for boys of the island. It has, in common with the school of St. Anastase, in the parish of St. Pierre, the right of sending candidates for three scholarships in Pembroke College, Oxford, and three fellowships in the Colleges of Jesus, Exeter, and Pembroke. The Rev. Philip Falle, the historian of the island, and rector of the parish, was a native of St. Sauveur.
The parish of La Trinité is situated on the northwest of the island, 4 miles (N.) from St. Helier's. The surface rises gradually from south to north, and towards the coast is very elevated and bleak, commanding extensive views of the coast of France: the scenery in other parts is of pleasing character, and enriched with wood; the prevailing timber is oak and elm. There are some quarries of stone, which is raised for building. The living has a net income of £150, with a glebe of 8 acres. The church is partly in the early English style, and contains 600 sittings. There are places of worship for Wesleyans. Some remains exist of a camp, which is attributed to the Romans, and designated Cæsar's. Admiral Carteret, the celebrated circumnavigator, and his son Sir Philip Carteret Sylvester, Bart., were both natives of the parish.
The abbey of St. Helier was founded in the early part of the 10th century, for Canons regular of the order of St. Augustine, and endowed with an ample revenue, a great part of which having been alienated in the reign of Stephen, it subsequently dwindled into a priory, and continued in an impoverished state till its suppression in the reign of Henry V. Among other religious establishments, were the priories of Noirmont, St. Clement, Bonne Nuit, and De Lecq; and several chapels, of a date much earlier than any of the churches; but the only remains of the latter are those of La Chapelle des Pêcheur's at St. Brelade's, and the chapels of St. Margueritte at Grouville, Notre Dame des Pas at Havre des Pas, and La Hogue Bie, a mile to the west of Mont Orgueil. There are remains of Druidical temples at Le Couperon and Anne Ville, in the parish of St. Martin, the former of which are very extensive and remarkable; and upon Mont de la Ville, where Fort Regent now stands, a temple in great perfection was discovered in 1785, on the removal of an artificial mound of earth, by which it was concealed: it was presented by the assembly of the states to Marshal Conway, then governor, who removed it to his seat in Berkshire, where it was re-constructed, with a due regard to its original form and arrangement. The mineral springs are principally in the parishes of St. Marie and St. Sauveur, and are of considerable medicinal efficacy.
Jersey is the birthplace of many eminent literary characters, among whom may be noticed, Durel, Dean of Windsor; Brevint, Dean of Lincoln; D'Auvergne, ancestor of the late Prince de Bouillon, and author of the Campaign of William III.; Morant, the celebrated antiquary; Dr. Durel, Principal of Hertford College, Oxford; Dr. Bulkeley Bandinel, Bodleian librarian in that University; Dr. Dumaresq, the munificent contributor to the public library founded by the Rev. Philip Falle; the Rev. Mr. Le Couteur; Dr. Valpy, author of several useful classical works, and of a revised edition of the classics; the Rev. Dr. Lempriere, compiler of the Classical Dictionary; and Phillpot Payn, Seigneur de Saumarez, from whose manuscript chronicles the history of the island was principally compiled. Among the eminent natives distinguished in its naval and military annals may be mentioned, Philip de Carteret, Seigneur de St. Ouen, who flourished in the reigns of Henry VI. and Edward IV.; Sir George de Carteret, governor of the island, who, during the parliamentary war, signalised himself by resolute attachment and loyalty to his sovereign, and whose grandson was raised to the English peerage in 1681; and in modern times, Admirals Hardy, Durel, and Kempenfeldt. Jersey gives the title of Earl to the family of Villiers.
JESMOND, a township, in the parish of St. Andrew, union of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, E. division of Castle ward, S. division of Northumberland, 2 miles (N. N. E.) from Newcastle; containing 1725 inhabitants. This place, the name of which signifies the "Mount of Jesus," had a chapel and hospital dedicated to the Virgin Mary, which, in the reign of Edward VI., were granted to the corporation of Newcastle; it was the resort of pilgrims from all parts of the kingdom, who came to visit the shrine and the holy well of St. Mary. The township is included within the municipal boundaries of the borough of Newcastle, and comprises 704 acres; the soil is a strong clayey loam, producing good crops of wheat and abundance of fruit. The surrounding scenery is diversified, in many parts beautifully picturesque; and, from the handsome seats and villas in the neighbourhood, the place is a favourite resort. The village is on the high road leading to Blyth, and consists of ranges of well-built houses, among which are Jesmond Terrace and Warwick Place. The township contains some large flour-mills, and a factory for spinning shoemakers' and tailors' thread. The tithes have been commuted for £46 payable to the Bishop, a similar amount to the Dean and Chapter, of Carlisle, and £92 to the vicar of Newcastle. The remains of the chapel of St. Mary, after having been for a long time appropriated as a barn, were cleared out by the late James Losh, Esq., and are now carefully preserved; the hospital has been converted into a dwelling-house. At Villa Keal, a stone coffin, formed of six slabs, and containing a skeleton and an urn, was found in 1828.
Jethou, Isle of
JETHOU, ISLE OF, one of the Norman Isles, separated from that of Herm by a narrow strait, and, like Herm, composed of a mass of granite, with little or no appearance of cultivation. It is about one mile in circumference, and contains only six inhabitants.
Jevington (St. Andrew)
JEVINGTON (St. Andrew), a parish, in the union of Eastbourne, hundred of Willingdon, rape of Pevensey, E. division of Sussex, 3 miles (N. W.) from Eastbourne; containing 329 inhabitants. This parish is situated on and near the Downs, and comprises 1958 acres, of which 962 are common or waste: the surface is gently undulated, and the lower lands are watered by a copious stream; the scenery is enriched with more wood than is usually found in these districts. At the northern extremity of the parish is a chalk-pit, near which is a kiln for making lime. The village is pleasingly seated in a small valley. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £20, and in the gift of the Earl of Burlington: the tithes have been commuted for £460, and the glebe comprises 17 acres, with a house. The church is a very ancient structure in the Norman style, with later insertions, and a square massive tower.
JOHN, ST., a parish, in the union of St. Germans, S. division of the hundred of East, E. division of Cornwall, 6 miles (S. E. by E.) from St. Germans; containing 149 inhabitants. The parish extends southward to the English Channel, and comprises 700 acres, of which 140 are common or waste. The village is at the head of the estuary called St. John's lake, opposite to Devonport. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £12. 12. 6., and in the gift of the family of Carew: the tithes have been commuted for £116. Almshouses for six persons were founded in 1680, by Alice Brooking.
John, St., Hampshire.—See Winchester.
JOHN'S, ST., a chapelry, and, with Castlerigg and Wythburn, a township, in the parish of Crosthwaite, union of Cockermouth, Allerdale ward below Derwent, W. division of Cumberland; containing 499 inhabitants. The beautiful valley of St. John's is the scene of the poem of The Bridal of Triermain by Scott; it is narrow, and hemmed in by high mountains. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £63; patrons, alternately, the Earl of Lonsdale, and the Landowners. The whole of Castlerigg and a small portion of St. John's are now comprised in the district belonging to the new church of St. John, Keswick.
John's, St., Chapel.—See Weardale.
JULIOT, ST., a parish, in the union of Camelford, hundred of Lesnewth, E. division of Cornwall, 6 miles (N. by E.) from Camelford; containing 267 inhabitants. It comprises 2614 acres, of which 979 are common or waste. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £60; patrons and impropriators, Sir W. Molesworth, Bart., and W. Rawle, Esq. There is a place of worship for Bryanites. Here was a small cell of Benedictine or Cluniac monks from the time of Richard I., subordinate to the priory of Montacute.
JUST, ST., a parish, in the union of Penzance, W. division of the hundred of Penwith and of the county of Cornwall, 7 miles (W. by N.) from Penzance; containing 7047 inhabitants. This parish, of which the southern portion is about two miles distant from the Land's End, is bounded on the west and north by the Bristol Channel, and comprises 6500 acres, whereof 3750 are waste or common. It possesses a high degree of interest from the richness of its mineral productions, the number and variety of its geological features, and the curious antiquities with which it abounds. From numerous vestiges of the ancient process of mining, it seems evident that tin-mines were worked here at a very remote period; and it has not unreasonably been inferred that this district formed a part of what was termed the district of the Cassiterides, from which the Phœnicians obtained at least part of their supplies of tin. There are not less than ten mines which are or have been worked under the bed of the sea; in two of these, Botallack and Huel Cock, the noise of the waves striking against the rocks in stormy weather is sometimes so terrific as to induce the miners to rush from their stations, under an apprehension that the sea is actually breaking into the mines. The parish comprises several villages, the principal of which, called Churchtown, is of considerable extent, and has a good market on Saturday for the convenience of the neighbourhood. A handsome building was formally opened in the autumn of 1847, for a literary and scientific institution. The living is a vicarage, valued in the king's books at £11. 11. 0½., and in the patronage of the Crown; impropriator, S. Borlase, Esq.: the great tithes have been commuted for £363, and the vicarial for £484; the glebe consists of 12 acres. A church district named Pendeen was endowed in 1846 by the Ecclesiastical Commission. There are places of worship for Baptists and Wesleyan Methodists, and a cemetery for the Society of Friends.
At Botallack and Tregascal are some circles of stone, called the Rock Circles, supposed to be of Druidical origin; those at the former place consist of small, and at the latter of large, upright stones. Adjoining Churchtown is an amphitheatre 126 feet in diameter, said to have been erected for the celebration of the games of the ancient Britons; in the time of Dr. Borlase it had six tiers of stone benches, but they are now scarcely visible. On the line which separates the parish from Morva is a cromlech styled Chun, consisting of a table-stone supported on upright stones, perhaps the tomb of some chieftain. In several parts of the parish are rock basins, the largest of which, named the Giant's Chair, is at Busworlas. There are ruins of ancient chapels at Park-an-Chapel (near Cape Cornwall) and on the summit of Carn-Brea Hill.
JUST, ST., in Roseland, a parish, in the union of Truro, W. division of the hundred of Powder and of the county of Cornwall; comprising the town of St. Mawes, and containing 1488 inhabitants. This parish, which is bounded on the west by Falmouth harbour, and on the south-east by an estuary called St. Mawes creek, comprises by measurement 2340 acres, of which 400 are common or waste. It has constant communication with Falmouth across the harbour. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £37, and in the gift of John Hawkins, Esq.: the tithes have been commuted for £520, and the glebe comprises about 8 acres. The church occupies a romantic situation on a shelf of ground rising above the water, and backed by a mass of dark rock, mantled with ivy and shaded with foliage. Divine service is performed every Sunday afternoon by the rector, in the chapel of St. Mawes. There are places of worship for Calvinistic and Wesleyan Methodists, and for Bryanites. A school is partly supported by endowment. Here are the remains of an amphitheatre for the ancient Cornish interludes, 126 feet in diameter, with stone benches; and on the summit of Bartini Hill are the remains of a circular fortification. Some vestiges of a chapel exist at Rosecassa; in the gardens there, was an old font, which has been removed.