A Topographical Dictionary of England. Originally published by S Lewis, London, 1848.
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Clinch, with Fawdon.—See Fawdon.
CLINT, a township, in the parish of Ripley, Lower division of the wapentake of Claro, W. riding of York, 1¼ mile (W. by S.) from Ripley; containing 393 inhabitants. The township includes the hamlet of BurntYates, and comprises 1835a. 1r. 25p.: the village is a short distance from the river Nidd, which passes on the south. Here are the remains of an ancient mansion, called Clint Hall. The Roman road from Ilkley, through the forest of Knaresborough, branched in two directions at this place, one leading to Catterick, the other to Aldborough. A free school was founded by Rear-Admiral Robert Long in 1760, which received at the same time, and subsequently, several endowments, the total now producing upwards of £200 a year.
Clippesby (St. Peter)
CLIPPESBY (St. Peter), a parish, in the East and West Flegg incorporation, hundred of West Flegg, E. division of Norfolk, 3 miles (N. E.) from Acle; containing 123 inhabitants. The parish comprises 861a. 1r. 24p., of which about 447 acres are arable, and 372 marsh and pasture; the old road from Norwich to Yarmouth runs through it. The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at £6. 13. 4., and in the patronage of H. Muskett, Esq.: the tithes have been commuted for £245, and the glebe contains 3¼ acres. The church is partly in the early and partly in the later style, and the chancel contains an altar-tomb to the memory of John Clippesby and his lady, whose effigies are inlaid in brass. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans. The old Hall, an ancient relic, is still standing, with some slight remains of the moat.
Clipsham (St. Mary)
CLIPSHAM (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Stamford, soke of Oakham, locally in the hundred of Alstoe, county of Rutland, 9¾ miles (N. E. by E.) from Oakham; containing 206 inhabitants. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £10. 0. 5., and in the patronage of the coheiresses of Mrs. Snow: the tithes have been commuted for £250, and the glebe comprises 51 acres, with a glebe-house.
Clipston (All Saints)
CLIPSTON (All Saints), a parish, in the union of Market-Harborough, hundred of Rothwell, N. division of the county of Northampton, 4 miles (S. S. W.) from Market-Harborough; containing 859 inhabitants. This parish comprises 2900 acres, whereof two-thirds are in pasture or meadow, the remainder being arable land. The country is hilly and undulated; the scenery is that of a rich agricultural district, and is greatly improved by the woodlands of the adjoining parishes of Kelmarsh and Haselbeech. The sub-soil of the hills is formed on the escarpment of the inferior oolite, and the surface soil is soft, sandy, ferruginous, of a brown colour, and good fertile quality, and easily worked. The valleys repose upon the lias formation, intersected with deep ravines of diluvial gravel, from which specimens of almost every rock in England may be collected; their surface soil is a tenacious, sandy, calcareous clay, expensive to work, and generally in old pasture. Grazing occupies the chief attention of the farmer, and tillage is here far behind the general state of that description of culture elsewhere. No good stone has yet been discovered in the parish; the roads are repaired with gravel of an inferior kind, and the expense of digging and carriage for a large extent of road becomes a serious burthen to the inhabitants.
The living is a rectory in three portions, two of which are valued in the king's books at £11. 12. 8½., and the third at £6; present net income, £600; patrons, the Master and Fellows of Christ's College, Cambridge. In 1776 an act was obtained for inclosing the parish, till then open field; by which, land exceeding 500 acres was awarded in lieu of tithes, which had been paid in kind. An excellent rectory-house was built in 1841, with funds borrowed from the governors of Queen Anne's Bounty. The Anabaptists have a place of worship. In 1647 Sir George Buswell, Knt., founded a school and hospital, which he endowed with 186 acres of land, producing £260 per annum, to which an annual dividend of £20 on £688 three per cent. consolidated annuities has been added by other benefactors. In the school, from 20 to 40 boys are instructed; and in the hospital are maintained twelve aged single men or women, who receive from 4s. to 5s. per week, and per year a suit of clothes and an allowance of coal. The head master must be a clergyman of the Church of England, and a graduate of one of the two universities: his salary is £100, with a garden, and apartments in the centre of the building, in the wings of which the almspeople reside; he may take a curacy in the neighbourhood, and is allowed an usher, whose salary is £50. The institution is open to the inhabitants of Clipston, Marston-Trussel, East Farndon, Oxendon, Kelmarsh, and Haselbeech; but the almspeople are usually chosen from this parish, and pupils from the other places seldom attend the school. The confirmation of the appointments to both school and hospital is vested in Lady W. Horton, of Rosliston, in the county of Derby, a descendant of the founder. Adjoining the parish, on the west, is an inship of several houses, called Newbold or Nobald, ecclesiastically united to the parish, but in other respects extra-parochial.
CLIPSTON, a township, in the parish of Plumtree, union, and S. division of the wapentake, of Bingham, S. division of the county of Nottingham, 6¾ miles (S. E.) from Nottingham; containing 86 inhabitants. Richard I., after returning from the captivity brought on by his crusade to the Holy Land, had an interview with the King of Scotland, in 1194, at this place, where they spent several days.
CLIPSTONE, a township, in the parish of Edwinstow, union of Southwell, Hatfield division of the wapentake of Bassetlaw, N. division of the county of Nottingham, 3¾ miles (W. S. W.) from Ollerton; containing 286 inhabitants, and comprising 1648 acres. On an eminence above the village are some remains of a palace that belonged to the Anglo-Saxon kings, and which is said to have been erected by one of the kings of Northumbria. It was frequently the residence of King John, both before and after his accession to the throne; and to it, also, all the sovereigns of England down to Henry V. appear to have repaired for the diversion of hunting in the royal forest of Sherwood. A parliament was held here by Edward I. in 1290, and an old oak at the edge of the park is still called the Parliament Oak.
Clist (St. George)
CLIST (St. George), a parish, in the union of St. Thomas, hundred of East Budleigh, Woodbury and S. divisions of Devon, 1½ mile (N. E. by E.) from Topsham; containing 370 inhabitants. This parish, formerly called Clistwick, from its situation on the river Clist, comprises by computation 1000 acres: the surface is undulated, except near the banks of the river; the soil is in some parts a rich loam, in others clayey, and in some light and sandy, the whole being in a state of good cultivation. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £17. 16. 8.; net income, £348; patron and incumbent, the Rev. W. R. Ellicombe. In the windows of the church are some remains of stained glass. A school was founded in 1703, by Sir Edward and Dame Seward, and has an exhibition of £4 per annum at either of the universities.
Clist (St. Lawrence)
CLIST (St. Lawrence), a parish, in the union of St. Thomas, hundred of Cliston, Woodbury and S. divisions of Devon, 5½ miles (S. by E.) from Cullompton; containing 168 inhabitants. This parish, which is situated on the river Clist, and in the fertile vale of that name, comprises 968 acres, of which 65 are common or waste; the soil is luxuriantly rich, consisting chiefly of a strong deep loam, producing the heaviest crops of corn and the finest cider in this portion of the county. Veins of iron-ore are discernible in some parts. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £9. 4. 4½.; net income, £244; patrons, the Trustees of St. John's Hospital, Exeter. The glebe comprises about 46 acres; the glebe-house, originally a portion of some religious establishment, has been partly rebuilt. The church is a handsome structure in the later English style, with a lofty embattled tower, and contains a richly-carved oak screen; in a niche in the north-east wall is a Madonna, and in the churchyard are the remains of a fine cross. The tower was struck by lightning in three places, in March, 1846. The whole of the manorial rights and the lands were bequeathed by Eliza Hele, lady of the manor, for charitable purposes. There is a strong mineral spring at the base of a hill in the western part of the parish, said to be efficacious in diseases of the eye.
Clist (St. Mary)
CLIST (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of St. Thomas, hundred of East Budleigh, Woodbury and S. divisions of Devon, 2¼ miles (N. E. by N.) from Topsham; containing 197 inhabitants. It is memorable as the scene of one of the principal contests between the adherents of the old religion and the reformers during the rebellion, in 1549. The inhabitants took part against the king's forces, and defended the long bridge here against them with great bravery for some time; but were at length defeated, and pursued, with great slaughter, through the village to the adjoining heath. The parish is intersected by the river Clist, and comprises 534 acres by admeasurement. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £5. 1. 3., and in the gift of the family of Strong: the tithes produce £150, and the glebe comprises 26 acres.
Clist, Broad (St. John the Baptist)
CLIST, BROAD (St. John the Baptist), a parish, in the union of St. Thomas, hundred of Cliston, Wonford and S. divisions of Devon, 5 miles (N. E.) from Exeter; containing 2407 inhabitants. This place was burnt down by the Danes in 1001. The old mansion of Columbjohn, in the parish, was garrisoned for Charles I. by his loyal adherent, Sir John Acland. The number of acres is about 9000; the surface is undulated, and the soil partly a strong clay, and partly a deep light sandy earth. The river Clist runs through the parish; the Culme flows on the north-west, and turns a papermill. Good cider is made. The living is a vicarage, endowed with part of the rectorial tithes, and valued in the king's books at £26; net income, £407; patron, Sir T. D. Acland; impropriator of the remainder of the rectorial tithes, the Rev. Dr. Troyte. The church is a handsome edifice in the later English style, containing three stone stalls having rich canopies, with an effigy in plate armour. Sir T. D. Acland has built a chapel in the Norman style, on his estate at Killerton, at a cost of about £3000; it was consecrated in September, 1841. On the manor of Clist-Gerald is a barn, once the chapel of St. Leonard; and there were also chapels in the parish dedicated to St. David and St. Catherine. A school, founded in 1691, is supported partly by an endowment of about £15 per annum. An almshouse for twelve persons was built by Mr. Burrough, who endowed it, in 1605, with £23. 11. per annum. John, Duke of Marlborough, is said to have been born at Churchill, in the parish.
CLIST-HONITON, a parish, in the union of St. Thomas, hundred of East Budleigh, Woodbury and S. divisions of Devon, 4½ miles (E. by N.) from Exeter; containing 467 inhabitants. The parish is situated on the river Clist, a small, but rapid stream that has given its name to almost every place through which it flows. It comprises 1721 acres, whereof 85 are common or waste; the soil is chiefly sandy, with some portions of rich vegetable mould on a stratum of pebbles. The village, which is on the bank of the river, suffered greatly from an accidental fire in 1825, that destroyed the greater part of it. The living is a perpetual curacy, in the patronage of the Dean and Chapter of Exeter, the appropriators; the tithes attached to the living have been commuted for £165, and the great tithes for £265. The church, erected since the Reformation, contains what is supposed by antiquaries to be the original Saxon font.
Clist-Hydon (St. Andrew)
CLIST-HYDON (St. Andrew), a parish, in the union of St. Thomas, hundred of Cliston, Woodbury and S. divisions of Devon, 4 miles (S. S. E.) from Cullompton; containing 325 inhabitants. It comprises by measurement 1726 acres, of which 950 are arable, 627 pasture, and 30 woodland. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £20. 0. 7½., and in the patronage of Mrs. Huyshe: the tithes have been commuted for £350, and the glebe contains 86 acres. A school is endowed with about £20 per annum, principally from a bequest by Robert Hall, D.D., in 1667.
Clist-Sackville (St. Gabriel)
CLIST-SACKVILLE (St. Gabriel), an ancient chapelry, in the parishes of Farringdon and Sowton, union of St. Thomas, hundred of East Budleigh, Woodbury and S. divisions of Devon, 2¼ miles (N. by E.) from Topsham; containing 286 inhabitants. This place was mortgaged by Sir Ralph Sackville to Walter Brownscomb, Bishop of Exeter, to enable him to proceed with Edward I. on a crusade to the Holy Land, promising to refund the money at a fixed period, and to defray all charges on the estate during his absence. The bishop erected a palace, still standing, and fenced the ground at great charge, so that the expense exceeded the value of the land, in consequence of which it remained with him and his successors, until Bishop Vesey alienated it to the Earl of Bedford. The chapel has been demolished; it had two chaplains endowed by Bishop Brownscomb, and Bishop Stapeldon annexed to it an hospital for twelve superannuated clergymen. Clist-Sackville, then called Bedford House, was made one of the garrisons for the blockade of Exeter, in 1645: Sir Thomas Fairfax sent an engineer to draw a line of fortifications round it.
Clitheroe (St. Michael)
CLITHEROE (St. Michael), an unincorporated borough, market-town, and parochial chapelry, and the head of a union, in the parish of Whalley, Higher division of the hundred of Blackburn, N. division of the county of Lancaster, on the eastern bank of the Ribble, 30 miles (N.) from Manchester, 49 (N. E.) from Liverpool, 26 (S. E.) from Lancaster, and 216 (N. N. W.) from London; the township containing 6765 inhabitants. The ancient name of this town, Cliderhow, is of a mixed derivation from the British Cled-dwr, which signifies the hill or rock by the waters, and the final syllable how, a Saxon word for hill; being descriptive of its situation on an isolated eminence, terminating in one direction in a lofty rock of limestone whereon stands the keep of a castle, the original erection of which is involved in considerable obscurity. The place was the scene of an engagement, in 1138, between a small party of the English army and the Scots, in which the former was totally defeated by superior numbers; and traces of this sanguinary conflict have been discovered near Edisforth Bridge, and along the banks of the Ribble.
Some ascribe the foundation of the Castle to Robert de Lacy the first; but, on the authority of a manuscript in the Bodleian Library, it is assigned to Robert de Lacy the second, in 1179, which account is confirmed by Dugdale, who states that the castle and the chapel of St. Michael annexed thereto, were built by the latter. Dr. Whitaker, however, in his History of Whalley, considers it to be of earlier date. The castle originally consisted of a keep, with a tower, and arched gateway, and was surrounded by a strong lofty wall, built on the margin of the rock; it was used as a species of fortress for dispensing justice and receiving tribute by the Lacys, who were lords paramount of the honour. This honour, which extends over the parishes of Whalley, Blackburn, Chipping, and Ribchester, the forest of Bowland, and the manors of Tottington and Rochdale, and includes 28 manors, formed part of the possessions of the house of Lancaster, from the time of the marriage of Thomas Plantagenet, Earl of Lancaster, with Alice, sister and heiress of Henry de Lacy, until the Restoration, when Charles II. bestowed it upon General Monk, Duke of Albemarle, for his services: it has a court for the recovery of small debts, extending over the hundred of Blackburn; and a similar court is held for the wapentake of Bowland. During the wars of the Roses, Henry VI., on his deposition, sought a temporary refuge here among the hereditary dependents of the house of Lancaster, but was betrayed to his rival by the Talbots of Bashall and Colebry, and sent bound to London. In the civil war the fortress was among the last surrendered to the parliament, by whose directions, in 1649, it was dismantled; the keep, a square tower, being all that remains. The site, and a certain portion of ground occupied by the demesne and forests of the baronial edifice, are extra-parochial, and commonly designated the Castle parish. A modern castellated edifice has been erected within the precincts of the castle. An hospital for lepers, called the Hospital of Edisforth, founded here by some of the earliest burgesses, and dedicated to St. Nicholas, shared the fate of the smaller monasteries at the Dissolution.
The town, from its elevated position, is clean and pleasantly situated: the houses, consisting principally of shops, are neatly built; the streets are macadamized, and lighted with gas, and the inhabitants are amply supplied with water from several springs. The neighbourhood abounds with an almost inexhaustible bed of limestone; at Pimlico, a short distance northward from the town, ten kilns are kept burning forty weeks in the year, and produce in the aggregate 4000 windles, or 28,000 strikes, weekly. In Hardhill Park is a racecourse; and immediately outside the town is a spa, with hot and cold baths, extremely efficacious in scorbutic affections. There are extensive cotton-manufactories and print-works, which are yearly increasing, in the town and its vicinity. The market is on Tuesday: fairs are held on the 24th and 25th of March, 1st and 2nd of Aug., the fourth Friday and Saturday after the 29th of Sept., and on the 6th and 7th of December; there is also a fair for cattle and sheep every alternate Tuesday. The first sod of the Blackburn, Clitheroe, and North-Western Junction railway, was cut, at Clitheroe, on December 30th, 1846; and an act of parliament was passed in 1846 for a railway from Clitheroe to the town of Preston.
Clitheroe is a borough by prescription: its first charter, dated in the time of Henry de Lacy, who died in 1147, was confirmed by Edward I., who granted the burgesses the same privileges as those enjoyed by the citizens of Chester, and subsequently by Edward III., Henry VIII., and James I. By the act of the 5th and 6th of William IV., cap. 76, the corporation now consists of 4 aldermen and 12 councillors, and the mayor is elected annually out of that body; the municipal boundaries are co-extensive with those of the township of Clitheroe, comprising 2283 acres. The Moot-hall is a neat modern edifice, ornamented in front with the borough arms cut in stone, and surmounted by a spire 62 feet high. There is a court of pleas, having jurisdiction to an unlimited amount, in actions of debt arising within the borough; it is holden every three weeks before the recorder and mayor, and has existed from time immemorial. The powers of the county debt-court of Clitheroe, established in 1847, extend over the registration-district of Clitheroe. The mayor and late mayor are justices of the peace; and a police has been established under the corporation, consisting of a chief constable and assistants. The borough did not return members to parliament until the first year of the reign of Elizabeth, from which period it regularly sent two, till it was deprived of one by the act of the 2nd of William IV., cap. 45. The privilege of voting is exercised by the £10 householders, of whom there are about 400; the limits of the electoral borough embrace 13,788 acres, and the mayor is returning officer.
The chapelry consists of the townships of Chatburn, Clitheroe, Heyhouses, Mearley, and Worston. The living is a perpetual curacy, in the patronage of the Rev. J. H. Anderton; net income, £127, with a glebehouse. The church has been rebuilt, with the exception of the tower and the east window, which form a good specimen of the later English style: the Incorporated Society granted £1500 towards defraying the expense. The former edifice was of great antiquity, being designated, in a deed of the 13th of Edward IV., the church of St. Mary Magdalene; against the south wall of the nave was a brass plate, bearing a curious enigmatical diagram, and an inscription in Latin to the memory of Dr. John Webster, the celebrated judicial astrologer, and curate of Clitheroe, who was interred here, June 21st, 1682. In 1838, an additional church, dedicated to St. James, was erected by subscription, aided by James Thomson, Esq., of Primrose, who, and his family, were the principal contributors: the living is in the gift of Five Trustees. At Chatburn and Heyhouses are other churches. There are places of worship for Independents, Methodists, and Roman Catholics. The free grammar school was founded in 1554, by Philip and Mary, and endowed with the rectorial tithes of the parish of Almondbury, and with certain lands in the district of Craven, in Yorkshire; the head master receives a salary of £200, and has a handsome residence, and the second master is allowed £100. The poor law union of Clitheroe comprises 33 parishes or places, of which 19 are in the West riding of York, and 14 in the county of Lancaster; and contains a population of 23,018. Heyhouses is in Burnley union. The Rev. James King, chaplain to the house of commons, and father of Captain James King, who accompanied Captain Cook in his voyage of discovery round the globe, and of Walker King, Bishop of Rochester, was, during the early part of his ministry, incumbent of Clitheroe.
CLIVE, a township, in the parish of Middlewich, union and hundred of Northwich, S. division of the county of Chester, 2 miles (W. by S.) from Middlewich; containing 117 inhabitants. The manor was the ancient inheritance and seat of the family of Clive, or Cliffe, from whom it passed, or a part of it, by marriage, to the Wilbrahams. The Congletons, Weevers, Stanleys, and Hulses, were also connected with the place. The township comprises 462 acres, of a chiefly clayey soil: the Liverpool and Birmingham railway passes through. The impropriate tithes have been commuted for £45. 14. An old house here, standing near Winsford bridge, and called the Nuns' House, belonged, probably, to the nuns of Chester.
CLIVE, a chapelry, in the parish of St. Mary, liberties of the town of Shrewsbury, union of Wem, N. division of Salop, 3½ miles (S.) from Wem; containing 273 inhabitants. The living is a perpetual curacy, with a net income of £66, and in the gift of the Bishop of Lichfield (ex officio visiter of Shrewsbury grammar school), the Earl of Powis, J. A. Lloyd, Esq., Sir A. V. Corbet, Bart., and R. A. Slaney, Esq. The chapel is dedicated to All Saints. William Wycherley, the poet, was born here in 1640.
CLIVIGER, a chapelry, in the parochial chapelry of Burnley, parish of Whalley, union of Burnley, Higher division of the hundred of Blackburn, N. division of the county of Lancaster, 3½ miles (S. E. by S.) from Burnley; containing 1395 inhabitants. This place was granted by Henry de Lacy, who died in 1159, to the abbot of Kirkstall. Sir Ralph de Elland claimed it as part of his manor of Rochdale; and the then abbot, Lambert, who was elected in 1191, admitting the justice of his claims, the grange of Accrington was substituted for "Clivachir" by Roger de Lacy. The Clivachers also possessed lands here; of this family, Cecilia de Clivacher, about the reign of Edward I., appears to have been the last. Various other families subsequently held property in the manor, and among them were the de Holmes, who held the portion now known as Holme, in Cliviger. The chapelry comprises 6631 acres, whereof 1119 are common or waste. The river Irwell has its rise here, running to Bacup, and thence to Bury and Manchester, a circuitous course of twenty-five miles. The village lies on the road from Todmorden to Burnley. The living is now a district incumbency; net income, £101; patrons, the family of Whitaker. The chapel, situated at Holme, and of the time of Henry VII., was rebuilt in 1788. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans; and a school is conducted on the national plan. William Whitaker, a controversial divine, was born at Holme in the year 1547.
CLIXBY, a chapelry, in the parish and union of Caistor, S. division of the wapentake of Yarborough, parts of Lindsey, county of Lincoln, 2½ miles (N. by W.) from Caistor; containing 45 inhabitants. The living is annexed to the vicarage of Caistor.
Clodock (St. Cleodocus)
CLODOCK (St. Cleodocus), a parish, in the hundred of Ewyaslacy, county of Hereford, 10 miles (N. N. E.) from Abergavenny; containing, with the chapelries of Crasswall, Llanveynoe, and Longtown, and the township of Newton, 1762 inhabitants. The parish comprises 1800 acres, about three-fourths of which are pasture and meadow land, and 200 acres woodland. The surface is very irregular, rising into numerous hills of various elevation, and a considerable portion of it extends along the side of the Black Mountain, or Hatterel hills; the soil is generally light. The rivers Olchon and Munnow have their source within the parish, which is also traversed by the Eskley, a stream that abounds with trout of excellent quality, and is much frequented by anglers. Fairs are held on the 29th of April, 22nd of June, and 21st of September. The living is a vicarage, not in charge; net income, £149; patron, W. Wilkins, Esq.; impropriator, Sir V. G. Cornewall, Bart. There are chapels of ease at Longtown, Llanveynoe, and Crasswall, in the patronage of the vicar; and a fourth chapel has been lately built.
CLOFFOCK, an extra-parochial liberty, in the union of Cockermouth, in Allerdale ward above Derwent, W. division of Cumberland; containing 4 inhabitants. It consists of a tract of common, about 80 acres, lying on the north side of the town of Workington, and completely surrounded by the river Derwent and a small stream. Races are held annually; and at the western extremity of the place are a quay and a patent-slip. A portion of the ground is called Chapel Flat, and is thought to have been the site or property of a religious house.
Cloford (St. Mary)
CLOFORD (St. Mary), a parish, in the union and hundred of Frome, E. division of Somerset, 4½ miles (S. W.) from Frome; containing 253 inhabitants. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £7. 17. 6.; patron and impropriator, T. Horner, Esq. The great tithes have been commuted for £40, and the vicarial for £135; the glebe comprises 6 acres. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans.