A Topographical Dictionary of England. Originally published by S Lewis, London, 1848.
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LEIGHLAND, a chapelry, in the parish of Old Cleeve, union of Williton, hundred of Williton and Freemanners, W. division of Somerset, 5 miles (S. W. by W.) from Watchet. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £40; patron, the Vicar of Old Cleeve. The chapel is dedicated to St. Giles.
Leighs, Great (St. Mary)
LEIGHS, GREAT (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Chelmsford, partly in the hundred of Chelmsford, S. division, and partly in that of Witham, N. division, of Essex, 4½ miles (S. S. W.) from Braintree; containing, with the hamlet of Chatley, 765 inhabitants. The parish is intersected by the road from London to Norwich, and comprises about 3000 acres of land, formerly in pasture, from which circumstance it is supposed to have derived its name; the soil is various, consisting in some parts of a hard gravel, and in others of a sandy loam of tolerable fertility. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £25. 7. 1., and in the patronage of Lincoln College, Oxford: the tithes have been commuted for £865. The church is a very ancient edifice, with a round tower of flint and stone, surmounted by an octangular spire of wood. Various benefactions have been made for the benefit of the poor. On the side of the road from Braintree to Chelmsford was a hermitage, now converted into an inn.
Leighs, Little (St. John the Evangelist)
LEIGHS, LITTLE (St. John the Evangelist), a parish, in the union and hundred of Chelmsford, S. division of Essex, 5¼ miles (S. W. by S.) from Braintree; containing 182 inhabitants. A priory of Black canons, in honour of the Blessed Virgin Mary and St. John the Evangelist, was founded here in the reign of Henry III.; and its revenue, at the Dissolution, was estimated at £141. 14. 8.: the gate-house, which still remains, is in the later English style. The parish comprises about 500 acres of land; the soil is various, but chiefly a sandy loam resting on clay, in many parts very fertile. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £9, and in the gift of the family of Stewart: the tithes have been commuted for £380, and the glebe comprises 15 acres. The church, which is about half a mile from the road to Braintree, is a small edifice with a shingled spire, and contains some ancient monuments.
LEIGHTON, a township, in the parish, union, and hundred of Nantwich, S. division of the county of Chester, 3¾ miles (N. E. by N.) from Nantwich; containing 237 inhabitants. The manor belonged anciently to a family that took their name from the township, and by whom it was conveyed, by a deed without date, to the Oulton family. The Erdswicks acquired the estate in 1328, by exchange with the Oultons; and in 1625, Richard Erdswick appears to have sold it to the Eytons. Henry Stych was lord of the manor in 1662, and it subsequently came by inheritance from the Werdens to the family of Drummond. The township lies on the road from Nantwich to Middlewich, and comprises 1195 acres, the soil of which is clay and moss; the surface is level. Here is a station on the Liverpool and Birmingham railway. A church dedicated to St. Peter was erected in 1838, and a district assigned to it which includes this township, and the township of Minshull-Vernon, in the parish of Middlewich; with a population of 640. The living is a perpetual curacy, in the patronage of the Bishop of Chester; income, £100. The Independents and Primitive Methodists have places of worship, and there is a national school.
LEIGHTON, a township, in the parish of Neston, union, and Higher division of the hundred, of Wirrall, S. division of the county of Chester; containing 374 inhabitants. At the time of the Domesday survey this place belonged to Robert de Rodelent, after whose death it was given to the barons of Montalt, of whom it was held by the Leighton family. By successive heiresses it afterwards came to the Houghs, Whitmores, Savages, and Mostyns, with which last the estate remains. The township comprises 613 acres, of a clayey soil. The fisheries here were formerly considerable, but are now much neglected; and previously to the alteration in the channel of the Dee, there was some trifling trade. From that part of Parkgate which is within the township, passage-boats run daily to the opposite shore of Flintshire. The Wesleyans have a place of worship.
Leighton (St. Mary)
LEIGHTON (St. Mary), a parish, in the hundred of Leightonstone, union and county of Huntingdon, 10 miles (W. N. W.) from Huntingdon; containing 448 inhabitants. The parish comprises by computation 3000 acres, of which about one-half is arable, and the remainder, with the exception of 30 acres of woodland, meadow and pasture; the soil is chiefly a stiff clay. A cattle-fair is held on the 1st of May. The living is a discharged vicarage, in the patronage of the Prebendary of Leighton, in the Cathedral of Lincoln, valued in the king's books at £7; net income, £90: the glebe comprises 70 acres. The church, which had fallen into a state of dilapidation, was rebuilt in 1626, by the then prebendary, and is a neat edifice containing 300 sittings. Some remains exist of an ancient mansion that belonged to the Clifton family. There is a chalybeate spring, formerly in high repute, but now not much noticed.
Leighton (St. Mary)
LEIGHTON (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Atcham, Wellington division of the hundred of South Bradford, N. division of Salop, 5¼ miles (N. by W.) from Wenlock; containing 403 inhabitants. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £7. 12. 6.; net income, £218; patron and incumbent, the Rev. Robert Maddock.
Leighton-Buzzard (All Saints)
LEIGHTON-BUZZARD (All Saints), a markettown and parish, and the head of a union, in the hundred of Manshead, county of Bedford; comprising the chapelries of Billington, Eggington, Heath with Reach, and Standbridge; and containing 6053 inhabitants, of whom 3965 are in the town, 20 miles (W. S. W.) from Bedford, and 42 (N. W.) from London. The adjunct to the name is either derived from Bosard, the name of a family in the county, who were knights of the shire in the reign of Edward III., or from Beau desert; the prevailing opinion being in favour of the latter. The town is believed to be the Lygean burgh of the Saxon Chronicle, which was taken from the ancient Britons in 571, by Cuthwulph, the brother of Ceawlin, King of Wessex. It is situated on the eastern bank of the river Ouse, and consists of one wide street, branching off to the right and left at its upper extremity; the inhabitants are supplied with water from wells. Near the market-house is an elegant cross of pentagonal form, in the later English style, said to have been erected more than 500 years: the entire height, from the base to the top of the vane, is 38 feet; the upper story is divided into five niches, each of which contains a statue. A considerable trade is carried on in timber, iron, lime, brick, corn, &c.; and several females are employed in making lace and straw-plat. The Grand Junction canal, which is navigable for vessels of 80 tons, passes near the town; and at a short distance on the western side of the Ouse is a station of the London and Birmingham railway, which in this part runs through a slightly curved tunnel 272 yards in length: the Dunstable branch quits the line here. The market, which is one of the oldest in the county, is on Tuesday, and is amply supplied with cattle, corn (which is toll free), lace, strawplat, &c. Fairs are held on February 5th, the second Tuesday in April, Whit-Tuesday, July 26th, October 24th, and the second Tuesday in December; the first is remarkable for an extensive sale of horses. The town is under the jurisdiction of the county magistrates, who meet on the market-day, in a room over the markethouse; and courts leet and baron are held at Whitsuntide and Michaelmas, by the lessee of the manor, under the Dean and Canons of Windsor. The powers of the county debt-court of Leighton-Buzzard, established in 1847, extend over the registration-districts of LeightonBuzzard and Woburn.
The parish comprises about 8990 acres, of which 2355a. 2r. 28p., are in the township of Leighton: an act for inclosing lands was passed in 1843. The living is a vicarage, in the patronage of the Prebendary of Leighton in the Cathedral of Lincoln, valued in the king's books at £15; net income, £193. The church, which was formerly collegiate, is a large cruciform structure, principally in the early English style, with various additions and insertions of a later character, and has north, south, and west porches, together with a fine massive tower, surmounted by an octagonal stone spire, rising from the intersection; the western door is a curious specimen of iron-work: within the edifice are several ancient monuments, and a portion of good screen-work. There are chapels in all the four hamlets of the parish; and the Baptists, Society of Friends, and Wesleyans have meeting-houses. In 1630, almshouses for eight women were founded and endowed by Edward Wilkes, Esq., and an additional endowment was bequeathed by Matthew Wilkes, Esq., in 1692; the estates belonging to the charity produce about £200 per annum. The poor-law union comprises 15 parishes or places, 10 of which are in the county of Buckingham, and 5 in that of Bedford; and contains a population of 13,945. In the time of Henry II. there was an alien priory at Grovebury, subordinate to the abbey of Fontevrault, in Normandy; also a house of Cistercian monks in the parish, a cell to Woburn Abbey. About half a mile from the town are the remains of an extensive circular camp.
LEINTHALL, EARLS, a chapelry, in the parish of Aymestrey, union of Leominster, hundred of Wigmore, county of Hereford, 7 miles (S. W.) from the town of Ludlow; containing 170 inhabitants. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £64; patron, the Vicar of Aymestrey. The chapel is dedicated to St. Andrew. A charity school has a small endowment; and there is an almshouse.
Leinthall-Starkes (St. Mary Magdalene)
LEINTHALL-STARKES (St. Mary Magdalene), a parish, in the union of Ludlow, hundred of Wigmore, county of Hereford, 6 miles (S. W. by W.) from the town of Ludlow; containing 147 inhabitants. The parish consists of 993 acres. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £53; patron, Sir W. R. Boughton, Bart.; appropriator, the Bishop of Hereford. A school is endowed with £14 per annum, the bequest of Thomas Allen, Esq., in 1704.
Leintwardine (St. Peter and St. Paul)
LEINTWARDINE (St. Peter and St. Paul), a parish, in the unions of Ludlow and Knighton, hundred of Wigmore, county of Hereford; including the townships of Brakes, Heath with Jay, Kington, Leintwardine, Marlow, Walford with Letton and Newton, Whitton with Trippleton, and Adforton with Stanway, Payton, and Grange; and containing 1568 inhabitants, of whom 454 are in the township of Leintwardine, 9 miles (W. by S.) from Ludlow. The parish is situated at the northern extremity of the county, where it borders on Shropshire, and near the confluence of the Teme and the Clun; and from the quantity of fine fish, particularly graylings, with which these rivers abound, it is much resorted to as a fishing-place. It comprises about 8000 acres, and is intersected by the road from Knighton to Ludlow. There are quarries of limestone. A fair is held on the 4th of April. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £7. 15. 8.; net income, £180; patron and impropriator, the Earl of Oxford. The church is a large structure, once famous for a profusion of stained glass, of which the windows still display some beautiful fragments, representing crowns, lions, fleurs-de-lis, the arms of Mortimer, &c. There is a place of worship for Primitive Methodists. The Right Hon. Robert Harley, afterwards Earl of Oxford and Mortimer, founded a free school in the reign of Anne, and endowed it with land now producing about £50 per annum; and Salwey Cockram, Esq., in 1774 bequeathed £100 for the instruction of 12 children of Adforton and the Grange, and a like sum to purchase bread for the poor. The ancient forest of Mocktree, which has long been disafforested, is in the parish, and forms part of the demesne of Downton Castle.
Leire (St. Peter)
LEIRE (St. Peter), a parish, in the union of Lutterworth, hundred of Guthlaxton, S. division of the county of Leicester, 4 miles (N. N. W.) from Lutterworth; containing 406 inhabitants. The parish comprises 1074a. 2r. 18p.: the soil is loamy; about two-thirds are pasture and the remainder arable, and the lands are watered by a small rivulet called the Soar. The Midland railway passes through the parish, in which an excavation was made, extending for a considerable length, and 62 feet in depth, and also an embankment 40 feet in height, and containing 430,000 cubic yards; 3700 men, 370 horses, two locomotive-engines, and one fixed engine, were all employed in the construction at the same time. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £9. 14. 9½.; net income, £292; patron, Earl de Grey. The tithes were commuted for land and annual money payments in 1779; the glebe altogether comprises 143 acres. The church is ancient.
Leiston (St. Margaret)
LEISTON (St. Margaret), a parish, in the union and hundred of Blything, E. division of Suffolk, 4 miles (E. by S.) from Saxmundham; containing, with the hamlet of Sizewell, 1177 inhabitants. This place was the seat of a monastery of Præmonstratensian canons, founded in 1182, and endowed by Ranulph de Glanville, in honour of the Virgin Mary; the establishment continued to flourish till the Dissolution, when its revenue was returned at £181. 17. 1½.: there are considerable remains. The parish is bounded on the east by the sea, and comprises 4893 acres; the surface is varied. The living is a perpetual curacy, in the alternate patronage of Christ's Hospital and the Haberdashers' Company, London; net income, £376. The impropriate tithes have been commuted for £435, and the glebe comprises 30 acres.
Lelant, Uny (St. Ewyn)
LELANT, UNY (St. Ewyn), a parish, in the union of Penzance, W. division of the hundred of Penwith and of the county of Cornwall, 3 miles (S. E.) from St. Ives; containing 2012 inhabitants. This place is bounded on the north by St. Ives bay, and on the east by Hayle harbour and river; and nearly opposite to the church, when the tide is out, carriages can cross to St. Ives, by Hayle, from Truro and the east, thus saving a distance of several miles. The parish comprises 3757 acres, whereof 435 are common or waste; the soil near the sea-shore is sand, with a substratum of granite, which abounds throughout, and forms the substance of the various hills. Tin is abundant, and within the parish are the mines of Wheal Reeth and Wheal Speed, both in operation; a species of fine yellow clay, also, is found. A fair for cattle is held on August 15th. The living is a vicarage, with the livings of St. Ives and Towednack annexed, valued in the king's books at £22. 11. 10½.; net income, £441; patron, the Bishop of Exeter: impropriator, W. Praed, Esq. The impropriate tithes of Uny-Lelant have been commuted for £250, and the vicarial for £205; there are 9 acres of glebe. The church is surrounded by banks of sand: in the churchyard, and on the outside of it, are ancient crosses. There are two places of worship for Wesleyans.
LELLEY, a township, in the parish of Preston, union of Skirlaugh, Middle division of the wapentake of Holderness, E. riding of York, 8 miles (E. N. E.) from Hull; containing 136 inhabitants. This place has always been attached to the seigniory of Holderness, as a member of the manor of Burstwick. It comprises about 800 acres, belonging to several persons; the hamlet is situated on the road between Preston and Humbleton, and about two miles to the north-east of the former village. The tithes were commuted for land and a money payment in 1769.
LEMINGTON, a village, chiefly in the township of Sugley, but partly in that of Newburn-Hall, parish of Newburn, union and W. division of Castle ward, S. division of Northumberland, 5 miles (W.) from Newcastle. It is a populous place, situated on the north bank of the Tyne river, and contains the extensive works of the Tyne Iron Company for the manufacture of pig and bar iron, castings of all kinds, &c.; also some large crown-glass works; and three staiths where coal from the Wylam and Walbottle collieries is put into keels, to be shipped at Newcastle and Shields. Vessels of 40 or 50 tons' burthen can lie alongside. Lemington House stands at the foot of a fine eminence on the west side of the village.
LEMINGTON, LOWER, a parish, in the union of Shipston-upon-Stour, Upper division of the hundred of Tewkesbury, E. division of the county of Gloucester, 2 miles (N. E. by N.) from Moreton-in-the-Marsh; containing 53 inhabitants. The parish comprises 786a. 3r. 24p.: the railway from Moreton to Stratford passes through it. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £45; patron and impropriator, Lord Redesdale. The church is a very small structure. Two closes producing £12 per annum, bequeathed by Dr. Juxon, Archbishop of Canterbury; and £146. 3. 1. three per cents., left by his descendant, Susanna, Dowager Countess Fane; are appropriated to the poor. The ancient Fosse-way passes by this place, which, from the coins frequently discovered, seems to have been a Roman station.
LEMMINGTON, a township, in the parish of Edlingham, union of Alnwick, N. division of Coquetdale ward and of Northumberland, 4¾ miles (W. S. W.) from Alnwick; containing 125 inhabitants. It comprises about 2060 acres, the whole of which, with the exception of 300 acres of moor, and 70 of wood, are arable land; the surface is undulated, and the scenery very pleasing, embracing a fine view of the rich vale of Whittingham. Good freestone is wrought, and there is a land-sale colliery. The Hall, a fine modern mansion of hewn freestone, is surrounded by plantations.
Lench, Abbots.—See Hob-Lench.
LENCH, ATCH, a hamlet, in the parish of ChurchLench, union of Evesham, Lower division of the hundred of Blackenhurst, Pershore and E. divisions of the county of Worcester, 5½ miles (N.) from Evesham; containing 82 inhabitants. It is situated on the borders of Warwickshire, and comprises 656 acres. The land was formerly nearly barren, but by care and industry it is now equal to most land in this fine part of the county. There is a place of worship for Baptists.
LENCH, CHURCH, a parish, in the union of Evesham, partly in the Lower division of the hundred of Blackenhurst, and partly in the Upper division of that of Halfshire, Pershore and E. divisions of the county of Worcester, 5¾ miles (N. by W.) from Evesham; containing, with the hamlets of Atch-Lench and Sheriffs-Lench, 393 inhabitants. It is situated on the borders of Warwickshire, and comprises 2530 acres, of which 736a. 2p. are in the township of Church-Lench. The land is elevated, the soil a stiff clay; and few places in the county present richer or more extensive prospects than are found in this parish, which abounds in views of the most picturesque character, the Malvern hills forming a fine outline. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £9. 11. 10½., and in the patronage of the Crown: the tithes have been commuted for £117. 1. 6.; the glebe consists of 81 acres, with a new glebe-house. The Bishop of Worcester is impropriator of Atch-Lench and Sheriff's-Lench. The church is beautifully situated in the township of Church-Lench.
Lench, Rouse (St. Peter)
LENCH, ROUSE (St. Peter), a parish, in the union of Evesham, Middle division of the hundred of Oswaldslow, Pershore and E. divisions of the county of Worcester, 7 miles (N. by W.) from Evesham; containing, with the hamlet of Radford, 280 inhabitants. The parish is situated on the borders of Warwickshire, and comprises 1431a. 2r. 6p., of which 100½ acres are wood. The surface is varied: the soil in the higher grounds is a rich loam, and in the lower grounds marl; the substratum is clay, which is used for brick-making. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £9. 0. 5.; net income, £346: patrons, the family of Boughton. The tithes were commuted for land and a money payment in 1778; the glebe altogether comprises 299 acres, with a glebe-house. The church is in the Norman style, of which it displays some interesting details; it contains monuments to the Rouse family. In the parish is a quadrilateral moat, for the most part dry.
LENCH, SHERIFF'S, a hamlet, in the parish of Church-Lench, union of Evesham, Lower division of the hundred of Blackenhurst, Pershore and E. divisions of the county of Worcester, 4½ miles (N. by W.) from Evesham; containing 83 inhabitants. It lies on the borders of Warwickshire, and is of rather an inferior quality of soil, but the land has been very much improved within the last twenty years by careful cultivation.
LENCH-WICK, a tything, in the parish of Norton, union of Evesham, Lower division of the hundred of Blackenhurst, Pershore and E. divisions of the county of Worcester, 2¾ miles (N.) from Evesham; containing 162 inhabitants. This place belonged to the abbey of Evesham before the Conquest, and continued to be connected with that establishment until the general dissolution. A chapel, which was dedicated to St. Michael, has been demolished.