A Topographical Dictionary of England. Originally published by S Lewis, London, 1848.
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KENLEY, a parish, in the union of Atcham, hundred of Condover, S. division of Salop, 4 miles (W. by N.) from Wenlock; containing 294 inhabitants. It is situated two miles from the road between Wenlock and Shrewsbury, and four from the river Severn; the surface is hilly, the soil naturally wet, and in some parts rocky and bad. The scenery is very picturesque; looking along a deep valley bounded on either side by woodland, the view is terminated by two hills, called the Lawley and Carodock Hills, and in another direction is seen the celebrated Wrekin, the pride of Shropshire. The living is a perpetual curacy, in the gift of the Duke of Cleveland: the tithes have been commuted for £143, and the glebe comprises 29 acres.
Kenn (St. Andrew)
KENN (St. Andrew), a parish, in the union of St. Thomas, hundred of Exminster, Wonford and S. divisions of Devon, 4¼ miles (S.) from Exeter; containing 1078 inhabitants. The lord of the manor holds his court at Kenneford, where a portreeve, two constables, and a tythingman, are sworn in at Michaelmas. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £46. 13. 4., and in the gift of J. Henry Ley, Esq.: the tithes have been commuted for £750, and the glebe comprises 52 acres. The church has a stone font in the early English style, and a good wooden screen.
KENN, a parish, in the union of Bedminster, hundred of Winterstoke, E. division of Somerset, 10 miles (N.) from Axbridge; containing 322 inhabitants. This place was for many generations the property of the Ken family, of whose manorial residence, now modernised, the moat is still discernible. Thomas Ken, their descendant, was created Bishop of Bath and Wells by Charles II., and was one of the seven prelates sent to the Tower by James II.; on the accession of William and Mary, refusing to transfer his allegiance, he relinquished his preferments, and retired from public life. The parish comprises by computation 1000 acres: the Bristol and Exeter railway passes within three miles of the village. The living is annexed to the vicarage of Yatton: the vicarial tithes have been commuted for £90. The church is a small ancient edifice, in the Norman and early English styles, with a low massive tower, and contains some monuments to the Ken family.
Kennerleigh (St. John the Baptist)
KENNERLEIGH (St. John the Baptist), a parish, in the union and hundred of Crediton, Crediton and N. divisions of Devon, 5 miles (N. by W.) from Crediton; containing 118 inhabitants. This parish, which is intersected by the road from Exeter to South-Molton, comprises by measurement 640 acres, whereof 384 are arable, 73 meadow, 70 moor and furze, 16 orchard, and 84 woodland; the soil is clay, and rather poor. The living is a rectory, in the gift of the Governors of the Crediton charity: the tithes have been commuted for £95, and the glebe comprises 44 acres, situated in the adjoining parish of Woolfardisworthy.
Kennett (St. Nicholas)
KENNETT (St. Nicholas), a parish, in the union of Newmarket, hundred of Staploe, county of Cambridge, 5 miles (N. E.) from the town of Newmarket; containing 228 inhabitants. In June, 1647, this place was the head-quarters of the parliamentarian army. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £11. 10. 10., and in the gift of W. Godfrey, Esq.: the tithes have been commuted for £194, and the glebe comprises 35 acres.
KENNETT, EAST, a parish, in the union of Marlborough, hundred of Selkley, Marlborough and Ramsbury, and N. divisions of Wilts, 4 miles (W. S. W.) from Marlborough; containing 75 inhabitants. It comprises about 900 acres by computation. The soil is light and chalky, and the surface undulated; the lower grounds are watered by the river Kennet, which has its source near the village, a retired spot among the downs. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £57; patron and impropriator, Richard Mathews, Esq. The tithes have been commuted for £58. 10.
Kennett, East and West
KENNETT, EAST and WEST, a tything, in the parish of Avebury, union of Marlborough, hundred of Selkley, Marlborough and Ramsbury, and N. divisions of Wilts, 5 miles (W.) from Marlborough; containing 108 inhabitants. This place, in Domesday book called Chenete, was anciently a distinct parish, and was held by the church of St. Mary at Winchester. The village is pleasantly situated on the road to Bath, and is noted for the celebrated Kennett ale, which is brewed only here, not from the water of the river Kennet, as is generally supposed, but from a fine limpid spring on the premises, which is soft to the taste, and slightly impregnated with magnesia. The ale first came into repute in 1789, and many thousand barrels of it are sent annually to different parts of the country. At a short distance to the west of the village is Silbury Hill, the largest barrow in the kingdom; near which the Kennet has its source.
Kenninghall (St. Mary)
KENNINGHALL (St. Mary), a parish, in the union and hundred of Guilt-Cross, W. division of Norfolk, 3 miles (E. by S.) from East Harling; containing 1389 inhabitants. The name is derived from the Saxon words Cyning, king, and Halla, palace; the place having been the residence of the kings of East Anglia. The demesne was granted by the Conqueror to De Albini and his heirs, to be held by the service of chief butler at the coronation of the kings of England. On the site of the royal palace a manorial residence was erected, which was afterwards destroyed by Thomas, Duke of Norfolk, who built a magnificent edifice to the north-east, with two fronts; this was forfeited to the crown by the attainder of Thomas Howard, Duke of Norfolk, in the reign of Henry VIII., and given to the Princess Mary, who, as well as her successor, Queen Elizabeth, often resided here. In the seventeenth century it was taken down, and the materials were sold. The only remaining traces are a few bricks in the walls of the houses in the village, bearing the arms of Arundel and Howard. By a charter confirmed in the reign of George II., the inhabitants are exempt from serving on juries out of the manor, and from tolls at fairs throughout the kingdom. A market for cattle and swine is held on Monday, and there are fairs for cattle and sheep on the 18th of July and September 30th. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £5. 17. 1.; patron and appropriator, the Bishop of Ely; net income, £250. The church is an ancient structure, chiefly in the Norman style, with a massive square tower, and some later additions. There are places of worship for Baptists and Wesleyans. Some land, producing £60 per annum, was allotted to the poor at the inclosure. The house for Guilt-Cross union is in the parish; the union comprises 21 parishes or places, and contains a population of 11,965.
KENNINGTON, a chapelry, partly in the parish of Radley, and partly in that of Sunningwell, union of Abingdon, hundred of Hormer, county of Berks, 3 miles (N. E.) from Abingdon; containing 136 inhabitants. The tithes were commuted for land and a money payment in 1802. The chapel, dedicated to St. Swithin, fell down some years since, and was rebuilt in 1838.
Kennington (St. Mary)
KENNINGTON (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of East Ashford, hundred of Chart and Longbridge, lathe of Shepway, E. division of Kent, 2 miles (N. E. by N.) from Ashford; containing 585 inhabitants. It comprises 1380 acres, of which 24 are in wood. A fair for pedlery is held on the 5th of July. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £12; patron and appropriator, the Archbishop of Canterbury. The great tithes have been commuted for £205, and the vicarial for £197. 12.; there are 6½ acres of glebe appertaining to the vicarage, and 9 belonging to the archbishop: the glebe-house was built in 1837. The church is principally in the early English style.
KENNINGTON, a district, in the parish and union of Lambeth, E. division of the hundred of Brixton, county of Surrey, 2½ miles (S. S. W.) from London; containing 31,289 inhabitants. The name is said to be of Saxon origin, there having been a royal palace here prior to the Conquest, whence the appellation Cynington, from the Saxon Cyning, a king. Kennington is distinguished in history as the scene of the banquet, or marriage festival of a Danish nobleman, at which Hardicanute, the son of Canute the Great, became the victim of his own intemperance, or, according to some writers, was poisoned; in commemoration of his death, the festival called Hocktide is supposed to have been instituted. The place was the favourite residence of the Black Prince, and the occasional resort of Henry VIII. and some of his predecessors; but the royal mansion was at length superseded by the manor-house, which was inhabited by Charles I. when Prince of Wales; and the site, called Park Place, is now covered by modern buildings. The village has several ranges of handsome houses on the line of road leading from the metropolis towards Clapham and Brixton, and has been greatly increased by others branching from the main road to the east and west. In the latter direction is Kennington Oval, an area about nine acres in extent, cultivated as market-gardens and nursery-grounds, and surrounded with cottages and a few good houses. Kennington Common, an uninclosed tract of ground, belonging to the duchy of Cornwall, and on which, under the control of two stewards appointed by the duchy court, the inhabitants have the privilege of turning horses and cattle to graze during part of the year, was formerly the place of execution for criminals convicted at the Surrey assizes; here, also, several of the adherents of the Pretender underwent the sentence of the law as traitors, in 1746. It is a polling-place for the eastern division of the county. The village is lighted with gas, and supplied with water from the South London Water-works, which are situated within the district. At the Horns tavern is a spacious and elegant assembly-room, supported by subscription, in which assemblies and concerts frequently take place, and public meetings are held. Here are manufactories for oil of vitriol and wadding. Kennington is within the limits of the Metropolitan Police act. The living is a district incumbency; net income, £700; patron, the Archbishop of Canterbury. The church, dedicated to St. Mark, is a noble edifice with a Grecian-Doric portico, tower, and cupola, erected in 1824, at an expense of £22,720, of which sum the Parliamentary Commissioners gave £7651. There are four episcopal chapels in the district, namely, Carlisle chapel, built about 40 years ago, by the Rev. George Gibson; Vauxhall chapel, Upper Kennington-lane; Verulam chapel, Walcot-place; and St. James's, in Clayton-place. The Independents have two places of worship, and the Baptists and Wesleyans one each. In Kennington-lane is a school under the patronage of the Licensed Victuallers, forming a spacious and handsome structure.
KENNYTHORPE, a township, in the parish of Langton, union of Malton, wapentake of Buckrose, E. riding of York, 4 miles (S. by E.) from Malton; containing 72 inhabitants. It comprises by computation 532 acres, of which 26 are common or waste. The tithes have been commuted for £81. 7., and there is a glebe of 9 acres.
Kensington (St. Mary)
KENSINGTON (St. Mary), a parish, and the head of a union, in the Kensington division of the hundred of Ossulstone, county of Middlesex, 2 miles (W. by S.) from London; containing, with the hamlet of Brompton, 26,834 inhabitants. This place, which, since the reign of William III., has been a royal residence, forms one of the most interesting, populous, and extensive appendages to the metropolis. The salubrity of the air, the pleasantness of its situation, the beauty of the gardens belonging to the palace, and its proximity to Hyde Park, render it highly desirable as a place of residence. The village extends for a considerable distance on the great western road, and comprises several ranges of handsome and well-built houses, with numerous streets branching off from the main road to the north and south, and a number of tasteful detached residences; among the more recent buildings are St. Mary Abbot's terrace, Warwick-square, and some houses on the Addison road leading to Notting Hill, on the latter of which are some very elegant villas. The district is well paved, lighted with gas, and amply supplied with water by the West Middlesex Company, who have a capacious reservoir at Kensington Gravel Pits, elevated more than 120 feet above the level of the Thames. A creek from the Thames has been widened within the last few years, and made navigable to Counter's bridge; the Paddington canal runs through the northern extremity of the parish, near Kensal-Green, and the Great Western railway passes in a slightly curved tunnel, 320 yards in length, through the same part of the parish. In 1836 an act was procured for making a railway from the basin of the Kensington canal, to join the London and Birmingham and Great Western railways near Holsden-Green, and to be called the Birmingham, Bristol, and Thames Junction, but which is now styled the West London railway; it crosses the high road, passing through Kensington Crescent, and is about three miles in length. In 1846 an act was passed authorising the extension of this railway to the Thames, thus increasing the length from three miles to five. Kensington, with the parishes of Hammersmith, Fulham, and others, was formed into a police-court district, by an order in council, in 1841.
The palace, which stands within the parish of St. Margaret, Westminster, originally built by Heneage Finch, lord high chancellor, and afterwards Earl of Nottingham, was purchased from his son, the second earl, by William III., who made it his principal residence. It was subsequently inhabited by Queen Anne, George I., and George II., whose queen, Caroline, made many additions to it, and very much extended and improved the gardens and pleasure-grounds, which, under certain regulations, are open to the public, and are frequented as the most fashionable and favourite promenade in the environs of the metropolis. The edifice comprises three quadrangles, neatly and substantially built of red brick, and ornamented with columns, quoins, and cornices of stone; and though externally wanting uniformity of design, and destitute of architectural interest, it contains a noble suite of apartments. The gardens are beautifully laid out, the walks are spacious, and the grounds altogether more than three miles in circuit. Detachments of the foot guards and of the lancers are stationed here in barracks. Holland House, originally built by Sir Walter Cope, and now the seat of Lord Holland, though enlarged under the superintendence of Inigo Jones, retains much of its Elizabethan character; and Campden House, erected by Baptist Hicks, Viscount Campden, is a good specimen in the same style of domestic architecture. Hale House, now in a dilapidated state, is said to have been the residence of Oliver Cromwell; and there are some other remains of ancient buildings in various parts of the parish.
The living is a vicarage, valued in the king's books at £18. 8. 4.; net income, £1242; patron, the Bishop of London. The church is a large modern brick building; in the window of the chancel are whole-length figures of St. Peter, St. Paul, St. John, and St. Andrew, in stained glass, and on the south side of the altar is a monument of Edward Henry Rich, Earl of Warwick and Holland, who died in 1721, and whose statue in white marble is finely sculptured. William Courten, a celebrated virtuoso, who died in 1702; Dr. Jortin, vicar of the parish, and an eminent theological writer; the Rev. Martin Madan, author of Thelypthora; George Colman, sen., a dramatic writer; Dr. Richard Warren, an eminent physician; Samuel Pegge, F.S.A.; and James Elphinstone, a writer on grammar and elocution, were all interred here. A chapel was built at Brompton in 1769. The district church in Addison road, dedicated to St. Barnabas, was erected in 1829, by subscription among the inhabitants, aided by a grant of £5000 from the Parliamentary Commissioners, and is a handsome edifice of Suffolk brick, in the later English style, with four campanile turrets: the living is a perpetual curacy, in the gift of the Vicar; net income, £405. The church at Brompton, dedicated to the Holy Trinity, was erected at the same time and by the same means as that of St. Barnabas. A church, called St. John's, was commenced in November, 1843, on a site given by All Souls' College, Oxford, at Kensal-Green; it was consecrated in Aug. 1844, and is in the Norman style, with two towers at the west end, each about 80 feet high: the cost of erection was about £3000. St. John's church, in Kensington Park, consecrated in Jan. 1845, occupies an advantageous site, and is a handsome structure in the early English style, in the form of a Latin cross, with a lofty spire rising from the centre; the interior is of singularly bold and simple design, and has accommodation for 1500 persons. St. James' church, Notting-Hill, consecrated in July 1845, is a mixture of the Norman and pointed styles, and contains 750 sittings. Of these three churches, the Bishop presents to the two first, and the Vicar to the last church. There are places of worship for Baptists and Independents; and a Roman Catholic chapel. The Kensal-Green public cemetery, formed by the General Cemetery Company, and consecrated by the Bishop of London, in 1833, comprises 39 acres of ground on the north of the Paddington canal, inclosed by a stone wall, and laid out in appropriate style; and 15 acres on the south side of the canal, for the interment of dissenters, have been also inclosed. His late Royal Highness the Duke of Sussex was interred here, May 4th, 1843.
The national school was originally founded as a parochial free school, in 1645, by Roger Pimble, who endowed it with tenements in the parish, the rents of which, augmented by subsequent benefactions, produce an income of more than £250 per annum; the premises, situated in High-street, are handsomely built of brick. Lord and Lady Campden in 1635 bequeathed £200, with which, including a benefaction of £45, supposed to have been given by Oliver Cromwell, and called Cromwell's gift, an estate was purchased producing nearly £200 per annum, one moiety of which was to be given to the poor, and the other appropriated to the apprenticing of children. Six almshouses were built in 1652, by William Methwold, who endowed them with sixteen acres of land, for the support of aged women; and there are numerous other gifts for the relief of the poor. The union of Kensington consists of five parishes or places, containing a population of 114,952. Here are several chalybeate springs, which were formerly in repute, though now little noticed. Charles Boyle, Earl of Orrery, born in 1674; and Charles Pratt, Earl Camden, lord high chancellor; were natives of Kensington. —See Brompton.
KENSWICK, formerly a chapelry, but now deemed extra-parochial, locally in the parish of Knightwick, union of Martley, Lower division of the hundred of Oswaldslow, Worcester and W. divisions of the county of Worcester, 4½ miles (N. W. by W.) from Worcester; containing 27 inhabitants, and comprising 434 acres. It is detached from the rest of the parish, and situated on the road from Worcester to Tenbury. The chapel was dedicated to St. John the Baptist.
Kensworth (St. Mary)
KENSWORTH (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Luton, hundred of Dacorum, county of Hertford, 2½ miles (N. W.) from Market-Street; containing 842 inhabitants. The parish comprises by computation 2500 acres, of which the surface is very hilly, and the soil various, but chiefly a strong red clay, alternated with marl. The living is a vicarage, valued in the king's books at £9. 13. 4.; net income, £180; patrons, the Dean and Chapter of St. Paul's, London. The tithes were commuted for land and corn-rents in 1798; the glebe comprises 110 acres. The church has portions in the early English style, with some of later date. The capitals of the western pillars exhibit the fable of the Wolf and the Crane on one side, and that of the Eagle and the Hare on the other; the doorway within the tower has capitals representing birds and human heads. Both doorways are of Caen stone.
KENT, a maritime county, situated at the southeastern extremity of the kingdom, and bounded on the north by the river Thames, which separates it from Essex, and by the North Sea; on the east and southwest by the North Sea, the Straits of Dovor, and the British Channel; on the south-west by Sussex; and on the west by Surrey. It extends from 50° 55' to 51° 28' (N. Lat.) and from 4' (W. Lon.) to 1° 25' (E. Lon.); and contains 1537 square miles, or 983,680 acres. Within the limits of the county are 95,482 houses inhabited, 5039 uninhabited, and 811 in course of erection; and the population amounts to 548,337, of whom 272,532 are males, and 275,805 females.
The territory now forming the county of Kent is first distinctly noticed under the name of Cantium, which is probably a Latinization of the ancient British name; by the Saxons it was at first styled Kant-wara-ryke, signifying "the Kentish men's country," and the present name is an evident variation of the first word of the Saxon compound. Its situation at that point of the island which lies nearest to the European continent has invested it with a degree of importance in the general history of England nearly corresponding with the prominence of its geographical position, as forming a sort of advanced post or vanguard of the English territory, considered in relation to the continental states, more particularly to France and the Netherlands, the ancient Gaul and Belgium. From this proximity it sustained the first attack made by Julius Cæsar upon the aboriginal inhabitants of the isle. In his first expedition, the Kentish Britons immediately opposed him, and forced him to an encounter upon landing in the vicinity of Deal: they fought, even amidst the waves, with singular courage; and although Cæsar, observing his troops to be dispirited, ordered up the vessels with his artillery, and poured from their sides stones, arrows, and other missiles, yet the natives sustained these unusual discharges with unshaken intrepidity, and the invaders made no impression. At length, the standardbearer of the tenth legion rushed forward, exclaiming "Follow me, unless you mean to betray your standard to your enemies;" upon which the Roman legions were incited to that desperate and closer battle which eventually forced back the Britons and secured a landing. The inhabitants of the neighbourhood then sent a message of peace; but four days afterwards, the fleet being dispersed by a tempest, they again attacked the Romans.
In the ensuing summer Cæsar's invasion was more formidable, that able commander being attended by five well-appointed legions and 2000 cavalry, amounting to a force of 30,000 of the best disciplined troops then known. Terrified at the menacing approach of so powerful an army, the inhabitants of the coast retired among the hills, and Cæsar having effected a landing without opposition, and chosen a proper place for encampment, on learning from some prisoners where the British forces were posted, marched about midnight in quest of them, leaving ten cohorts and 300 cavalry, under the command of Q. Atrius, to guard the ships. After a march of about twelve miles, he discovered the Britons, who being repulsed by the Roman cavalry, retired to a place in the woods, which was fortified both by art and nature in an extraordinary manner, but from which they were driven by the soldiers of the seventh legion. When he had divided his army into three bodies, Cæsar sent both his horse and foot in pursuit; soon after which, before their rear had got out of sight, some horsemen arrived from Q. Atrius, to inform him that almost all his ships had been shattered by a storm the previous night, and cast on shore. Upon this, Cæsar, countermanding his orders, returned to the fleet, and found that about forty of the ships were entirely lost, and the rest so much damaged as not to be refitted without much labour. Having therefore chosen some workmen from among his soldiers, and sent for others from the continent, he wrote to Labienus, in Gaul, directing him to cause to be erected as many ships as he could with those legions that were left with him; he himself determining to have his fleet hauled on shore, and inclosed with his camp within the same fortification. This work being completed, Cæsar returned to the scene of conflict, where the Britons had arrived in greater numbers from all parts; on their march the Romans were briskly attacked by the British horse and chariots, which they repulsed with great slaughter, and drove into the woods. A general engagement soon followed, and the Britons were defeated and routed with considerable slaughter; their auxiliaries left them, and they never afterwards engaged the Romans with united forces. Cæsar then led his army towards the territory of Cassivelaunus, the principal leader of the defeated Britons, who in the mean time despatched messengers into Kent, which was then governed by four petty princes, whom Cæsar styles kings, commanding them to muster whatever forces they could, and suddenly attack the camp in which the Roman ships lay: this they accordingly did, but they were repulsed with great slaughter in a sally by the Romans, who made prisoner one of the kings, named Cingetorix. On the submission of Cassivelaunus, which followed this defeat, Cæsar imposed an annual tribute on the vanquished, received the hostages he demanded, and then marched back through Kent to the sea-shore, from which he shortly after took his last departure from Britain.
In the course of the second invasion, the first effectual conquest, of Britain by the Romans, in the reign of Claudius, their first descent appears to have been on the south-western coast. But it is evident from the account given by Dion Cassius, that Plautius, who commanded the expedition, waited for the promised assistance of the emperor on the southern, or Kentish, side of the Thames; and it has been thought by many that the place of his encampment was Keston Down, near Bromley, where are still some large remains of a Roman camp, or intrenchment. In the division of Britain by Constantine, Kent was included in Britannia Prima; and after the Saxon pirates had begun to infest the south-eastern coast, this was one of the maritime districts placed under the command of the officer called Comes Littoris Saxonici, or Count of the Saxon Shore. Subordinate to him, within the limits of this county, according to the Notitia, were, the commander of the Tungrian soldiers stationed at Dovor; the commander of the detachment of soldiers of Tournay, at Limne; the commander of the first cohort of Vetascians, at Reculver; the commander of the second legion, called Augusta, at Richborough; and the commander of the detachment of the Albuci, at Anderida. The Romans built several watch-towers, forts, and castles on the coast, both to overawe the Britons and preserve a safe intercourse with the continent, and to guard against the assaults of the Saxon pirates. They also made three public or consular ways in Kent, the principal of which led from Dovor to London, forming part of the great military way afterwards by the Saxons called Watlingstreet. The Isle of Thanet was the landing-place of the Saxons, in whose attempts to obtain possession of Britain numerous battles were fought within the limits of the county, which was ultimately constituted one of the kingdoms of the heptarchy. Ethelbert, King of Kent, embraced Christianity, on the arrival of the Roman missionaries in Thanet, in 596; Kent now became a Christian kingdom, and its metropolis, Canterbury, acquired that ecclesiastical pre-eminence over the other English cities which it retains to the present day. Owing in a great measure to its narrow limits, and its situation in an angle of the island, this was one of the weaker powers of the heptarchy; and after first becoming tributary to the kingdom of Mercia, it was finally annexed to that of Wessex, in 823.
The county until lately comprised the two dioceses of Canterbury and Rochester, in the province of Canterbury, the former comprehending the eastern, and the latter the western part of it: the diocese of Canterbury, which formed an archdeaconry, contained 282 parishes, and that of Rochester 132, making the total number of parishes in the county 414. Under the ecclesiastical arrangements directed by the act of the 6th and 7th of William IV., c. 77, the diocese of Canterbury now consists of the county of Kent (except the city and deanery of Rochester, and certain parishes in the diocese of London), and of the parishes of Croydon and Addington, and the district of Lambeth Palace, in the county of Surrey; while the diocese of Rochester consists of the city and deanery of Rochester, of the county of Essex (except a few parishes in the diocese of London), and the whole county of Hertford. For the purposes of civil government the shire is divided into five great districts, called the lathes of St. Augustine, Aylesford, Scray, Shepway, and Sutton-at-Hone, each of which comprises several hundreds. It includes the cities of Canterbury and Rochester; four of the cinque-ports, viz., Dovor, Hythe, New Romney, and Sandwich; the borough and market towns of Chatham, Greenwich, and Maidstone; and the market-towns of Ashford, Bromley, Cranbrooke, Dartford, Deal, Elham, Faversham, Folkestone, Gravesend, Lydd, Margate, Milton, Ramsgate, Seven-Oaks, Sittingbourne, Smarden, Tenterden, Tonbridge, Westerham, Woolwich, and Wrotham. Of the above, Deal, Dovor, Faversham, Folkestone, Margate, Ramsgate, and Sandwich, are sea-ports; and there are extensive dockyards for the royal navy at Chatham, Woolwich, and Sheerness. The county is divided into the Eastern and Western divisions, each sending two representatives to parliament. Two citizens are returned for each of the cities; two for each of the boroughs, except Chatham, which sends only one; and one member for the cinque-port of Hythe. Kent is included in the Home circuit; the assizes are held at Maidstone, at which place are the county gaol and house of correction. By long usage the county is divided into two great districts, of nearly equal extent, commonly called East Kent and West Kent: the former comprising the lathes of St. Augustine and Shepway, and the Upper division of the lathe of Scray; the latter, the lathes of Sutton-at-Hone and Aylesford, and the Lower division of the lathe of Scray: and it is usual for the justices of the peace for the county to confine the exercise of their authority, except upon extraordinary occasions, to the division in which they respectively reside. The general quarter-sessions are held four times in the year in each of these divisions, twice originally, and twice by adjournment. They are held originally, for East Kent, at Canterbury, on the Tuesday after the Epiphany, and the Tuesday after the Festival of St. Thomas à Becket; and by adjournment for West Kent, at Maidstone, on the Thursday next after each of those days. They are held originally for West Kent, at Maidstone, on the Tuesday after Easter and the Tuesday after Michaelmas; and by adjournment, for East Kent, at Canterbury, on the Friday next after each of those days.
The Surface of the county is divided by two nearly parallel chains of hills, called the Upper and the Lower, or the Chalk and the Gravel hills, which extend across the middle of it, from the neighbourhoods of Folkestone and Hythe on the eastern, to the vicinity of Westerham on the western, border. The northern range, and the substratum of the entire north side of the county, are composed chiefly of chalk and flints; and the southern range, of iron and rag stone. Below the last-mentioned hills lies the Weald of Kent, an extensive tract, occupying the whole southern side of the county, from the border of Surrey to the marshy tract at its south-eastern extremity, of which Romney Marsh forms the principal portion; the greater part of the Weald adjoining to Sussex rises to a considerable elevation, being part of what is well known as the Forest ridge.
East Kent includes two tracts of land, one open and dry, lying between the city of Canterbury and the towns of Dovor and Deal; and the other much sheltered by woods and coppices, extending in length from Dovor, by Elham and Ashford, to Rochester, and in breadth from the Isle of Sheppy to Lenham, &c. All that portion of East Kent situated in the vicinity of Faversham, Sandwich, and Deal, is very fertile, and for the most part under tillage. The Isle of Thanet, at the northeastern extremity of the county, now only insulated by a small sewer, communicating with the river Stour and the sea, contains, including Stonar, nearly 41 square miles, or about 27,000 acres, of which 3500 are excellent marsh land, and 23,000 arable; it is in a high state of cultivation, having been long celebrated for its fertility, which is much increased by the inexhaustible supply of sea-weed constantly thrown on the shore. The Isle of Sheppy lies eastward from the mouth of the Medway, and is separated from the rest of the county by an arm of the sea, called the Swale, which is navigable for ships of 200 tons' burthen. It is about eleven miles long, and eight miles across, in the broadest part, and contains seven parishes; four-fifths of the land consist of marsh (including a large tract of rich fattening land) and upland pasture, a great part of which latter is very poor, and used for breeding sheep. The Isle of Grain, a low and marshy tract, 3½ miles long and 2½ broad, situated between the estuaries of the Medway and the Thames, is no longer insulated; the channel which communicated with the two rivers, and separated it from the main land, being now filled up.
West Kent comprises the Weald, a large part of the ragstone shelf between the Weald and the chalk range, together with all the tract lying between the towns of Westerham, Deptford, Rochester, and Maidstone, and their vicinities; and comprehends a variety of country, having soils and features of various descriptions. The Weald of Kent, anciently an extensive forest, has been gradually stripped of a great part of its sylvan features, and brought into cultivation, though it is yet more thinly peopled than any other part of the county; when viewed from the adjoining hills, it has the appearance of a vast plain of great fertility and beauty. At its south-eastern extremity is the Isle of Oxney, formed by the different channels of the Rother (of which, however, the northernmost is now deserted by the waters of that river), and about ten miles in circumference, having an upland ridge running through the middle of it, and low fertile marshes next the river. Romney Marsh is an extensive tract of land lying on the southern coast between the uplands and the sea-shore; this general name being usually given to the whole level between Hythe and Rye, comprehending the districts of Walland Marsh, Denge Marsh with South Brooks, and Guilford Marsh. Romney Marsh, properly so called, contains about 24,000 acres, is ten miles in length from east to west, and four in its greatest breadth. Walland Marsh lies to the west of Romney Marsh, extending five miles from north to south, and four from east to west, and consists of about 16,500 acres. Denge Marsh with South Brooks lies to the south of Walland Marsh, and contains nearly 3000 acres. Guilford Marsh adjoins Walland Marsh on the west, and contains about 3300 acres.
The soils of East Kent are principally chalk, loam, strong cledge, hazel mould, and stiff clay; and the various soils of West Kent are chalk, loam, clay, gravel, sand, and hazel mould. The crops commonly cultivated are wheat, barley, beans, oats, peas, canary-seed, radish-seed, turnips, and colewort. Some flax is grown; also spinach seed, kidney-beans, cresses, and white mustard-seed, principally for the London seedsmen. Woad for dyeing is much cultivated in the western part of the county, on poor and stiff, and in some instances on chalky, soils. The quantity of land in natural meadow in the uplands of East Kent is comparatively small, and the hay consumed in that district is principally brought from the marshes. The Weald abounds with natural grass-land, producing a vast quantity of hay of excellent quality. The grass-land of the marshes is of very considerable extent, and is appropriated to the fattening of cattle and sheep, or to the breeding of sheep; of the latter, Kent has long been famous for a peculiar fine breed, called Romney Marsh sheep. In the Isle of Sheppy the horses are for the most part a sort that has been in that district from time immemorial; elsewhere they have been crossed with other breeds.
The chief hop plantations are situated in the vicinity of Canterbury and Maidstone; those near the former, called the City Grounds, surround it to the distance of two or three miles, and comprise between 2000 and 3000 acres. The best portion of the plantations of East Kent are upon a deep rich loamy soil, with a thick subsoil of loamy brick-earth. The plantations near Maidstone extend through the several parishes on the ragstone shelf of land which lie below the hills bordering on the Weald; the quality of the hops grown here is somewhat inferior to that of the hops of Canterbury and East Kent. In the central part of the county, the plantations are so extensive as to require thrice the amount of the labouring population of the district to gather the crops; so that numbers of people are employed from other places. In the neighbourhood of Gravesend and Deptford a large quantity of vegetables is raised for the supply of the metropolis. Great quantities of fruit, chiefly apples, cherries, and filberts, are grown in the vicinity of Maidstone, the young trees being frequently planted among the hops; and it is doubtful whether a soil more adapted to the growth of corn, fruit, and hops, conjointly, exists in the kingdom.
The Waste lands consist of about 20,000 acres, dispersed in various parts of the county, in commons, heaths, &c.: the soil of some is a cold sterile loam, that of others a wet stiff clay, but of most the soil is composed of gravel and sand. The principal Woodlands of East Kent are scattered between the great road from Rochester to Dovor and the range of chalk hills running from Folkestone, by Charing, to Debtling; their chief produce is hop-poles for the adjacent plantations, and they also furnish piles for securing the sea-walls of the marshes, and props to be used in the Newcastle coalmines. West Kent abounds with woods and coppices, of which there are about 13,000 acres; some in the Weald are still in their original forest state, and the finest oak is grown there. The manufacture of silk has been carried on to a great extent at Canterbury, but is now giving way to that of cotton. At Dovor and Maidstone are extensive mills for the manufacture of all kinds of paper, the white paper made at the latter place having long been in high repute. There are salt-works at Stonar near Sandwich, and in the Isle of Grain; at Whitstable and Deptford are large copperas-works. Gunpowder is made at Dartford, Tonbridge, and Faversham: at Crayford are extensive works for printing calico and bleaching linen; and at Woolwich, Chatham, and Sheerness, the building of vessels for the royal navy is extensively carried on.
The two great rivers are the Thames and the Medway. The Thames forms the northern boundary of the county, for upwards of forty miles, and in the whole of its course is navigable for merchant vessels of the largest burthen. The Medway, which falls into the North Sea at the mouth of the Thames, between the Isle of Grain and Sheerness, was made navigable for barges as high as Tonbridge, under the provisions of an act passed in 1740; up to Chatham it is navigable for vessels of the largest burthen. The principal fishery of the Medway is that of oysters, which is also carried on in the numerous creeks formed immediately above its influx into the sea: Rochester smelts are celebrated. There are six smaller rivers; viz., the Greater Stour, the Lesser Stour, the Rother, the Darent, the Cray, and the Ravensbourne. The Darent becomes navigable at Dartford, where it assumes the name of Dartford Creek; and falls into the Thames between two and three miles further down, at Long Reach. The Ravensbourne falls into the Thames at Deptford, where it receives the name of Deptford Creek; and is navigable for small craft for the distance of about one mile from its mouth. The Royal Military canal, constructed as a defensive work during the continental war, at the time of the threatened invasion from France, commences near Hythe, and quits this county for Sussex, near Fairfield. In 1825, an act was obtained for forming a Railroad from Whitstable to Canterbury, which passes under a tunnel, 822 yards long, a little to the north of that city; the line is six miles and a quarter in length. The South-Eastern railway branches from the Brighton railway at Reigate, in Surrey, and enters this county near Eden-bridge, whence the line is continued to Tonbridge, and to Ashford, where it curves towards the south-east, passing by Hythe and Folkestone to its terminus at Dovor. It has a short branch to Tonbridge-Wells; a branch to Maidstone; and a much longer branch to Canterbury, Ramsgate, and Margate. The county also contains a railway from Gravesend to Rochester, and a small part of the London and Greenwich line.
Few remains of the Britons have been discovered within the limits of the county: some brass celts and other weapons have been dug up in places which were probably the scenes of conflict between them and their invaders; and there are a very few cromlechs, of which the most remarkable, for its magnitude and good preservation, is that commonly called Kit's Coty House, both from its name and situation conjectured to have been erected over the grave of the British prince, Certigern, who was slain in one of the battles with Hengist. The Roman stations were, Anderida, supposed to have been at Newenden; Dubris, Dovor; Durobrivæ, Rochester; Durolevum, Judde Hill, Newington, or Sittingbourne; Durovernum, Canterbury; Lemania, Lymne; Noviomagus, Keston, or Crayford; Regulbium, Reculver; Rutupium, Richborough; and Vagniacæ, Northfleet, or Southfleet. The principal remains of Roman buildings are at Canterbury, Dovor, and Richborough; numerous relics, such as weapons, domestic utensils, &c., have been dug up in various parts of the county, on or near the sites of the several stations. In this county was made the first settlement in England of the four following Monastic orders, viz., of Augustine canons at Canterbury in 605; of Grey friars, or Franciscans, at the same place, in 1224; of Trinitarian friars at Mottenden, in the same year; and of White or Carmelite friars at Aylesford, in 1240. The religious houses before the Reformation were, of the Benedictine order, two abbeys, three priories, and five nunneries; of the Cluniac, one priory; of the Cistercian, one abbey; of Secular canons, five colleges; of Canons regular, four abbeys and five priories; of Dominicans, one priory and one nunnery; of Franciscans, two priories; of Trinitarians, one priory; of Carmelites, three priories. The number of alien priories was four; there were two commanderies of the Knights of St. John of Jerusalem, and fifteen hospitals, besides several hermitages, chantries, and free chapels. The remains are those of St. Augustine's Abbey, Canterbury, and the abbeys of Boxley, Bradsole or St. Rhadegund's, Monks-Horton, and West Malling.
Of ancient Castles, the most considerable are at Canterbury, Tonbridge, Rochester, and Dovor; besides which there are interesting remains at Allington, Cooling, Hever, Leeds, Chilham, Leybourne, Limne, Saltwood, Stutfall, Sutton-Valence, Eynsford, the Mote at Ightham, Nettlestead, and Ostenhanger. The great hall of the ancient royal palace at Eltham is, perhaps, the noblest specimen remaining in the county of the domestic architecture of the middle ages. Besides the magnificent buildings of the naval hospital at Greenwich, with its fine park, so long a favourite residence of the English sovereigns, this pleasant and fertile county abounds with elegant Mansions, fine parks, and thriving plantations. Among the most distinguished of the seats may be noticed Knowle, Cobham, Eastwell, and Waldershare. Penshurst Place is an example of the mansions of the nobility from the era of Edward III. to that of James I.; Charlton House and Summer Hill are excellent specimens of the domestic architecture of the reigns of Elizabeth and James I. In different parts of the county are Springs, the water of which is chalybeate, but those of Tonbridge-Wells are the most celebrated. At Sydenham, in the parish of Lewisham, are some springs of medicinal purgative water, resembling those of Epsom, and which, from their proximity to Dulwich, have received the name of Dulwich Wells. The custom of Gavelkind, by which lands descend to all the sons equally, prevails in Kent, and has produced a marked distinction between it and almost every other county in England, with regard to the occupation of land and the number of freeholders, the latter being very numerous, so that the Kentish yeomanry have long formed one of the strongest and most independent divisions of that important class of British subjects.
Kent-Church (St. Mary)
KENT-CHURCH (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Dore, hundred of Webtree, county of Hereford, 13 miles (S. W. by S.) from Hereford; containing 295 inhabitants. The Abergavenny and Grosmont railway intersects the north-west angle of this parish, which is bounded on the east by the river Dore, and on the south by the Munnow; the surface comprises 3246 acres. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £10. 12. 3½., and in the patronage of the Crown: the tithes have been commuted for £348. 1., and the glebe consists of 4 acres.
Kentford (St. Mary)
KENTFORD (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Mildenhall, partly in the hundred of Lackford, but chiefly in that of Risbridge, W. division of Suffolk, 4½ miles (N. E. by E.) from Newmarket; containing 152 inhabitants, and comprising 798a. 2r. 38p. The living is a rectory, united to the vicarage of Gazeley, and valued in the king's books at £7. 3. 4.: the tithes have been commuted for £172. 10., and there is a glebe of about 2 acres.
Kentisbere (St. Mary)
KENTISBERE (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Tiverton, hundred of Hayridge, Cullompton and N. divisions of Devon, 3¾ miles (E. by N.) from Cullompton; containing 1184 inhabitants. It consists of 3600 acres, of which 338 are common or waste. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £27. 18. 11½., and in the gift of the family of Wyndham: the tithes have been commuted for £409. 10., and the glebe comprises 61 acres. The church has a fine wooden screen and rood-loft.
KENTISBURY, a parish, in the union of Barnstaple, hundred of Braunton, Braunton and N. divisions of Devon, 8 miles (E. by S.) from Ilfracombe; containing 422 inhabitants. The parish comprises 2500 acres, of which 500 are common or waste: there are numerous quarries of stone for rough building and the roads. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £12. 10. 7½.; patron and incumbent, the Rev. Charles Barter Sweet: the tithes have been commuted for £260, and the glebe consists of 60 acres. The church is a neat structure, with a handsome tower apparently of earlier date than the nave and chancel.
KENTISH-TOWN, a chapelry, in the parish of St. Pancras, Holborn division of the hundred of Ossulstone, county of Middlesex, 3 miles (N.) from London; containing 10,348 inhabitants. This is a pleasant and populous village, situated between Camden-Town and Highgate, and consisting of lines of building along the road, and several good streets recently formed. To the south passes the Paddington canal, on the banks of which are coal-wharfs; there is a brewery, and the adjoining fields are chiefly occupied by cow-keepers. An act was passed in 1843 for paving, lighting, and otherwise improving the hamlet and its vicinity. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £200; patron, the Vicar of St. Pancras. The chapel, erected in 1784, was enlarged in 1816, and again in 1845; and now contains 1700 sittings. There are places of worship for Independents and Wesleyans.
KENTMERE, a chapelry, in the parish, union, and ward of Kendal, county of Westmorland, 8 miles (N. N. W.) from Kendal; containing 198 inhabitants. This place derived its name from a mere or lake formed by the river Kent, which has its source a little to the north. The chapelry comprises by computation nearly 4000 acres, and includes a narrow vale abounding with picturesque scenery; the lake was a broad expanse of water about a mile in length, surrounded by lofty fells which rendered it almost inaccessible, and though it has been recently drained, the spot has a singularly romantic appearance. The surface of the district is elevated, and strikingly diversified with hills, of which Hill-Bell is 2700 feet above the level of the sea. Kentmere Hall, the ancient residence of the Gilpins, and now occupied as a farmhouse, is a lofty quadrangular tower, four stories in height, built of rude ragstone, and having a massive and venerable aspect. Edward Wilson, Esq., of Rigmaden Hall, and Francis Pearson, Esq., of Kirkby-Lonsdale, are joint lords of the manor. The game belongs to the lords of the fee, and so stringent are the covenants contained in the ancient enfranchisement deeds, that the tenants are thereby prohibited from keeping any dogs except sheep and cur dogs. Blue slate, and limestone of good quality, are extensively quarried. The chapel was built by subscription, and endowed with Queen Anne's Bounty: the living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £70; patrons, the Landowners. Over the summit of Hill-Bell was a Roman road, which may still be distinctly traced. Bernard Gilpin, the divine, was born at the Hall in 1517.