A Topographical Dictionary of England. Originally published by S Lewis, London, 1848.
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Kenton (All Saints)
KENTON (All Saints), a parish, in the union of St. Thomas, hundred of Exminster, Wonford and S. divisions of Devon, 8¾ miles (S. S. E.) from Exeter; containing, with the chapelry of Starcross, 2313 inhabitants. This place, which was anciently a borough, and had a weekly market and an annual fair, is situated about a mile and a half from the navigable river Exe, and on the road from Exeter to Dawlish, Teignmouth, and Torquay. The parish comprises 5446 acres, of which about 3000 are arable, 1500 pasture, and the remainder common or waste; the surface is hilly, the soil rather light, and the scenery beautiful. A curious custom prevails here regarding tenancy, by which the heirs of a tenant, retaining their occupancy for three descents in succession, establish their claim to the inheritance. The living is a vicarage, valued in the king's books at £34. 13. 4.; net income, £265; patrons and appropriators, the Dean and Chapter of Salisbury. The church is a handsome structure in the decorated style, supposed to have been erected in the reign of Edward III.; it has a rich wooden screen, on which is inscribed the Creed in Latin. There are chapels at Starcross and Cofton.
Kenton, East, and West
KENTON, EAST, and WEST, a township, in the parish of Gosforth, union and W. division of Castle ward, S. division of Northumberland, 3¼ miles (N. W. by N.) from Newcastle; containing 819 inhabitants. This place gave name to a resident family, of whom Sir John de Kenton was high sheriff of the county in 1313: in 1582, John Fenwick wrought coal here; and in 1630 the whole estate belonged to Martin Fenwick. The township comprises 1341 acres, in equal portions of arable and grass land. There is a freestone-quarry, and many of the inhabitants are employed in the neighbouring collieries. The road from Newcastle to Ponteland passes by. The tithes have been commuted for £316. 17. 7., of which, two sums, each of £146. 14. 9½., are payable respectively to the Bishop and to the Dean and Chapter of Carlisle, and £23. 8. to the vicar of Newcastle.
Kenton (All Saints)
KENTON (All Saints), a parish, in the union of Plomesgate, hundred of Loes, E. division of Suffolk, 2¼ miles (N. N. E.) from Debenham; containing 287 inhabitants. It comprises 1100 acres; the surface is high table-land, and the soil clay and sand, alternated with loam. The living is a vicarage, valued in the king's books at £8; patron and impropriator, Lord Henniker: the great tithes have been commuted for £147. 4. 8.; and the vicarial for £148, with a glebe of 30 acres. The church is an ancient structure, chiefly in the early English style, with some Norman doorway arches, and a square embattled tower. There is a farm producing £20 per annum, for repairing the church; and another is let for £30, which sum is distributed among the poor. A field called the Priory Field, is supposed to have been the site of some religious foundation.
Kenwyn (St. Cuby)
KENWYN (St. Cuby), a parish, in the union of Truro, W. division of the hundred of Powder and of the county of Cornwall; containing 9555 inhabitants, of whom 4167 are within the parliamentary borough of Truro. The parish comprises 9023 acres, whereof 1945 are common or waste. It contains a considerable quantity of tin and copper ores, which were formerly procured to a great extent, though the mines are not now in operation; some silver was also extracted. The living is a vicarage, with that of Kea united, valued in the king's books at £16; patron, the Bishop of Exeter; impropriator, the Earl of Falmouth. The great tithes of Kenwyn have been commuted for £535, and the vicarial for £524. 11.; the glebe consists of 13½ acres. From the tower of the church is a fine view of the town and river of Truro, and of the surrounding country. There are churches also at Truro and Chacewater; and two new ecclesiastical districts have been constituted by the Ecclesiastical Commissioners, named respectively St. George's Kenwyn, and Baldhu: the incumbent of each district is appointed by the Crown and the Bishop, alternately.
KENYON, a township, in the parish of Newchurch, union of Leigh, hundred of West Derby, S. division of the county of Lancaster, 1 mile (E. N. E.) from Newton-in-Makerfield; containing 323 inhabitants. Early mention is made of a family of the local name, and also of the Lauton family, of whom Jordan de Lauton, in the reign of Edward I., assumed the name of Kenyon. The manor was subsequently held by the Hollands, whose heiress marrying Sir John Egerton, the third baronet, it came by descent from him to the Earl of Wilton, the now principal landowner. Kenyon Hall, the original residence of the Kenyons, was rebuilt in the 17th century, and is the property of the earl. The township comprises 1598 acres, of which 1141 are meadow and pasture, 340 arable, 3 woodland, and 114 acres roads and waste; the surface is slightly undulated, and the soil half a clayey, and half a sandy, loam.
KEPWICK, a township, in the parish of Over Silton, union of Thirsk, wapentake of Birdforth, N. riding of York, 7½ miles (N. N. E.) from Thirsk; containing 173 inhabitants. The township comprises about 2520 acres of land: the village is pleasantly situated in a deep and fertile dale, inclosed by high moorland hills. Quarries of limestone and freestone are wrought on the estate of J. S. Crompton, Esq., who has constructed a railway three miles long, at a cost of about £16,000, extending from the quarries to his stoneyard and limekilns at the west end of the township.
Kerdiston (St. Mary)
KERDISTON (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Aylsham, hundred of Eynsford, E. division of the county of Norfolk, 1½ mile (N. W. by N.) from Reepham; containing 201 inhabitants. The living is a discharged rectory, united to that of Reepham.
KERESLEY, a hamlet, in the parish of St. Michael, Coventry, union of Foleshill, N. division of the county of Warwick, 3 miles (N. N. W.) from Coventry; containing 436 inhabitants, and comprising 1021 acres. The population is employed in weaving ribbons, and in agriculture. An act for inclosing the waste lands was passed in 1841. The ecclesiastical district of Keresley is formed out of the parishes of St. Michael and Holy Trinity, Coventry; and the living is a perpetual curacy, in the patronage of the Bishop of Worcester: net income, £150, with a parsonage. The church, of which the first stone was laid in May, 1844, is in the early English style, with a tower and spire, and cost £2000: of 490 sittings, 200 are free.
KERMINCHAM, a township, in the parish of Swettenham, union of Congleton, hundred of Northwich, S. division of the county of Chester, 5½ miles (N. W.) from Congleton; containing 229 inhabitants. It comprises 1209 acres, of which 95 are common or waste: the soil is clay and loam. The tithes have been commuted for £137. 10.
KERSALL, a township, in the parish of Kneesall, union of Southwell, N. division of the wapentake of Thurgarton, S. division of the county of Nottingham, 6 miles (S. E.) from Ollerton; containing 96 inhabitants. The tithes were commuted for land and a money payment in 1778.
Kersey (St. Mary)
KERSEY (St. Mary), a parish, in the union and hundred of Cosford, W. division of Suffolk, 1¾ mile (N. W. by W.) from Hadleigh; containing 787 inhabitants, and comprising 1465 acres. An Augustine priory was founded here, at an early period, and dedicated to St. Mary and St. Anthony; at the Dissolution it was granted to King's College, Cambridge. This was formerly a considerable manufacturing place, but the population is now wholly agricultural. A fair is held on Easter-Tuesday. The living is a perpetual curacy, annexed to that of Lindsey: the tithes have been commuted for a rent-charge of £420.
Kersley, Lancashire.—See Kearsley.
Kerswell, Abbot's (St. Mary)
KERSWELL, ABBOT'S (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Newton-Abbott, hundred of Haytor, Teignbridge and S. divisions of Devon, 1¾ mile (S.) from Newton-Abbott; containing 433 inhabitants. This parish, which is situated on the road to Totnes, comprises by measurement 1461 acres. The manufacture of paper is carried on, affording employment to about 20 persons. Ochre is found in great abundance, and is manufactured for different markets: some extensive pits of clay, which is procured for the use of the Staffordshire potteries, and also alum-works, have been opened; and there are several quarries of limestone, which is used for building, and for burning into lime. The living is a vicarage, valued in the king's books at £11. 1. 3.; the patronage and impropriation belong to the Crown: the rectorial tithes have been commuted for £110, and the vicarial for £204; the glebe comprises 63 acres. The church is a handsome structure in the later English style, with a square embattled tower; the nave is separated from the aisles by columns of granite, and from the chancel by a richly-carved oak screen. The Rev. John Barnes, who was vicar during the reign of Charles I., and at the time of the usurpation of Cromwell, was buried in the chancel, in which is a stone pointing out his grave. There is a place of worship for Baptists. A Cluniac priory was founded here, subordinate to the priory of Montacute, in Somersetshire.
Kerswell, King's (St. Mary)
KERSWELL, KING'S (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Newton-Abbott, hundred of Haytor, Teignbridge and S. divisions of Devon, 2¾ miles (S. E. by S.) from Newton-Abbott; containing 845 inhabitants. This parish, which is situated on the road to Torquay, comprises 1643 acres, whereof 204 are waste or common: limestone of good quality is quarried for building and for burning into lime. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £105, arising partly from land given by Mrs. Creed in 1730, and by the vicar of St. Mary Church, who built the curate's residence in 1837; patrons and appropriators, the Dean and Chapter of Exeter. The great tithes were commuted for £210, and the vicarial for £145. The church contains some remains of ancient oak screen-work, and a monument to Sir John Denham, who is interred here. There are places of worship for Independents and Wesleyans. Several thousands of Roman coins, of the baser metals, were found on a common near the church in 1840.
KESGRAVE, a parish, in the union of Woodbridge, hundred of Carlford, E. division of Suffolk, 3¾ miles (E. by N.) from the town of Ipswich; containing 88 inhabitants, and comprising by admeasurement 800 acres. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £58; patron, Sir John Shaw, Bart.
Kessingland (St. Edmund)
KESSINGLAND (St. Edmund), a parish, in the incorporation and hundred of Mutford and Lothingland, E. division of Suffolk, 6 miles (N. E.) from Wangford; containing 658 inhabitants. This parish, which is situated on the road from London to Yarmouth, and bounded on the east by the sea, comprises by measurement 1678 acres. A signal-station has been erected, and the lofty tower of the church forms a good landmark to vessels navigating this part of the coast. The living is a discharged vicarage, endowed with the rectorial tithes, valued in the king's books at £10, and in the gift of the Bishop of Norwich: the tithes have been commuted for £405, and the glebe comprises 50 acres. The church, originally a spacious structure, of which the chancel and south aisle have been taken down, consists of the old tower, and the remaining portions, which latter were rebuilt in 1694. The parsonage-house, a handsome building, was lately erected by the Rev. D. G. Norris. In an area called the Nunnery Yard, near the parsonage, are some ruins of buildings; but there is no record of any religious house. The Wesleyans have a place of worship.
KESTON, a parish, in the union of Bromley, hundred of Ruxley, lathe of Sutton-at-Hone, W. division of Kent, 5 miles (S. by E.) from Bromley; containing 568 inhabitants. The parish comprises 1386 acres, of which 770 are arable, 280 pasture, 260 woodland, and 72 common; the soil is fertile, and the scenery pleasingly diversified. Holwood Hill, the seat of the late William Pitt, is a handsome residence, commanding extensive prospects. The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at £6. 10., and in the gift of the Archbishop of Canterbury: the tithes have been commuted for £270, and the glebe comprises 8 acres. Here are traces of a camp nearly two miles in circumference, supposed to have been a castra æstiva of the Romans; and Roman coins, tiles, and bricks, with two stone coffins, have been found at different periods. There is a fine cold spring, called Ravensbourne, the water of which is said to possess tonic properties.
KESWICK, a market-town, in the parish of Crosthwaite, union of Cockermouth, Allerdale ward below Derwent, W. division of Cumberland, 27 miles (S. S. W.) from Carlisle, and 291 (N. W. by N.) from London; containing 2442 inhabitants. This place is more celebrated for the beauty of its lake, and the magnificent scenery by which it is surrounded, than for historical interest. Prior to the time of Edward I. it was the property of an ancient family one of whose descendants in the female line, in the reign of James II., was created Earl of Derwentwater. James, the third earl, having taken part in the rebellion of 1715, was, in the early part of the following year, beheaded on Towerhill; and his large estates, being forfeited to the crown, were settled upon the Commissioners of Greenwich Hospital. The manor, with the lands, was purchased by the late John Marshall, jun., Esq., M. P. The town is romantically situated in a valley, embosomed in hills of various elevations, and sheltered by the towering Skiddaw, which crowns the lofty range of mountains that bounds the northern extremity of the vale. The houses, though chiefly of stone and generally well built, are rather neat than handsome in their appearance. A market-house, with a turret, was erected in 1814, by the Commissioners of Greenwich Hospital, for the transaction of public business; and there are some good inns and respectable lodging-houses for the accommodation of the numerous parties that make the town the principal station in their tour of the Lakes. Two museums have been formed, both well supplied with specimens of the most curious minerals and fossils with which this part of the county abounds.
The lake Derwentwater, which is within less than a mile of the town, and separated from it by rising ground, is nearly three miles and a half in length, and one mile and a half in breadth; of an irregularly elliptical form; and remarkable for the tranquillity and brilliant transparency of its waters, which reflect with additional lustre the sublime scenery that adorns its banks. On the bosom of the lake are some picturesque islands, of the richest verdure and most luxuriant foliage. Lord's Island, five acres in extent, was the site of a noble mansion belonging to the earls of Derwentwater, the foundations of which, now the only remains, may, though with difficulty, be distinguished in the woods by which they are overspread. Vicar's Island, now called Derwent Isle, containing six acres, belonged to the abbey of Fountains, at the dissolution of which it was given by Henry VIII. to John Williamson: it was for some time inhabited by a company of Dutch miners; but is now elegantly laid out in plantations and pleasure-grounds, in the centre of which is a handsome villa. St. Herbert's Island, comprising four acres, was so called from its having been for many years the site of a hermitage occupied by that saint, of whose cell there are still some faint remains: the late Sir Wilfred Lawson, Bart., built a small grotto, or fishing-cottage, on this beautifal island, which is almost in the centre of the lake. There is also an island called the Floating Island, which occasionally rises from the bottom, but, constantly adhering to the earth beneath, never changes its position; it is covered with reeds and rushes, interspersed with a variety of aquatic plants, and forms by its sterility a striking contrast to the other isles. The smooth surface of the lake is occasionally disturbed by a visible agitation of the water, when there is not a breath of wind in any part, and when the atmosphere is perfectly calm: this phenomenon is called the Bottom Wind, but the cause of it has not been satisfactorily ascertained.
The river Derwent has its course through the lake, which also receives the waters which in heavy rains issue in torrents from the fells of Borrowdale, on the south: the falls present a spectacle of awful grandeur, the torrent tumbling over huge abrupt masses of rugged cliffs, separated by a tremendous chasm. Near the south-east extremity of the lake are the falls of Lowdore, an immense amphitheatre of precipices, whose waters, rushing with impetuosity, and frequently interrupted in their descent by projecting rocks, form a stupendous cataract, the roar of which, when the violence is aggravated, in rainy seasons, may be heard at a considerable distance. At the extremities of the fall are Gowder Crag, 500 feet in height, of rude and terrific aspect, and Shepherd's Crag, in the fissures of which are almost every variety of forest-trees, plants, and flowers, growing with wild luxuriance. Within this concave range of rugged cliffs is a powerful echo, of which the numerous reverberations are repeated with great force and distinctness of articulation; a cannon discharged in this situation produces an effect equal to that of a park of artillery, the successive reverberations continuing with diminished force until they gradually die away. The northern extremity of the lake is characterised by features of majestic grandeur, the more prominent of which are the Skiddaw and Saddleback mountains; the former 3022 feet above the level of the sea, of a darkcoloured slate interspersed with verdure, in several parts affording pasturage for sheep, and terminating with a double apex almost constantly enveloped in mist; the latter undulated with graceful curve to the height of 2789 feet, of similar hue with Skiddaw, and having its northern declivity covered with herbage, and overspread with various mountain plants. In the distance, the Carrock Fell, 2290 feet in height, is seen among the interesting group of objects that add beauty and magnificence to the scenery for which Keswick and its vicinity are so deservedly celebrated.
The manufacture of coarse woollen goods is carried on in the town to some extent, consisting chiefly of kerseys, blankets, &c.: there are also several manufactories for black-lead pencils, the material for which is obtained in the well-known mine at Borrowdale, in the neighbourhood. The mountains abound in mineral wealth; and upon Greta river, which passes by the town, are corn-mills, and a forge for the manufacture of spades, scythes, and edge-tools. The market, held on Saturday, is very considerable for corn, which is pitched; and in addition to the varieties of fish which the lake produces in abundance, the town is supplied with mutton of superior flavour, and with provisions of every description. The old shambles, which stood at the north end of the town-hall, were pulled down in 1815, and a new structure was erected. The fairs are on the Saturdays before Whitsuntide and Martinmas, for hiring servants; and on the Saturday next after Oct. 29th, for cheese and sheep: on the first Thursday in May, and every alternate Thursday for six weeks following, there are small fairs for horses and cattle; and a large cattle-market is held on Oct. 11th. The county debt-court of Keswick, established in 1847, has jurisdiction over the sub-registration-district of Keswick, and the chapelries of Newlands, Buttermere, and Threlkeld.
The parochial church stands about three-quarters of a mile north-westward from Keswick. The district church of St. John, at the southern extremity of the town, was erected in 1839, at a cost, including the parsonage-house, of more than £12,000, defrayed by the late John Marshall, jun., Esq., and has been endowed by his representatives; it is an elegant structure in the early English style, with an embattled tower surmounted by a spire, and on the south side is an octagonal building with a pyramidal roof, used as a vestry. The living is a perpetual curacy, in the patronage of Mrs. Marshall, widow of the founder. There are places of worship for Independents and Wesleyans. About a mile to the south, on an eminence, the summit of which forms a plain of considerable extent, is a supposed Druidical temple. Sir John Banks, lord chief justice in the reign of Charles I., was born at Keswick, in 1589: the parish workhouse was founded by him, and in 1644 he bequeathed £200 for building a manufactory, also lands now producing £200 per annum, for employing the poor. The place was for some time the residence of Samuel Taylor Coleridge; and Robert Southey for a long period lived at Greta Hall, near the town, where he died in March, 1843.
Keswick (St. Mary)
KESWICK (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Henstead, hundred of Humbleyard, E. division of Norfolk, 3 miles (S. S. W.) from Norwich, on the road to Ipswich; containing 117 inhabitants. It is situated on the south bank of the river Yare, and comprises 712 acres; the lands are in good cultivation, and the scenery is picturesque. The New Hall is a handsome mansion on an eminence, in grounds beautifully laid out, and commanding fine views. The living is a rectory, consolidated in 1597 with that of Intwood, and valued in the king's books at £5: there is a glebe of about 30 acres, with a small cottage. The church, which is in ruins, appears to have been a small edifice, with a round tower of great antiquity.
KESWICK, EAST, a township, in the parish of Harewood, Lower division of the wapentake of Skyrack, W. riding of York, 4 miles (S. W.) from Wetherby; containing 465 inhabitants. The township is skirted on the north by the river Wharfe, and comprises about 1500 acres; the substratum abounds with limestone, which is quarried, and burnt into lime. The village is pleasantly situated on the banks of a rivulet, and the surrounding scenery is picturesque. Here is a place of worship for Wesleyans. On one of the farms is a stone wall, partially encompassed with a moat, and which formed part of an ancient mansion of the Gascoignes.
KETLEY, a township and ecclesiastical district, in the parish and union of Wellington, hundred of South Bradford, N. division of Salop, l½ mile (E.) from Wellington; containing 2642 inhabitants. This place forms part of the iron and coal mining district of Shropshire. It contains many ironstone and coal pits, some of which are in full work, and there are three blastfurnaces for the smelting of iron, employing several hundred hands; the mining was of still greater extent a few years since. The stone-quarries here produce a fine and durable stone for all kinds of building purposes. Fossils are frequently found in the coal and ironstone. Several canals meet in the neighbourhood, one of which is connected with the Severn at Coalport, about five miles distant. The living is a perpetual curacy, in the patronage of the Duke of Sutherland, who is owner of the township. The church, erected at the expense of his Grace, and consecrated in Aug. 1839, is an elegant and substantial stone structure in the later English style, situated on an eminence commanding fine views of the Shropshire and Cheshire plains, the celebrated Wrekin, and many of the Welsh mountains.
Ketsby (St. Margaret)
KETSBY (St. Margaret), formerly a parish, but now a hamlet in the parish of South Ormsby, union of Spilsby, hundred of Hill, parts of Lindsey, county of Lincoln, 8½ miles (N. N. W.) from Spilsby; containing 58 inhabitants. The church is in ruins.
Kettering (St. Peter)
KETTERING (St. Peter), a market-town and parish, and the head of a union, in the hundred of Huxloe, N. division of the county of Northampton, 14 miles (N. E. by N.) from Northampton, and 75 (N. W.) from London; containing 4867 inhabitants. The Saxon name of this town was Cytringham, the etymology of which is uncertain. At the Norman survey the manor and church belonged to the abbey of Burgh, or Peterborough, and they continued in the possession of that house until the Dissolution. The town, which has of late years much improved in appearance, is situated on the declivity of a hill, at the foot of which flows a small stream that joins the Ice brook, a branch of the river Nene. The manufacture of shoes affords employment to a considerable number of persons; and the weaving of ribbons and Persians, and of silk shag for hats, is also extensively carried on: there are two brush manufactories. The market is on Friday; and fairs are held on the Thursday before Easter, Friday before Whit-Sunday, Thursday before Old Michaelmas-day, and the Thursday before the festival of St. Thomas. Petty-sessions for Kettering division are held every alternate Friday. The powers of the county debt-court of Kettering, established in 1847, extend over the registrationdistrict of Kettering. The town is the place of election for the northern division of the shire.
The parish comprises, according to the survey made at the time of its inclosure, 2618a. 3r. 2p., of which about two-thirds are arable and one-third pasture; the surface is varied, and the scenery generally pleasing, but there are not more than two or three acres of plantations. The whole parish is copyhold; and the Duke of Buccleuch, and the Hon. Richard Watson, brother of Lord Sondes, are joint lords of the manor. The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at £34. 13. 4., and in the patronage of the Hon. Richard Watson, with a net income of £786: the tithes were commuted for land and a money payment in 1804. The church is a handsome edifice, in the later English style, with a fine tower at the west end, having double buttresses, and octagonal turrets at the angles, and surmounted by an octagonal crocketed spire; round the base of the spire, and connected with the angular turrets, is an embattled parapet, which commands an extensive and beautiful prospect. There are places of worship for Baptists, the Society of Friends, Independents, and Wesleyans. An ancient free grammar school is endowed with land and houses producing about £160 per annum: national schools are supported chiefly by subscription; and there is a small girls' school, called Bridges' school, endowed with £22 per annum. An hospital for six widows was founded by Mr. Sawyer, in 1688. The poor-law union of Kettering comprises 28 parishes or places, and contains a population of 18,327. In 1726, several coins were discovered of Trajan, Marcus Aurelius, Constantine, and other Roman emperors; also of Carausius, who assumed the purple in Britain; together with a brass seal having the figure of St. Michael engraved on it, and other antique remains. Dr. John Gill, an eminent oriental and biblical scholar, was born here in 1697. Queen Victoria and her consort passed through the town on her way to Burleigh, on the 12th November, 1844, and on her return, November 15th.