A Topographical Dictionary of England. Originally published by S Lewis, London, 1848.
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Coningsby (St. Michael)
CONINGSBY (St. Michael), a parish, in the union and soke of Horncastle, parts of Lindsey, county of Lincoln, 8 miles (S.) from Horncastle; containing 1959 inhabitants. This parish, which is situated on the rivers Bain and Witham, and on the road from Sleaford to Horncastle, comprises by computation 3400 acres; the surface is flat, and the soil chiefly sand and gravel. An act for more effectually draining the lands was obtained in 1840. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £39. 10. 2½., and in the gift of Sir Gilbert Heathcote, Bart.: the tithes were commuted at the inclosure in 1802, for 600 acres of land, valued at £644 per annum. The church is a handsome structure, in the early English style. There are places of worship for General Baptists, and Primitive and Wesleyan Methodists. The poet Dyer, who was for six years resident in this parish, of which he was rector, was buried in the churchyard.
Conington (St. Mary)
CONINGTON (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of St. Ives, hundred of Papworth, county of Cambridge, 3¼ miles (S. by E.) from St. Ives; containing 196 inhabitants. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £9. 15. 10.; net income, £238; patron, the Bishop of Ely. The tithes were commuted for land in 1799. There is an endowed school. Traces of the moat surrounding the site of an ancient fortress, called Bruce Castle, may be discerned.
Conington (All Saints)
CONINGTON (All Saints), a parish, in the hundred of Norman-Cross, union and county of Huntingdon, 3 miles (S. E. by S.) from Stilton; containing 224 inhabitants. The lordship, together with the ancient castle, of which there are some vestiges in the village, was given by Canute to Turkill, a Danish lord, who, taking advantage of his residence among the East Angles, invited over Sueno to plunder the country. After Turkill's departure it fell to Waldeof, Earl of Huntingdon, who married Judith, niece to the Conqueror, from whom it descended to the royal line of Scotland, and thence to the Cottons, ancestors of Sir Robert Cotton, celebrated for his valuable collection of books and MSS., known by the name of the Cottonian Library. The parish is situated near the north road, between Alconbury Hill and Stilton, and comprises 3089 acres, which consist partly of highland and partly of fen, the former a clayey soil, and the lower parts extremely fertile, with some excellent meadow and pasture. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £19. 6. 8., and in the gift of J. Heathcote, Esq.: the tithes have been commuted for £450, and the glebe contains 27 acres, with a glebe-house, lately built. The church is a large handsome structure, erected in the reign of Henry VII., and has an embattled tower with octagonal pinnacles; the interior has lately undergone extensive repairs, and contains many monuments to the Cottons, and an inscribed tablet to the memory of Prince Henry of Scotland, Lord of Conington, &c. The Rev. James Oram, in 1769, left £1000 for the endowment of two schools, one being at this place. Sir Robert Cotton, on making an excavation for a pond, found the skeleton of a sea fish, twenty feet long, lying in perfect silt, about six feet below the surface of the ground.
Conisbrough (St. Peter)
CONISBROUGH (St. Peter), a parish, in the union of Doncaster, S. division of the wapentake of Strafforth and Tickhill, W. riding of York, 6½ miles (N. E. by E.) from Rotherham; containing 1445 inhabitants. This place, which is situated on the road from Sheffield to Doncaster, is of high antiquity, and has been connected with all the different dynasties by which Britain has been governed: it is stated to have been the seat of a civil jurisdiction, comprising twenty-eight towns, and is famed for the ruin of its Saxon castle, which stands upon a conical hill rising abruptly from the Don, and consists of the body of a circular tower encompassed by the ordinary concomitants of strong fortifications. Conisbrough is first mentioned as a fortress belonging to Hengist, the Saxon leader, who was defeated here in 487, by Aurelius Ambrosius, and again in 489, at which period, according to Geoffrey of Monmouth, he was made prisoner and beheaded at the northern gate of the citadel, where a tumulus is said to cover his relics: some, however, suppose that the present pile was erected by Earl Warren, to whom William the Conqueror gave the manor. In this castle, Richard, Earl of Cambridge, second son of the Duke of York, and grandson of Edward III., was born; he was beheaded for conspiring against Henry V. The round tower, or keep, is almost perfect, the remaining part forming a picturesque ruin: one of the principal scenes in Sir Walter Scott's romance of Ivanhoe is laid here. The parish comprises about 4000 acres of fertile land, in the vale of the Don, and abounds with beautiful scenery. Limestone of good quality is quarried to some extent, and the inhabitants are partly employed in the manufacture of linen checks. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £8. 12. 8½.; patron, the Archbishop of York; impropriators, Sackville Lane Fox, Esq., and others. The great tithes have been commuted for £366. 16., the vicarial for £223. 6., and a rent-charge of £1. 11. is paid to the archbishop; the glebe contains 66½ acres, with a glebe-house. The church is of Norman character, combined with the early, decorated, and later styles of English architecture; and had formerly a chantry, founded in the fifteenth of Edward II.: there are several monuments, and the mutilated statue of a knight, together with a curious stone adorned with many hieroglyphics. Here is a place of worship for Wesleyans.
Coniscliffe (St. Edwin)
CONISCLIFFE (St. Edwin), a parish, in the union of Darlington, S. E. division of Darlington ward, S. division of the county of Durham; containing, with the townships of Carlebury and Low Coniscliffe, 422 inhabitants, of whom 244 are in the township of High Coniscliffe, 4 miles (W. by N.) from Darlington, on the road to Barnard-Castle. The village of High Coniscliffe, in which stands the church, is situated on the north bank of the Tees, occupying an eminence nearly surrounded by quarries. The living is a vicarage, endowed with a portion of the rectorial tithes, and valued in the king's books at £7. 18. 1½.; patron, the Bishop of Durham; impropriator of the remainder of the rectorial tithes, P. H. Howard, Esq. The great tithes have been commuted for £179, and the small for £182; the vicar has a glebe of 60 acres. The church is a very ancient structure, partly in the Norman and partly early English, with a Norman tower surmounted by a handsome spire. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans.
CONISCLIFFE, LOW, a township, in the parish of Coniscliffe, union of Darlington, S. E. division of Darlington ward, S. division of the county of Durham, 3 miles (W.) from Darlington; containing 134 inhabitants. This place is on the north bank of the Tees, and on the road from Darlington to Carlebury. Thornton Hall, within the township, now a farmhouse, was the seat of the Tailbois, the Thornton, the Bowes, and Honeywood families.
Conisholm (St. Peter)
CONISHOLM (St. Peter), a parish, in the union of Louth, Marsh division of the hundred of LouthEske, parts of Lindsey, county of Lincoln, 8¼ miles (N. E. by E.) from Louth; containing 146 inhabitants. The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at £9. 13. 6½., and in the gift of the Earl of Ripon: the tithes have been commuted for £180. 2. 6., and the glebe contains 64 acres. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans.
CONISTON, a township, in the parish of Swine, union of Skirlaugh, Middle division of the wapentake of Holderness, E. riding of York, 5½ miles (N. E. by N.) from Hull; containing 110 inhabitants. The abbey of Thornton had possessions at this place (styled in Domesday book Coiningsesbi) in the 12th century; the monastery of Swine held land here at a later period; and among other proprietors in former times occurs the family of Cobbe. The township consists of about 600 acres; the village is pleasantly situated on the road from Hull to Hornsea. The tithes were commuted for land and a money payment in 1789.
Coniston, with Kilnsay
CONISTON, with Kilnsay, a chapelry, in the parish of Burnsall, union of Skipton, E. division of the wapentake of Staincliffe and Ewcross, W. riding of York, 12 miles (N. by E.) from Skipton; containing 172 inhabitants. The chapelry comprises by computation 5380 acres, a great portion of which is open moorland, affording tolerable pasture. Kilnsay Craggs, a lofty range of limestone rocks rising to the height of 170 feet, presenting a rugged front more than half a mile in length, and in places overhanging the line of their base nearly forty feet, form a strikingly grand and romantic feature in the scenery of Wharfdale. The chapel, dedicated to St. Mary, is a small neat edifice.
CONISTON, COLD, a township, in the parish of Gargrave, union of Skipton, E. division of the wapentake of Staincliffe and Ewcross, W. riding of York, 7 miles (W. N. W.) from Skipton; containing 242 inhabitants. This place was distinguished during the Border warfare for the intrepid conduct of its inhabitants, who in an attempt to resist the progress of an army of Scottish invaders at a spot called Sweep Gap, on the northern side of Coniston Moor, were nearly all killed. The township comprises by computation 1710 acres, chiefly moorland affording excellent pasture; the village is situated on the road to Settle, and the surrounding scenery is pleasingly diversified. Here is a church dedicated to St. Peter, the living of which is a perpetual curacy, in the gift of J. G. Garforth, Esq.: a consolidated chapelry is annexed, comprising part of the parishes of Gargrave and Kirkby-Malhamdale.
Coniston, Monk, with Skelwith
CONISTON, MONK, with Skelwith, a township, in the parish of Hawkshead, union of Ulverston, hundred of Lonsdale north of the Sands, N. division of the county of Lancaster, 4 miles (W. by N.) from Hawkshead; containing 470 inhabitants, of whom 259 are in Monk-Coniston. This place consists of various groups of houses and neat cottages, roofed with slate from the adjacent mountains, and beautifully scattered round the head of Coniston Lake, anciently called Thurston Water, which is about six miles in length from north to south, about half a mile in its greatest width, and about twenty-seven fathoms in depth. The lake abounds with char, said to be of finer flavour than the char of other lakes; and at the head, on the margin of the water, is an inn for the accommodation of visiters, where post-horses, carriages, and pleasure-boats are always in readiness. The scenery around abounds with every variety of picturesque and romantic grandeur. A church was erected and endowed by Mr. Redmayne, on the Brathey Hall estate, here, in 1835, and consecrated the year following; it is a neat edifice on the road from Hawkshead to Ambleside, near Brathey Bridge, where are two pleasing cascades.
CONISTONE, CHURCH, a chapelry, in the parish and union of Ulverston, hundred of Lonsdale north of the Sands, N. division of the county of Lancaster, 6 miles (S. W.) from Ambleside; containing 1148 inhabitants. The manor, which was held by the Urswicks, passed by marriage in the reign of Henry III. to the le Flemings, and became the seat of seven descents of the family. About the 10th of Henry IV., Thomas le Fleming married one of the four daughters of Sir John de Lancaster, by whom he acquired the manor of Rydal, in Westmorland; and for seven generations more, Rydal and Conistone vied to fix the family in Westmorland or Lancashire. Sir Daniel Fleming, Bart., died in 1821, leaving his lady his estates. The township is the most northern part of the county, stretching to the shire-stone near the hills of Wrynose and Hard-Knot; within its limits are Yewdale and the reputed lordship of Tilberthwaite. The population of the village has increased from the flourishing state of the copper-mines and slate-quarries here. A fair for cattle is held on the third Saturday in September. The chapel was consecrated in 1586, and re-erected in 1819, when 230 additional sittings were provided: the living is a perpetual curacy, in the patronage of T. R. G. Braddyll, Esq.; net income, £100. To the north-west of the village is the Old Man, the most elevated mountain in the county, 2576 feet above the level of the sea; on its summit are three heaps of stones called the Old Man, his Wife, and Son, supposed relics of the Sabæan superstition.
CONONLEY, a township, in the parish of Kildwick, union of Skipton, E. division of the wapentake of Staincliffe and Ewcross, W. riding of York, 3 miles (S.) from Skipton; containing 1159 inhabitants. The township formerly constituted a joint township with Farnhill, from which it was separated in 1838; it comprises by computation 1500 acres. The village is pleasantly situated on the western acclivity of Airedale, and the surrounding scenery is pleasingly diversified. A lead-mine was opened in 1840. Tithe rentcharges have been awarded amounting to £62. 3., of which £33. 14. 6. are payable to the Dean and Chapter of Christ-Church, Oxford, and £28. 8. 6. to the vicar of the parish.
Consall, Staffordshire.—See Cunsall.
Conside, or Consett, with Knitsley
CONSIDE, or CONSETT, with Knitsley, a township, in the chapelry of Medomsley, parish and union of Lanchester, W. division of Chester ward, N. division of the county of Durham, 14½ miles (N. W. by W.) from Durham; containing 195 inhabitants. This place, anciently Conkesheved, was successively in the possession of various families, and once belonged to the Halls, of whom several had a taste for literary pursuits, especially John Hall, born in 1627, who was a man of very considerable talent, and is commemorated by Antony a Wood. The township comprises 2353 acres, of which 1561 are arable, 520 pasture, and 272 woodland. Extensive iron-works are carried on at Consett, being a recent revival of the ancient manufacture of which this neighbourhod was the seat; the Romans, and, about two centuries ago, a colony of Germans who had settled at Shotley-Bridge, having worked the mines, the produce of which, known as the Derwent iron, is very superior. Coal is also abundant, and, being the outcrop of the Durham coal-field, is probably worked at less expense than that of any other part of the kingdom. Fire-bricks are manufactured; and besides the coal and iron, a considerable traffic exists in lead, lime, and timber. The Stanhope railway, in connexion with the Pontop and Shields railway, intersects the township.
Constantine (St. Constantine)
CONSTANTINE (St. Constantine), a parish, in the union of Falmouth, E. division of the hundred of Kerrier, W. division of Cornwall, 5½ miles (N. E. by E.) from Helston; containing 2042 inhabitants. This parish, which is bounded on the south by the navigable river Hel, and includes a part of the port of Gweek, comprises 8000 acres by computation: the soil near the river is rich and fertile, but in the higher parts sterile rock; the hills are chiefly of granite. The village is pleasantly situated on an eminence nearly surrounded by tin-works, and commands some delightful views of the river, with its numerous creeks, the banks of which are finely clothed with wood. A copper and tin mine, called Wheal-Vyvyan, is worked; and large masses of granite are scattered over the surface of the lands, of size sufficient for building bridges. Great quantities of oysters are sent from Merthen, on the river, to Rochester. The petty-sessions for the division are held here. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £19. 3. 10½., and in the gift of the Dean and Chapter of Exeter, who are also appropriators: the tithes have been commuted for £480 payable to the appropriators, and £485. 12. to the incumbent, who has a glebe of 11 acres. The church contains an ancient monument, with a brass, to the family of Gervis. There are places of worship for Wesleyans and Bryanites. On the estate of Mayere, in the parish, is a vast rock of granite computed to weigh 750 tons, called the Tolmen, in the shape of an egg, with several excavations on the top, curiously poised upon two others; and at a short distance is another mass, of circular form, resembling a cap. The sites of decayed chapels are discernible at Bonallock and Budockvean; and near the church, a bag, full of silver coins of Arthur and Canute, was found about the close of the seventeenth century.
Cookbury (St. John The Baptist)
COOKBURY (St. John The Baptist), a parish, in the union of Holsworthy, hundred of Black Torrington, Holsworthy and N. divisions of Devon, 4¾ miles (E. N. E.) from Holsworthy; containing 301 inhabitants. The parish comprises 1833 acres, of which 1083 are common or waste. The living is a perpetual curacy, annexed to the rectory of Milton-Damerell.
Cookham (Holy Trinity)
COOKHAM (Holy Trinity), a parish, the head of a union, and formerly a market-town, in the hundred of Cookham, county of Berks, 3½ miles (N. by E.) from Maidenhead; containing 3676 inhabitants. This parish, extending south-westward to Maidenhead Thicket, and comprehending the whole of that waste, is situated on the river Thames, by which it is bounded on the north and east; and comprises by measurement about 10,000 acres, of which nearly 4000 are arable, more than 1000 grass, 93 in orchards, 151 wood, and 884 common. There is a considerable hamlet called Cookham-Dean, about a mile and a half to the west of the village, bordering upon Bisham, and consisting of scattered cottages; it is noted for its orchards, rural scenery, and woodland; and the wildness of its character, in the midst of a highly cultivated neighbourhood, renders it the more attractive to the lover of nature in her simpler form. A bridge has been built across the Thames, which greatly facilitates traffic, and affords ready access out of Buckinghamshire to the Great Western railway. The manufacture of coarse paper is carried on; fairs are held on May 16th and October 11th. The living is a vicarage, valued in the king's books at £14. 14. 2.; patron, John Rogers, Esq.; impropriators, the landowners. The great tithes have been commuted for £1252, and the vicarial for £480; there is a vicarial glebe of 7½ acres. Near the entrance into the chancel of the church is a brass plate to the memory of Sir Edward Stockton, vicar of the parish, who died in 1534, and is styled "Pylgrym of Jerusalem, and canon professed of the House of our Lady at Guisbro' in Yorkshire:" this no longer appears, being probably concealed by a pew. Several descendants of General Washington, and Mr. Hooke, the historian of the Roman empire, are interred in the church. There is an episcopal chapel in that part of Maidenhead situated in the parish; and at Cookham-Dean is a church dedicated to St. John, which has a chapelry district attached. The Independents and Wesleyans have places of worship. The poor law union of Cookham comprises 7 parishes or places, and contains a population of 11,060.
Cookley (St. Michael)
COOKLEY (St. Michael), a parish, in the union and hundred of Blything, E. division of Suffolk, 2½ miles (W. S. W.) from Halesworth; containing 324 inhabitants, and comprising by computation 1664 acres. The living is a discharged rectory, united to that of Huntingfield, and valued in the king's books at £6. 13. 4. The church is chiefly in the later English style, and consists of a nave and chancel, with an embattled tower; the font is curiously sculptured, and there is a Norman doorway on the north side filled up. A school was founded by Thomas Neale, in 1701.
COOKLEY, a hamlet, in the parish of Wolverley, union of Kidderminster, Lower division of the hundred of Oswaldslow, Kidderminster and W. divisions of the county of Worcester, 3 miles (N. by E.) from Kidderminster. The soil here is of light quality, and good for the cultivation of turnips and barley; the surface is undulated, and the scenery very pleasing. The river Stour and the Staffordshire and Worcestershire canal pass through the hamlet. The village lies about a mile higher up the stream than Wolverley; it is a busy manufacturing place. The Cookley ironworks, established two centuries ago, and now the property of Messrs. John Knight and Company, employ 550 hands in making iron and tin plates, and all kinds of best iron; and the Wood-Screw Company employ 150 hands. The cottages of the workmen and villagers are very neat. The Wesleyans have a place of worship; and an infant school is supported by the Sebright charity.