A Topographical Dictionary of England. Originally published by S Lewis, London, 1848.
This free content was digitised by double rekeying. All rights reserved.
Lenham (St. Mary)
LENHAM (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Hollingbourne, hundred of Eyhorne, lathe of Aylesford, W. division of Kent, 10 miles (E. by S.) from Maidstone; containing 2214 inhabitants. The parish is situated on the road from London to Folkestone, and comprises 6948a. 2r. 1p., of which 3497 acres are arable, 1825 pasture, 800 woodland, 160 in hop plantations, and 46 garden-ground. There are quarries of Kentish ragstone, which is burnt as a substitute for lime, and is also used for building, and repairing the roads. Fairs for horses and cattle are held on the 6th of June and 23rd of October. The living is a vicarage, valued in the king's books at £13. 15. 2½.; patron, T. F. Best, Esq.; impropriator, G. Douglas, Esq. The great tithes have been commuted for £1205, and the vicarial for £670; the glebe comprises 11 acres. The church is a handsome structure, with a tower, and contains sixteen ancient stalls, a stone confessional, and other relics of antiquity. There is a place of worship for Independents. John Foord, in 1766, founded a school, and endowed it with £300, now applied in aid of a national school. In 1622, Anthony Honywood erected and endowed six almshouses for widows.
Lenton (Holy Trinity)
LENTON (Holy Trinity), a parish, in the union of Radford, S. division of the wapentake of Broxtow, N. division of the county of Nottingham, 1½ mile (S. W.) from Nottingham; containing 4467 inhabitants. This place was granted by the Conqueror to his son William Peveril, who, in the reign of Henry I., founded a Cluniac priory here in honour of the Holy Trinity, which, being subordinate to the abbey of Cluny, was, on the suppression of alien priories, made denizen. The priory continued to flourish till the Dissolution, when its revenue was returned at £417. 19. 3., and in the 5th of Elizabeth the site and remains were granted to John Harrington: there are scarcely any vestiges; but several stone coffins, a curious Norman font, now put up in the church, a crucifix, and some other relics have been dug out of the ruins. The parish takes its name from the small river Leen. It is beautifully situated in the vale of that river, near its confluence with the Trent, and comprises 5970 acres, of which 3409 are in Beskwood Park, the property of the Duke of St. Alban's, a detached portion of the parish five miles distant from the village of Lenton, and 261 at Hyson-Green, nearly two miles distant. The two last portions are chiefly arable; while the lands in Lenton are principally rich meadows, with some corn land, and several acres of garden-ground. The substratum contains coal of good quality, of which a seam five feet in thickness is now being worked by Lord Middleton. Lenton Hall, a handsome mansion, is the residence of Francis Wright, Esq.
The village of New Lenton is spacious and well built, and the inhabitants are chiefly employed in the manufacture of lace; there are also a large bleaching establishment, a starch manufactory, a leather factory, two steam flour-mills, two others driven by water, and two extensive malting establishments. The Nottingham and Cromford canal is here joined by a cut called the Trent navigation, on which are some small wharfs; and the Midland railway runs for nearly a mile and a half through the parish. Fairs for cattle are held on the Wednesday in Whitsun-week, and November 11th. The Peverel court, which was granted by charter of William the Conqueror, and confirmed by charters of Charles II. and Queen Anne, is held here every Tuesday, for the recovery of debts not exceeding £50, under a steward, deputy steward, judge, prothonotary, and capital bailiff; and attached to it is a prison for debtors. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £9. 2. 5½.; net income, £230, chiefly from land assigned in lieu of tithes in 1767 and 1796; patron and impropriator, the Crown. The late church, a very ancient structure originally belonging to an hospital dedicated to St. Anthony, was pulled down with the exception of the chancel, reserved for the burial-service, and a new church was consecrated in October, 1842; the cost of its erection, £6000, being principally contributed by Francis Wright, Esq., and his family: it is a noble structure in the later English style, and has 900 sittings. A parsonage-house, in a corresponding style, has been built at a cost of £1500, of which £1000 were given by Mr. Wright, and £500 by the Ecclesiastical Commissioners. At Hyson-Green is a second church, dedicated to St. Paul, and consecrated April 18th, 1844; it cost £1911, and is a neat building in the early English style, with a small tower: the living is in the gift of the Crown, and has a net income of £150. There are places of worship for Baptists and Wesleyans. A commodious national school has been built at a cost of £2000, almost exclusively by Mr. Wright; and an infant school is supported by the Misses Wright.
Leominster (St. Peter and St. Paul)
LEOMINSTER (St. Peter and St. Paul), a parish, and the head of a union, in the hundred of Wolphy, county of Hereford; comprising the borough of Leominster, which has separate jurisdiction, and the townships of Brierley, Broadward, Cholstrey, Eaton, Hide with Wintercott, Ivington, Newtown, Stagbatch, Stretford with Hennor, and Wharton; the whole containing 4916 inhabitants, of whom 3892 are in the ancient borough, 13½ miles (N.) from Hereford, and 137 (W. N. W.) from London. This place, according to Leland, partly derives its name from a minster or monastery, founded here about 660 by Merwald, King of West Mercia, who is also said to have had a castle or palace about half a mile eastward of the town. A fortress was standing in 1055, when it was seized by the Welsh chieftains, and fortified. At the time of the Norman survey, the manor, with its appurtenances, was assigned by Edward the Confessor to his queen, Editha; and in the reign of William Rufus, the fortifications were strengthened to secure the place against the incursions of the Welsh. In the reign of John the town, priory, and church, were plundered and burned by William de Breos, Lord of Brecknock; in the time of Henry IV. the town was in the possession of Owain Glyndwr, after he had defeated the Earl of March. In the sixteenth century, the inhabitants took a decisive part in the establishment of Mary on the throne, for which service she granted them a charter of incorporation, in the year 1554. The monastery founded by Merwald having been destroyed by the Danes, a college of prebendaries, and, subsequently, an abbey of nuns, were established; but these institutions were destroyed previously to the time of Edward I., who endowed the abbey of Reading with the monastery of Leominster, which afterwards became a cell: the revenue, at the Dissolution, was £660. 16. 8.
The town is situated in a rich and fertile valley, on the banks of the river Lugg, which bounds it on the north and east; the Kenwater and Pinsley, two smaller streams, pass through the town itself, and three other rivulets within half a mile. The streets are paved, and lighted with gas, and the inhabitants are well supplied with water from springs; several of the houses are in the ancient style of timber and brick, the beams being painted black, and ornamented with grotesque carvings. There are a public reading-room, or subscription library, and a theatre. Near the town is a good race-course, where races take place about the end of August; and an agricultural society holds its meetings here. The wool produced in the neighbourhood is excellent, and the cider and hops are in high estimation. An act was passed in 1846 for a railway from Hereford, by Leominster, to Shrewsbury. The market is on Friday. Fairs are held on Feb. 13th, the Tuesday after Mid-Lent Sunday, May 2nd, July 10th, Sept. 4th, and Nov. 8th; and two new fairs have been established, one on June 29th, for wool, the other on Oct. 17th, for cattle and hops; besides which, there is a great market on the Friday after Dec. 11th. A neat market-house, for the sale of grain, was erected in 1803.
The charter of incorporation granted by Queen Mary was confirmed and extended by several subsequent sovereigns, who vested the government in a bailiff, chief steward, recorder, and 24 capital burgesses, with a chamberlain, town-clerk, two serjeants-at-mace, and other officers. The borough is now under the control of a mayor, four aldermen, and twelve councillors, elected agreeably to the act of the 5th and 6th of William IV., cap. 76; and the number of magistrates is six. The town has sent two members to parliament since the 23rd of Edward I.: the right of election was formerly vested in the bailiff, capital burgesses, and other inhabitants paying scot and lot, in number about 734; but, by the act of the 2nd and 3rd of William IV., cap. 64, the limits of the ancient borough were enlarged, so as to include, for elective purposes, the £10 householders of the entire parish. A court of record is held for the trial of causes every Monday, the proceedings in which have been assimilated to those of the superior courts at Westminster. The powers of the county debt-court of Leominster, established in 1847, extend over the registration-district of Leominster, and five adjacent parishes. Petty-sessions for the Lower division of the hundred of Wolphy take place here; and there is a court leet annually. The town hall, or butter-cross, was built in 1633, and is a singular edifice of timber and brick, supported by curiously carved pillars of oak. A gaol was erected in 1750.
The parish extends over 7284 acres, of which 784 are in the ancient borough: John Arkwright, Esq., of Hampton Court, is lord of the manor. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £10. 3. 8., and in the patronage of the Crown; net income, £200. The church is a spacious and irregular structure, exhibiting specimens of every period of Norman and English architecture. The tower, at the northwest angle, is of Norman character at the base, and of a later style in the upper stages; the western doorway, which is extremely beautiful, is ornamented with pillars and receding arch mouldings. The windows are in the decorated and later English styles; the massive pillars in the north aisle, supporting round arches surmounted by Norman arcades, are particularly curious: the south side, which is modern, is appropriated to the performance of divine service; the altar-piece is a painting of the Last Supper. At Ivington, about a mile and a half from the town, is a district church. There are places of worship for Baptists, the Society of Friends, Moravians, Wesleyans, and Unitarians. A free grammar school, founded by Queen Mary, is partly supported by an endowment of £20 per annum. An almshouse for four widows was founded and endowed by Hester Clark, in 1735. The poor-law union of Leominster comprises 25 parishes or places, and contains a population of 14,393. The place confers the title of Baron upon the Earl of Pomfret, who is styled Baron Lempster, that having been the ancient name of the town.
Leominster (St. Mary Magdalene)
LEOMINSTER (St. Mary Magdalene), a parish, in the hundred of Poling, rape of Arundel, W. division of Sussex, 2 miles (S. S. E.) from Arundel; containing, with the tything of Warningcamp, 785 inhabitants. This was the seat of a priory of Benedictine nuns, established by Roger de Mortimer, Earl of Arundel, in the reign of William the Conqueror, and which, on the suppression of alien priories, was granted to Eton College. At Pynham de Calceto, or the Causeway, a priory of Black canons was founded by Adeliza, second wife of Henry I., which continued till the Dissolution, when its revenues, amounting to £43, were given to Cardinal Wolsey, for the endowment of his intended colleges. The parish is situated on the Brighton and Chichester road, and bounded on the west by the river Arun. The Brighton and Chichester railway, opened in 1846, crosses the river here by a bridge of very peculiar construction, called a telescope-bridge, the first of its kind: it was necessary to have a clear water-way for shipping, of 60 feet, and this object was attained by the erection of the present bridge, which can be opened in a few minutes. The living is a vicarage, valued in the king's books at £9. 1. 3., and in the patronage of the Provost and Fellows of Eton College (to whom the impropriation belongs), on the nomination of the Bishop of Chichester: the great tithes have been commuted for £375, and the vicarial for £350; the impropriate glebe comprises 5 acres. The church is an ancient structure in the early English style, with a lofty embattled tower. Richard Wyatt, Esq., of Court Wyche, in 1822 bequeathed £5000 three per cents., to be applied to the erection and endowment of a school after the death of his lady, which took place in 1839. There is a chalybeate spring on the Causeway Hill.
LEONARD, ST., a chapelry, in the parish of AstonClinton, union and hundred of Aylesbury, county of Buckingham, 3 miles (E. by S.) from Wendover; containing 178 inhabitants. The living is a donative; patrons and impropriators, Sir J. D. King, Bart., and others, as trustees. The chapel is endowed with lands producing £170 per annum.
LEONARD, ST., a parish, in the union of St. Thomas, hundred of Wonford, Wonford and S. divisions of Devon, ½ a mile (S. E.) from Exeter; containing 1129 inhabitants. Here is an institution for deaf and dumb children for the four western counties. The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at £4. 19. 4½., and in the gift of the Wills family: the tithes have been commuted for £162, and the glebe contains 2 acres. In the churchyard was a hermitage. The mansion called Mount Radford, erected in the sixteenth century, was garrisoned during the parliamentary war.
Leonard's, St., on Sea
LEONARD'S, ST., on Sea, a parish and fashionable watering-place, in the union of Hastings, chiefly in the hundred of Baldslow, but having a detached portion (adjoining the town of Winchelsea) in the hundred of Guestling, rape of Hastings, E. division of Sussex, 1½ mile (W.) from Hastings, and 62 (S. E. by S.) from London; containing 768 inhabitants. This interesting place is situated on a most beautiful bay on the south coast, and is screened from the northern and eastern winds by lofty cliffs, parts of which were cut away at an incredible expense, to allow for the site of the town. It was commenced in 1828, by the late James Burton, Esq., and has become a well-frequented watering-place. The mildness and softness of the air and its equability of temperature, combined with the influence of a marine atmosphere, render St. Leonard's a desirable residence for invalids affected with pulmonary disease; and the advantages of a bracing atmosphere, found in the more elevated portions, equally exempt from the bleakness of the eastern, and the humidity of the western, coasts, are favourable in cases of debility. Her Majesty, with the Duchess of Kent, passed the winter of 1834-5 at the place, occupying a residence since named Victoria House; the Princess Sophia Matilda at one time occupied the house now called Gloucester Lodge; and in 1837 Her Majesty the Queen Dowager passed the winter here. The town is well paved, lighted with gas, and amply supplied with water, under an act of parliament obtained in 1832 for its general improvement.
A range of buildings facing the sea, called the Marino, in a simple style of Grecian architecture, extends for nearly three-quarters of a mile, with a sea-wall and fine esplanade in front, along which is continued the high road from Dovor, through Hastings, to Eastbourne and Brighton. In the centre of the esplanade is an elegant edifice containing the Royal baths, a library with a reading and news room, a post-office, and a bank; and opposite to this range, is the Royal Victoria and St. Leonard's hotel, which has a handsome frontage nearly 200 yards in length, commanding a fine view of the sea, and contains hot and cold baths, with every accommodation for families. There are also the Conqueror's and the Harold hotels. In addition to the lines of building, are numerous pleasing villas; and in a natural ravine of considerable extent are the subscription gardens, tastefully laid out, and abounding with shrubs and plants of luxurious vegetation: within the grounds is a large flat stone, called the Conqueror's Table, on which William is said to have dined, on his landing near Pevensey. Between the subscription gardens and the hotel are the assembly-rooms, a handsome structure, with a portico of the Grecian-Doric order at each extremity; the ballroom is nearly 70 feet in length, of proportionate breadth, and 30 feet high, and attached to it are card and billiard rooms. A society for the practice of archery, designated the Queen's St. Leonard's Archers, hold occasional meetings on a ground tastefully embellished, and on the 17th of August contest for a prize given by Her Majesty. At the eastern entrance of the town is an elegant archway of the Doric order; near which are some good houses, recently erected, named the Grand Parade, with an hotel called the Saxon hotel. The Hastings and St. Leonard's races take place at the latter end of September, on a race-course about a mile to the west of the town, and are generally well attended. There is a direct railway communication with Lewes and Brighton.
The living is a perpetual curacy, in the patronage of the Rev. C. W. Leslie. The church, of which the first stone was laid by the Princess Sophia in 1831, is a handsome structure in the early English style, most picturesquely situated on the cliff; it contains 700 sittings, without galleries, 200 of the number being free. The windows are embellished with stained glass, in which the arms of the princess and other contributors are emblazoned; and there are some good monuments, among which is one to Mr. Burton, the founder of the town, with his profile in white marble inserted in a slab of dove marble. Here are places of worship for Independents and Wesleyans.
LEPPINGTON, a chapelry, in the parish of Scrayingham, union of Malton, wapentake of Buckrose, E. riding of York, 8 miles (S. by W.) from Malton; containing 110 inhabitants. The Carey family formerly possessed a castellated mansion here, and a member of it was created Baron Carey, of Leppington, in 1622, but the title became extinct about the period of the Restoration. The township comprises by computation 1210 acres, the property and manor of Earl de Grey. Gypsum is obtained near the Derwent; and about eighteen inches below the surface, is a stratum of petrified shells and other marine productions four inches in thickness. In the village is a chapel of ease to the church of Scrayingham; the Wesleyans, also, have a place of worship. Foundations of the old mansion still remain; and many Roman coins have been found in the neighbourhood.
LEPTON, a township, in the parish of Kirk-Heaton, union of Huddersfield, Upper division of the wapentake of Agbrigg, W. riding of York, 4 miles (E. by S.) from Huddersfield; containing 3875 inhabitants. This township, which is on the Wakefield road, comprises 1578a. 3r. 7p. The villages of Great and Little Lepton are pleasantly situated, and neatly built; and the inhabitants of both are chiefly employed in the manufacture of woollen-cloths and fancy goods, which is carried on also in the different hamlets of the township.
Lesbury (St. Mary)
LESBURY (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Alnwick, partly in the S. division of Bambrough ward, and partly in the E. division of Coquetdale ward, N. division of Northumberland; containing, with the townships of Alnmouth, Bilton, Hawkhill, and Wooden, 1108 inhabitants, of whom 404 are in the township of Lesbury, 4 miles (E. by S.) from Alnwick, on the road to Warkworth. This parish, which is on the river Aln, and bounded on the east by the sea, comprises by computation 3947 acres; it contains good quarries of limestone and freestone. The village is pleasantly situated on the banks of the Aln, over which is a neat bridge, and the surrounding scenery is agreeably diversified; about two miles below the village, the river falls into the ocean at Alnmouth, where considerable quantities of grain are shipped for the London and other markets. There is a very extensive flour-mill. The Newcastle and Berwick railway, opened in 1847, crosses the Aln here. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £8. 2. 10., and in the patronage of the Crown; net income, £326; impropriators, S. Ilderton and J. Cookson, Esqrs. The tithes for the townships of Alnmouth, Hawkhill, and Lesbury have been commuted for £484 payable to the impropriators, and £298 to the vicar; there are about 5 acres of glebe. The church is a very ancient structure. Perceval Stockdale, author of several volumes of poetry, and the intimate friend and associate of Johnson, Garrick, and Goldsmith, was vicar of the parish.
Lesnewth (St. Knet)
LESNEWTH (St. Knet), a parish, in the union of Camelford, hundred of Lesnewth, E. division of Cornwall, 5¾ miles (N. by E.) from Camelford; containing 137 inhabitants. It comprises 2700 acres: the soil is fertile, and well adapted both for arable and pasture; the surface is hilly, and the lower lands are watered by several brooks. The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at £8; net income, £190; patron, Sir John Yarde Buller, Bart.
Lessingham (All Saints)
LESSINGHAM (All Saints), a parish, in the Tunstead and Happing incorporation, hundred of Happing, E. division of Norfolk, 3 miles (N. E.) from Stalham; containing 241 inhabitants. In the reign of William Rufus a priory was founded here, as a cell to the abbey of Okeburn, in Wiltshire, at that time the chief of the alien priories dependent on the abbey of Bec, in Normandy; on the suppression it was granted to Eton College, and subsequently to King's College, Cambridge. The parish comprises 639a. 2r. 2p., of which 567 acres are arable, and 57 pasture. The living is a discharged rectory, consolidated with that of Hempstead, and valued in the king's books at £6: the tithes have been commuted for £235, and the glebe contains upwards of 21 acres. The church is a handsome structure in the decorated English style, with a square embattled tower, and contains a Norman font, and part of an ancient carved screen separating the chancel from the nave.
LESSNESS, a chapelry, in the parish of Erith, union of Dartford, hundred of Lessness, lathe of Sutton-at-Hone, W. division of Kent, 2¼ miles (N. N. W.) from Crayford. An abbey for Black canons, in honour of St. Mary and St. Thomas the Martyr, was founded here in 1178, by Richard de Lucy, chief justice of England, and some time regent of the kingdom, who assumed the habit, and shortly after died in the house; its revenue at the Dissolution was estimated at £186. 9., and was granted to Cardinal Wolsey, towards the endowment of his colleges. There is a place of worship for Baptists on Lessness-heath.
LETCHWORTH, a parish, in the union of Hitchin, hundred of Broadwater, county of Hertford, 2½ miles (N. E. by E.) from Hitchin; containing 108 inhabitants. It comprises by computation nearly 1000 acres: the soil is a strong clay, in some parts inclining to loam; the surface is hilly. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £11. 1. 10½., and in the gift of the Rev. J. Allington: the tithes have been commuted for £240, and the glebe comprises 42 acres.
Letcomb-Bassett (All Saints)
LETCOMB-BASSETT (All Saints), a parish, in the union of Wantage, hundred of Kintbury-Eagle, county of Berks, 3 miles (S. W. by S.) from Wantage; containing 293 inhabitants. It comprises by measurement 1562 acres, of which about 20 are pasture, 9 woodland, and the remainder arable. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £15. 0. 2½.; net income, £215; patrons, the President and Fellows of Corpus Christi College, Oxford: the tithes were commuted for land and a money payment in 1772. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans. Dean Swift, during his residence at the rectory in 1714, wrote his pamphlet entitled Free Thoughts on the Present State of Affairs, printed in 1741.
Letcomb-Regis (St. Andrew)
LETCOMB-REGIS (St. Andrew), a parish, in the union of Wantage, hundred of Kintbury-Eagle, county of Berks, 2 miles (S. W. by W.) from Wantage: containing, with the chapelries of East and West Challow, 1030 inhabitants, of whom 446 are in the township of Letcomb-Regis. The parish comprises about 4350 acres, of which 2389a. 2r. 34p. are in the township; the land is chiefly arable. A branch of the river Ock, and the Wilts and Berks canal, pass through the parish. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £10. 13. 7.; net income, £200; patrons and appropriators, the Dean and Chapter of Winchester. The church is an ancient structure. There are chapels at East and West Challow. On the summit of the chalk hills to the south of the village, is a very large quadrangular intrenchment, called Letcomb Castle, with singular earth-works; about a mile north of it, the Roman Ikeneld-street crosses the Vale of White Horse.
Letheringham (St. Mary)
LETHERINGHAM (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Plomesgate, hundred of Loes, E. division of Suffolk, 3 miles (N. W.) from Wickham-Market; containing 164 inhabitants. It is situated on the river Deben, and comprises 1143a. 9p. The soil is various, in some parts light, and in others a rich loam; there are some fertile tracts of meadow on the banks of the river. The living is a perpetual curacy, in the gift of the Church-Patronage Society, with a net income of £42: the tithes have been commuted for £122. The church consists of a nave and tower; the former, being in a ruinous condition, was restored about 60 or 70 years since: there are some slight remains of the chancel, which contained numerous handsome monuments of the families of Wingfield and Naunton. Here was a small priory of Black canons, a cell to the monastery of St. Peter, Ipswich; it was dedicated to the Blessed Virgin, and at the Dissolution had a revenue of £26. 18. 5. Sir Robert Naunton, author of the Fragmenta Regalia, on obtaining possession of the priory, built a large house near its site, of which part has since been pulled down, and the rest converted into a farmhouse.
Letheringsett (St. Andrew)
LETHERINGSETT (St. Andrew), a parish, in the union of Erpingham, hundred of Holt, W. division of Norfolk, 1½ mile (W. by N.) from Holt; containing 273 inhabitants. It comprises 853a. 2r. 12p., of which 686 acres are arable, 43 meadow and pasture, and 125 woodland. The village is pleasantly situated in the deep and well-wooded vale of the Glavin, and on the road from Fakenham to Holt. On the bank of the river is an extensive brewery. The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at £12; patron and incumbent, the Rev. C. Codd: the tithes have been commuted for £245, and the glebe comprises 27 acres. The church is an ancient structure, chiefly in the decorated English style, with a circular tower, and contains a Norman font and other interesting details.
Letton (St. Peter)
LETTON (St. Peter), a parish, in the union of Weobley, partly in the hundred of Stretford, and partly in that of Wolphy, county of Hereford; containing, with the township of Hurstley, 224 inhabitants, of whom 119 are in the township of Letton, 6¾ miles (S. W. by W.) from Weobley. This parish, which is situated on the left bank of the river Wye, and intersected by the road from Hereford to Hay, comprises 1196 acres of a fertile soil. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £6. 15. 7½.; patron and incumbent, the Rev. Henry Blissett: the tithes have been commuted for £230, and the glebe contains 20 acres.
Letton, Hereford.—See Walford.
Letton (All Saints)
LETTON (All Saints), a parish, in the union of Mitford and Launditch, hundred of Mitford, W. division of Norfolk, 1 mile (S. E. by E.) from Shipdham; containing 154 inhabitants. It comprises 1255a. 27p., of which 735 acres are arable, 435 meadow and pasture, and 77 woodland. The soil is extremely rich, and the dairy-farms have long been celebrated for their butter; the surface is varied, and the prevailing scenery of pleasing character. Letton Hall, the seat of T. T. Gurdon, Esq., lord of the manor, is a handsome mansion of white brick, beautifully situated in a well-wooded park abounding with oaks of venerable growth: within the grounds are the ruins of the parish church, the site of which is inclosed with a plantation of thorn; and near the entrance lodge is the source of one of the tributaries of the river Yare. The living is a rectory, consolidated with that of Cranworth, and valued in the king's books at £7. 14. 7.: the tithes have been commuted for £198. 14.
LETWELL, a chapelry, in the parish of Laughtonen-le-Morthen, union of Worksop, S. division of the wapentake of Upper Strafforth and Tickhill, W. riding of York, 5½ miles (S. W. by S.) from Tickhill; containing 129 inhabitants. This chapelry comprises 1100 acres; the surface is pleasingly diversified, and embellished with timber of luxuriant growth, of which some groups in the hamlet of Langold are noticed by Repton as the most beautiful in the country. The family seat of the Knights, here, an ancient house, was taken down by the late Mr. Gally Knight when he removed his residence, a few years since, to the mansion at Firbeck; but the offices, with the gardens and pleasure-grounds, in the latter of which is an extensive lake, are still remaining. The chapel, dedicated to St. Peter, and originally a small structure, erected in the early part of the 16th century, was greatly improved and embellished at the expense of Mr. Knight. The living is a perpetual curacy, annexed to that of Firbeck: the tithes have been commuted for £220.
LEVAN, ST., a parish, in the union of Penzance, W. division of the hundred of Penwith and of the county of Cornwall, 9 miles (S. W.) from Penzance; containing 531 inhabitants. The parish comprises 2100 acres, of which 700 are common or waste. The living is a rectory, united, with that of Sennen, to the rectory of St. Burian: the tithes have been commuted for £250. The church is situated in a secluded dell opening at the lower extremity to the sea; the interior of the building contains specimens of curious carved work, and there are some ancient crosses in the churchyard. Here is a place of worship for Wesleyans. Overhanging the sea, at the western extremity of the parish, are the celebrated rocks, or lofty piles of granite, called Castle Treryn, on the summit of one of which the remarkable block termed the Logan, or Rocking Stone, supposed to weigh about 90 tons, is so nicely balanced as to be moved to and fro by a single individual. In 1820, though considered almost the greatest curiosity in Cornwall, some sailors dislodged the mass; but this mischievous act exciting a general feeling of indignation, steps were shortly afterwards taken to replace it in its old position, secured by chains. About a mile and a half to the east of Castle Treryn is Cape Tolpedn-Penwith, separated from the main land by an old stone wall; and in it is the Funnel Rock, excavated nearly perpendicularly, and resembling an inverted cone. There is a well, called St. Levan's; and an ancient oratory remains in the parish.
Leven (St. Faith)
LEVEN (St. Faith), a parish, in the union of Beverley, N. division of the wapentake of Holderness, E. riding of York; containing, with the township of Hempholme, 999 inhabitants, of whom 890 are in the township of Leven, 7 miles (N. E.) from Beverley. This place is of considerable antiquity, a church being mentioned as existing here at the time of the Norman survey, when the manor was in the possession of the church of St. John de Beverley, which retained it till the Dissolution. The parish is situated on the road from Hull to Bridlington, and comprises 5525 acres, of which about 4500 are arable, 20 wood, and the remainder pasture; the land has been improved by draining, and is in profitable cultivation. The village, which is large and well built, consists of two streets crossing at right angles, with several detached houses. A canal to the river Hull, three miles and a half in length, and navigable for vessels of sixty tons' burthen, was opened in 1802, and has a considerable traffic in corn, lime, coal, &c. Petty-sessions are held every Thursday. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £16. 13. 4.; net income, £1190; patron, the Rev. G. Wray: at the inclosure in 1791, a yearly modus and 136 acres of land were given in lieu of part of the tithes. The present church, in the centre of the village, was erected in 1844. There are places of worship for Independents, Wesleyans, and Primitive Methodists.
LEVEN-BRIDGE, a hamlet, in the parish of Stainton, union of Stockton, W. division of the liberty of Langbaurgh, N. riding of York, 2 miles (E.) from Yarm. It is situated on the road from Stokesley to Yarm; the surface of the land is elevated, and the soil a good clay, producing fine wheat. The river Leven passes through the hamlet.
LEVENS, a chapelry, in the parish, union, and ward of Kendal, county of Westmorland, 3 miles (N. by W.) from Milnthorpe; containing 993 inhabitants. On the eastern bank of the river Kent, which is crossed by a bridge on the Kendal road, is Levens Hall, the venerable mansion of the Howards, embosomed in a fine park, and crowned with towers, which, overtopping the highest trees, command extensive prospects on every side. The entrance hall contains various relics of ancient armour; one of the bed-chambers is hung with splendid Gobeline tapestry, and most of the other rooms are decorated with oak wainscoting exquisitely carved, and costly hangings of the richest colours. In the park are the ruins of a circular edifice, called Kirkstead, said to have been a Roman temple dedicated to Diana. There is also a petrifying spring, termed the Dropping Well; and above the park is Levens Force, a picturesque waterfall of the river Kent, formed by the dam erected to work the powder-mills at Sedgwick. There are limestone-quarries. The chapel, dedicated to St. John, an edifice with a low tower, was erected in 1828, at a cost of £2500: the living is a perpetual curacy, in the patronage of Trustees; net income, £200, with a house. The Howard family built the chapel, a parsonage, and schools, and endowed the living. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans. From the chapelyard are most extensive views.