A Topographical Dictionary of England. Originally published by S Lewis, London, 1848.
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Kingston (All Saints and St. Andrew)
KINGSTON (All Saints and St. Andrew), a parish, in the union of Caxton and Arrington, hundred of Longstow, county of Cambridge, 3¾ miles (E. S. E.) from Caxton; containing 307 inhabitants. It had anciently a market and two fairs. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £11. 15. 5., and in the gift of King's College, Cambridge: the tithes were commuted for land and a money payment, under an inclosure act, in the year 1810. A charity school was founded in 1702, by Mr. Francis Todd, who endowed it with £13 per annum.
KINGSTON, a parish, in the union of Kingsbridge, hundred of Ermington, Ermington and Plympton, and S. divisions of Devon, 3½ miles (S. W. by S.) from Modbury; containing 529 inhabitants. The parish is bounded on the west by the river Erme, and on the south by the English Channel; the coast is defended by lofty cliffs, of which those of Scobbiscombe are remarkable for their precipitous elevation. The living is a perpetual curacy, annexed to the vicarage of Ermington. The tithes have been commuted for £111 payable to the impropriator, and £113 and £109 payable respectively to the rector of Ringmore and the vicar of Ermington.
Kingston, or Kinson
KINGSTON, or Kinson, a district chapelry, in the parish of Canford-Magna, union of Poole, hundred of Cogdean, Wimborne division of Dorset, 1¾ mile (S.) from Corfe-Castle; containing 846 inhabitants. The river Stour runs on the northern side of the chapelry. A rent-charge of £403. 10. has been awarded as a commutation of the impropriate tithes, and one of £380 in lieu of the vicarial; there is a glebe of 19 acres. The chapel, dedicated to St. Andrew, was built iu 1833, and is a handsome edifice, containing the remains of Sir Frederick Cavendish Ponsonby, governor of Malta.
Kingston (St. Mary)
KINGSTON (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Taunton, hundred of Taunton and Taunton-Dean, W. division of Somerset, 3¾ miles (N.) from Taunton; containing, with the hamlet of Hestercombe, 921 inhabitants. It comprises 3413a. 3r. 15p. The surface is irregular, and rises in several parts into hills of considerable elevation; the soil in the higher lands is a stone brash, alternated with sand, and in the lower a reddish fertile loam, alternated with stiff clay. Numerous streams descend from the hills. There are quarries of stone, which is used for building and for the highways. The living is a vicarage, valued in the king's books at £18. 17. 11.; patrons and appropriators, the Dean and Chapter of Bristol: the great tithes have been commuted for £398. 5., and the vicarial for £200. 10.; the glebe comprises 3 acres. The church, built, it is supposed, in Henry VII.'s reign, is a fine structure in the later English style, with a lofty embattled tower ornamented with sculpture, and crowned by pinnacles; it contains 400 sittings. There is a place of worship for Independents; and a school is partly supported by the rent of lands yielding £24 per annum.
Kingston (All Saints)
KINGSTON (All Saints), a parish, in the union of Chard, hundred of Tintinhull, W. division of Somerset, 1½ mile (S. E.) from Ilminster; containing, with the hamlets of Allowenshay and Ludney, 301 inhabitants. The living is a perpetual curacy, valued in the king's books at £5. 19. 2., and in the patronage of John Lee Lee, Esq., with a net income of £53: the tithes have been commuted for £350, and there are 54 acres of glebe. At Allowenshay, which is a place of great antiquity, was formerly a church. Henry Jeanes, a learned divine in the seventeenth century, was born in the parish.
KINGSTON, a parish, in the liberty of West Medina, Isle of Wight division of the county of Southampton, 6½ miles (S. S. W.) from Newport; containing 73 inhabitants. It is near the English Channel, in the south-western part of the Isle of Wight, and between the parishes of Chale and Shorwell; the neighbourhood forms one of the most hilly parts of the island. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £5. 6. 8., and in the gift of G. H. Ward, Esq.: the tithes have been commuted for £220, and the glebe comprises 15 acres of land.
KINGSTON, a parish, in the hundred of Poling, rape of Arundel, W. division of Sussex, 4¼ miles (E. by S.) from Littlehampton; containing 45 inhabitants. The parish is bounded on the south by the English Channel, and has suffered materially from the encroachments of the sea, which are supposed to have destroyed the church. A coast-guard station of a lieutenant and fourteen men has been established, which has a detachment of five men at Goring. The living is a vicarage not in charge, united to that of Ferring: the tithes have been commuted for £92 payable to the Ecclesiastical Commissioners, and £18 to the vicar.
Kingston-Bagpuize (St. James)
KINGSTON-BAGPUIZE (St. James), a parish, in the union of Abingdon, hundred of Ock, county of Berks, 6¼ miles (W.) from Abingdon; containing 290 inhabitants. A sharp skirmish took place here between the army of the parliament and the royalists, when the former were defeated and driven back, on May 27th, 1644. The parish is situated on the road from Oxford to Bath, and comprises by measurement 1070 acres. A quarry here produces good stone for building. The river Isis flows within a distance of two miles, and is navigable as high as Lechlade. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £10. 6. 5½.; net income, £298; patrons, the President and Fellows of St. John's College, Oxford. The church, rebuilt in 1800, is a neat structure. A school was endowed in 1736, by John Blandy and his son, the income of which is about £45 per annum.
Kingston-By-Sea, or Kingston-Bowsey
KINGSTON-BY-SEA, or Kingston-Bowsey, a parish, in the union of Steyning, hundred of Fishergate, rape of Bramber, W. division of Sussex, 1½ mile (E.) from Shoreham; containing 46 inhabitants. This place is situated opposite to the entrance to Shoreham harbour, which bounds it on the south. The road from Brighton to Worthing, and the Shoreham railway, pass through the parish. Its importance has been much increased lately: it is the principal station of the railway, for the conveyance of goods landed at Kingston Wharf; and the coke manufactory of the railway company is situated here. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £12. 19. 2.; net income, £200; patron, Colonel Wyndham. The church has been recently repaired.
Kingston-Deverill (St. Mary)
KINGSTON-DEVERILL (St. Mary), a parish, in the union and hundred of Mere, Hindon and S. divisions of Wilts, 3½ miles (N. E. by N.) from Mere; containing 420 inhabitants. It comprises by computation 2640 acres. The soil is generally a flinty loam, resting on chalk, and a considerable portion of the land is appropriated to the pasture of sheep. The surface is undulated, and some of the slopes are well wooded; the lower grounds are watered by a rivulet called the Deve-Rill, which is supplied from springs issuing from the chalk, and flows through the village, which is situated in a narrow valley between two chalk hills. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £19. 15.; net income, £308; patron, the Marquess of Bath. The church, having been rebuilt by the family of the marquess, was consecrated on the last day of August, 1847; it is in the style of the latter part of the 13th century. The tithes were commuted for land and money payments in the year 1782; the glebe altogether comprises about 350 acres.
Kingston-Lisle, with Fawler
KINGSTON-LISLE, with Fawler, a chapelry, in the parish of Sparsholt, union of Farringdon, hundred of Shrivenham, county of Berks, 5 miles (W.) from Wantage; containing 397 inhabitants, of whom 253 are in Kingston-Lisle. It comprises 2029a. 2r. 37p. The chapel is dedicated to St. James. Of the tithe rent-charges, £170 are payable to the incumbent, and £350 to Queen's College, Oxford, which body has also a glebe of 34 acres. There is a place of worship for a congregation of Baptists.
KINGSTON-NEAR-LEWES, a parish, in the union of Newhaven, hundred of Swanborough, rape of Lewes, E. division of Sussex, 1½ mile (S. W.) from Lewes; containing 149 inhabitants. The parish is situated near the north-eastern extremity of the South Downs, and partakes of the general character and aspect of that district. It comprises 1652a. 2r. 21p., of which 544 acres are arable, 836 down, and 245 meadow; the surface is varied, and the meadows are watered by numerous brooks. The living is a vicarage, united to that of Ilford, and valued in the king's books at £8. 13. 9. The church is a handsome structure in the decorated English style, with an embattled tower.
KINGSTON-RUSSELL, an extra-parochial liberty, in the union of Dorchester, hundred of Uggscombe, Dorchester division of Dorset, 7¾ miles (E. by N.) from the town of Dorchester; containing 85 inhabitants. This place, which in ancient records is stated to have been in the parish of Whitchurch-Canonicorum, had formerly a weekly market, and a fair on the eve, day, and morrow of St. Matthew. Here was also a free chapel, dedicated to St. James. The impropriate tithes have been commuted for £151.
Kingston-Seymour (All Saints)
KINGSTON-SEYMOUR (All Saints), a parish, in the union of Bedminster, hundred of Chewton, E. division of Somerset, 8½ miles (N. by W.) from Axbridge; containing 375 inhabitants. The parish is bounded on the south by the river Yeo, and on the west by the Bristol Channel, whose waters make frequent irruptions, two of which, in 1606 and 1703, are commemorated by inscriptions in the church. The manorhouse, erected in the reign of Edward IV., though it has undergone many alterations, is still interesting on account of its antiquity. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £29. 3. 11½.; net income, £305; patrons, the family of Pigott. The altar-piece of the church is adorned with a painting of the Transfiguration, by Smirke.
Kingston-Upon-Soar (St. Wilfrid)
KINGSTON-UPON-SOAR (St. Wilfrid), a parish, in the union of Shardlow, S. division of the wapentake of Rushcliffe and of the county of Nottingham, 1¼ mile (W. S. W.) from Kegworth; containing 181 inhabitants. This place was for many years the residence of the Babington family, who had a spacious mansion here, till the reign of Elizabeth, when one of them was executed for the part he took in a conspiracy for the restoration of Mary, Queen of Scots; there are still some remains of the building. The river Soar and the Midland railway pass through the parish, which comprises 1500 acres. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £66; patron, E. Strutt, Esq.: the glebe consists of 27 acres. The church was rebuilt in 1832, with the exception of the chancel, which is of very ancient date, and contains a magnificent arch, built at a great cost by Babington; it has also some exquisitelycarved screen-work, and a richly-sculptured monument to the Babington family. The parish was the birthplace of the Rev. John Berridge, vicar of Everton, and a friend of the Countess of Huntingdon.
Kingston-Upon-Thames (All Saints)
KINGSTON-UPONTHAMES (All Saints), a parish, and the head of a union, in the First division of the hundred of Kingston, E. division of Surrey; comprising the market-town of Kingston, which has a separate jurisdiction, and the hamlets of Ham with Hatch, and Hook; and containing 9760 inhabitants, of whom 8147 are in the town, 17½ miles (N. E.) from Guildford, and 12½ (S. W.) from London, on the road to Portsmouth. This town, which, according to Leland, was built in the time of the Saxons, appears to have derived its name from Kyningestun, having been held in royal demesne, and being the place in which many of the Saxon kings were crowned. Among these kings were Athelstan, Edwin, Ethelred, Edward the Elder, Edmund, Edward the Martyr, and Edred. Near the town-hall is a large stone, on which, according to tradition, the ceremony of coronation was performed; and statues of several of the monarchs were long preserved near the spot in the chapel of St. Mary, which, having been undermined by the digging of a grave, fell down in 1730. The town appears to have risen from the ruins of a more ancient one, called Moreford from a ford across the Thames, and supposed by Dr. Gale to have been the Tamesa of the geographer of Ravenna, a conjecture resting chiefly on the frequent discovery of relics of Roman antiquity in the immediate vicinity. Vestiges of the old town, a little to the east of the present, were till very lately discernible in the foundations of houses and other buildings; and the site of a Roman cemetery seems to have been ascertained by the numerous sepulchral urns, containing ashes and other relics, that have been found on the spot. On digging for the new bridge across the river, some Roman military weapons, consisting of spear-heads and swords, of beautiful workmanship and in a good state of preservation, were discovered; and about the same time were found several human skeletons, with Roman ornaments lying near them, in a field on the Surrey side of the river. These discoveries have given rise to an opinion that Cæsar, on quitting his encampment on Wimbledon Common, crossed the Thames at Kingston, and not at Weybridge, as has hitherto been imagined; the skeletons being probably those of some of his troops that fell in endeavouring to force a passage of the river against the opposing Britons, whose slain are supposed to be interred in a tumulus (not yet opened) in a field called the Barrow field, on the Middlesex side of the river, and about half a mile from the bridge. In the latter part of the reign of Egbert, an ecclesiastical council was held at Kingston, at which that prince was present, together with most of the dignitaries of the Anglo-Saxon church, and the nobility. During the parliamentary war, the inhabitants embraced the cause of their sovereign, and suffered severely for their attachment to his interests.
The town is pleasantly situated on the southern bank of the Thames, over which was formerly a wooden bridge, noticed in a record of the 8th of Henry III., and, with the exception of Old London Bridge, the most ancient on the river. This bridge was at length replaced by an elegant structure of Portland stone, consisting of five spacious elliptical arches, completed in 1828, at an expense of £40,000, and surmounted by a cornice and balustrade, with galleries projecting over the piers. The town is paved, and lighted with gas; and the inhabitants are supplied with water by pumps attached to their houses, and from a conduit on Combe-hill, the water of which is conveyed by pipes under the river, laid down by Cardinal Wolsey for the supply of Hampton Court Palace. There is a literary institution, founded in 1839. A new approach to the bridge has been formed, on the Kingston side, consisting of a road 45 feet in width, with a new street of good houses on one side, and on the other the church and churchyard thrown open. A town-hall and market-house, of stone and brick, were erected in 1840, in the centre of the market-place; and there is a handsome building in front of the county courts, used as part of the corporate buildings, and which makes a very ornamental front. The streets have been much widened and improved; and near the station on the South-Western railway, which passes within a short distance, a new town is in progress of erection. Several streets have been formed there; many houses, villas, and a capital hotel have been built; and from the excellent situation of the place, having direct and ready communication with the metropolis, from the pleasing scenery with which the neighbourhood abounds, and from the salubrity of the air, the district promises to become of some importance. The increase in the population of the parish, during the 10 years ending 1842, amounted to above 4000 persons. The trade is principally in malt, a great quantity of which is made; and there are an extensive distillery and brewery, and several flour and oil mills. The market-days are Wednesday and Saturday, but the market on the former has nearly fallen into disuse. The fairs are on the Thursday, Friday, and Saturday in Whitsun-week, for horses, cattle, and toys; August 2nd and following days, for horses, and November 13th and seven following days, for sheep, of which generally about 20,000 are exposed for sale; also for horses, of which there are seldom less than 1000; and for cattle, of which frequently 10,000 head are sold.
Kingston sent members to parliament from the 4th of Edward II. until the 47th of Edward III., since which time it has made no return. The first charter granted to the town was by King John, bearing date the 26th of April, 1199; and numerous others were bestowed by succeeding sovereigns. These charters were surrendered in June, 1685, to James II., who incorporated the burgesses anew; but his charter was only acted upon until the proclamation for restoring corporations to their ancient charters, when the surrenders were cancelled, and the old corporation under the charter of the 14th of Charles I. was revived. Under this, the body consisted of two bailiffs, a high steward, recorder, an indefinite number of gownsmen and peers, and a council of 15, assisted by a steward of the court, town-clerk, two coroners, two chamberlains, three sergeants-at-mace, &c. By the act of the 5th and 6th of William IV., cap. 76, the government is now vested in a mayor, 6 aldermen, and 18 councillors; the borough is divided into three wards, and the number of magistrates is seven. The freedom is inherited by the eldest son on the death of his father, or acquired by seven years' apprenticeship to a member of one of the three companies of Mercers, Victuallers, and Cordwainers. Among the privileges which the freedom confers, is exemption from tolls throughout the realm, and from serving on juries for the county. The corporation hold a petty-session every Saturday, and at the same time a court of record for pleas to any amount, at which the recorder presides on trials, and the registrar on other occasions: the steward of this court is the attorney-general for the time being, and its jurisdiction extends over the hundreds of Kingston, Elmbridge, Copthorne, and Effingham. As lords of the manor, also, the corporation hold courts leet and baron on the Tuesday in Whitsun-week. The town gaol is a small neat building, erected in 1829, at a cost of £1100, for the confinement of debtors. The powers of the county debt-court of Kingston, established in 1847, extend over the registration-district of Kingston. The Lent assizes for the county are held in the town, which is included in the Home circuit: the court-house was built by the corporation, in 1811, at an expense of £10,000, and contains two spacious courts for the crown and nisi prius causes, a grand jury-room, and requisite offices; attached to which is a house for the accommodation of the judges. The house of correction for the county comprises seven wards, a work-room, two dayrooms, and two airing-yards.
The living is a discharged vicarage, with that of Richmond consolidated in 1760, valued in the king's books at £20. 6. 3.; net income, £888; patrons, the Provost and Fellows of King's College, Cambridge; impropriator, Col. Elphinstone. The great tithes of the parish, exclusively of the hamlets, have been commuted for £915, and the small tithes for £275: the vicar has a glebe of 16 acres. The church is an ancient cruciform structure, in the decorated English style, with a tower rising from the intersection, formerly surmounted by a spire, which, having been greatly injured by a storm in November 1703, was taken down. District churches have been erected at Norbiton and on Ham Common; there are also a church in the hamlet of Hook, one situated at Robinhood-Gate, and another just completed at Surbiton. St. Peter's church, Norbiton, was consecrated in Feb. 1842, having been completed at a cost of nearly £5000; it is in the Norman style, constructed of yellow-coloured brick, and has a slender tower at the north-west angle. Each of these five churches forms a separate incumbency; the Bishop of Winchester presenting to those of Hook and Robinhood-Gate, the Vicar to those of Ham and Norbiton, and Sir E. Antrobus and others to Surbiton church. The Baptists, Society of Friends, Independents, and Wesleyans, have places of worship. The free grammar school was founded by Queen Elizabeth, who endowed it with lands producing about £100 per annum: the remains of an ancient chapel, dedicated to St. Mary Magdalene, are appropriated to the use of the school, and have lately undergone a course of repair, in which due regard has been paid to the preservation of the original architecture. The Blue-coat school for boys, and that for girls, are supported by funds bequeathed for charitable uses. A national school was built in 1819, by C. M. Palmer, Esq., at an expense of £1200. Almshouses for six aged men and six aged women were founded in 1665, by William Cleave, alderman of London, who endowed them with houses and lands yielding a rental of upwards of £400, to which were added £1000 in the three per cent. reduced annuities, by John Tilsley, Esq. An hospital, with a chapel dedicated to St. Mary Magdalene, was founded here in the year 1309, by Edward Lovekin; and the original endowment was considerably augmented by his son, John Lovekin, several times mayor of London between the years 1348 and 1356. The poor-law union comprises 13 parishes or places, of which 10 are in Surrey, and 3 in Middlesex; and contains a population of 23,974. The workhouse, at the Surbiton end of the parish, is a handsome building of red brick, in the Elizabethan style, erected at a cost of £13,000. Dr. George Bate, physician to Charles II.; Dr. William Battie, a physician of considerable repute in cases of insanity; and Judge Hardinge, who died in 1816, were interred at Kingston.
Kingston-Winterbourne, in the county of Dorest.—See Winterbourne, Kingston.
Kingstone (St. Michael)
KINGSTONE (St. Michael), a parish, in the union of Dore, hundred of Webtree, county of Hereford, 7 miles (W. S. W.) from Hereford; containing 501 inhabitants, and comprising 1900 acres. The living is a discharged vicarage, united to the rectory of Thruxton, and valued in the king's books at £6. 6. 8. The impropriate tithes have been commuted for £219, and the vicarial for £205.
Kingstone (St. Giles)
KINGSTONE (St. Giles), a parish, in the union of Bridge, hundred of Kinghamford, lathe of St. Augustine, E. division of Kent, 5¼ miles (S. E. by S.) from Canterbury; containing 310 inhabitants. It is situated on the road from London to Dovor, and comprises by measurement 1540 acres, of which 134 are in wood. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £16, and in the gift of the family of Brydges: the tithes have been commuted for £500, and the glebe comprises 15 acres. The church, which was built prior to the Reformation, is principally in the decorated style, and contains several handsome monuments. On the borders of the parish is a small Roman encampment, called Cæsar's camp, and within it are several tumuli, from which coins and other Roman relics have been taken.
KINGSTONE, a parish, in the union of Uttoxeter, S. division of the hundred of Totmonslow, N. division of the county of Stafford, 3½ miles (S. W. by S.) from Uttoxeter; containing 339 inhabitants. The parish is situated on the stream Blythe, which bounds it on the west; it comprises 2007a. 1p., of which 1150 acres are meadow and pasture, 605 arable, and 251 woodland. The surface is hilly, and the soil a strong clay and marl, producing good crops of wheat and oats; the plantations are chiefly oak and ash. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £68; patron, Earl Talbot, whose tithes here have been commuted for £121. 11. The church is an ancient building, much decayed, and appears to have been the nave of a much larger edifice; the tower is of brick, and of recent date.