A Topographical Dictionary of England. Originally published by S Lewis, London, 1848.
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Cooling (St. James)
COOLING (St. James), a parish, in the union of Hoo, hundred of Shamwell, lathe of Aylesford, W. division of Kent, 6 miles (N. by E.) from Rochester; containing 144 inhabitants. This parish, originally called Colniges or Colneges, from its bleak situation, and at a later period Cowling, contains the remains of a castle built in 1331, formerly of great strength, but long since dismantled; they occupy eight acres. The parish is bounded on the north by that part of the Thames named Sea-reach, and comprises 1544 acres of land, the substratum of which is chalk: there are 30 acres of wood. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £14, and in the gift of T. Best, Esq.: the tithes have been commuted for £570, and the glebe contains about 9 acres. In the church is a tomb of Lord Cobham.
Cooling (St. Margaret)
COOLING (St. Margaret), a parish, in the union and hundred of Risbridge, W. division of Suffolk, 8¼ miles (N. N. W.) from Clare; containing 882 inhabitants. There are fairs on July 31st and October 17th. Branches Hall, in the parish, is a large and handsome mansion. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £100; patrons and impropriators, the Master and Fellows of Trinity Hall, Cambridge. Wm. Deynes, in the 35th of Elizabeth, bequeathed estates here, the proceeds to be equally divided among the parishes of Cooling, Hargrave, Barrow, and Moulton.
COOL-PILATE, a township, in the parish of Acton, union and hundred of Nantwich, S. division of the county of Chester, 4 miles (S.) from Nantwich; containing 59 inhabitants. In this township were two Halls, with considerable estates annexed to each; one belonging to the Whitneys, and more recently to the Darlingtons and Tomkinsons; the other, to the St. Pierres, and subsequently to the Davenports, whose representative sold it in 1786. The township comprises 635 acres, of a clayey soil. The river Weaver passes on the east. The impropriate tithes have been commuted for £45, and the vicarial for £12. 18.
COOMBE, a township, in the parish of Presteign, union of Knighton, hundred of Wigmore, county of Hereford, 2½ miles (E. S. E.) from Presteign; containing 121 inhabitants. It consists of 608 acres, and is intersected by the river Lug, which partly separates it on the north-west from Wales, and is joined here by the brook Endwell. Many vestiges of British encampments are to be seen in the vicinity.
Coombe, Bissett (St. Michael)
COOMBE, BISSETT (St. Michael), a parish, in the union of Alderbury, hundred of Cawden and Cadworth, Salisbury and Amesbury, and S. divisions of Wilts, 3 miles (S. W.) from Salisbury; containing 406 inhabitants. The parish derives its name from its situation in one of the narrow bourns, or combes, with which Salisbury Plain is intersected, and its distinguishing adjunct from the family to which it formerly belonged. It is on the road from Salisbury to Blandford and Exeter, and comprises about 2200 acres. The living is a discharged vicarage, with that of Harnham annexed, valued in the king's books at £7; patron, the Prebendary of Coombe and Harnham in the Cathedral of Salisbury; impropriator, the Earl of Radnor. The great tithes have been commuted for £370, and the impropriator's glebe contains 130 acres; the vicarial tithes have been commuted for £210, of which £50 are for Harnham, and there is a glebe-house. The church is in the later English style.
Coombe-Keynes (Holy Rood)
COOMBE-KEYNES (Holy Rood), a parish, in the union of Wareham and Purbeck, hundred of Winfrith, Wareham division of Dorset, 6 miles (W. S. W.) from Wareham; containing 135 inhabitants. The village appears, from numerous old foundations and traces of the sites of gardens, to have been originally of greater extent, and is supposed to have dwindled into its present state of a few inconsiderable cottages, from the want of a supply of water. Sandstone of very inferior quality is dug on the heath land for fences. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £13. 18. 11½., and in the gift of J. Weld, Esq., the impropriator: the great tithes have been commuted for £201. 15., and the vicarial for £110. The church is partly early English, and partly of later date.
COOMBS, a parish, in the union and hundred of Steyning, rape of Bramber, W. division of Sussex, 2 miles (S. E. by S.) from Steyning; containing 80 inhabitants. It is bounded on the east by the navigable river Adur, and comprises about 1400 acres of arable and pasture land in nearly equal portions. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £10. 0. 2½., and in the gift of Colonel Wyndham: the tithes have been commuted for £192, and the glebe contains 16¾ acres. The church is in the early English style. On the Downs are traces of tumuli.
Copdock (St. Peter)
COPDOCK (St. Peter), a parish, in the incorporation and hundred of Samford, E. division of Suffolk, 3¼ miles (W. S. W.) from Ipswich; containing 299 inhabitants. The living is a discharged rectory, with the vicarage of Washbrook annexed, valued in the king's books at £9. 12. 8½., and in the gift of Lord Walsingham: the tithes have been commuted for £300, and the glebe comprises 28 acres, with a glebe-house. Copdock Hall was the property of Lord Chief Justice de Grey.
COPFORD, a parish, in the union of Lexden and Winstree, Witham division of the hundred of Lexden, N. division of Essex, 4 miles (W. S. W.) from Colchester; containing 645 inhabitants. It is situated on the road from London to Colchester, and comprises a very irregular area, about thirteen miles in circumference. The lands are generally low, in some parts undulated, and the soil is gravelly, producing fair average crops; the scenery is in general pleasing, and enlivened with several fine sheets of water. The manor was the property of the bishops of London from a remote period till the time of the Conquest. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £15. 3. 4., and in the patronage of the Crown: the tithes have been commuted for £660, and the glebe comprises 74 acres, with a glebehouse. The church, an ancient structure, is principally of Norman architecture; the walls are of unusual thickness, and the chancel is circular. Bonner, Bishop of London, who was lord of the manor, resided for a considerable time at Copford Hall.
Copgrove (St. Michael)
COPGROVE (St. Michael), a parish, in the Lower division of the wapentake of Claro, W. riding of York, 4¾ miles (S. W. by W.) from Boroughbridge; containing 103 inhabitants. It comprises 1000 acres, the surface of which is hilly, and the soil gravelly: a small stream, a tributary to the Ure, passes on the west, and separates the place from the parish of Burton-Leonard. The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at £5. 9. 7., and in the gift of T. Duncombe, Esq., of Copgrove Hall: the tithes have been commuted for £170, and the glebe contains 23 acres, with a glebehouse. St. Mongah's Well, in the village, was formerly celebrated for its medicinal properties.
Cople (All Saints)
COPLE (All Saints), a parish, in the union of Bedford, hundred of Wixamtree, county of Bedford, 4 miles (E. by S.) from Bedford; containing 551 inhabitants. This parish, which is intersected by the road from Oxford to Cambridge, and bounded on the north by the navigable river Ouse, comprises by computation 2108 acres, whereof 1350 are arable, 580 pasture, and 50 wood. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £7; net income, £215; patrons and appropriators, the Dean and Canons of ChristChurch, Oxford: the glebe consists of 7 acres, with a glebe-house. The church is in the later English style, and contains some brasses. There is an old house formerly belonging to the family of Luke, one of whom, Sir S. Luke, employed Butler, the poet, as secretary, and was ridiculed under the character of Hudibras.
COPMANTHORPE, a chapelry, in the parish of St. Mary-Bishopshill-Junior, E. division of Ainsty wapentake, union and W. riding of York, 4 miles (S. W. by S.) from York; containing 284 inhabitants. This chapelry, called in old documents Temple-Copmanthorpe, comprises by measurement 1652 acres, of which 1337 are arable, 236 meadow and pasture, 30 woodland, and 47 common. The York and North-Midland railway passes through. The living is a perpetual curacy, with the living of Upper Poppleton annexed; patron, the Vicar of the parish; net income, £100. The tithes have been commuted for £498. 15., of which £430 are payable to the Dean and Chapter of York, and £68. 15. to the vicar, the former having also a glebe of 25 acres, and the latter a glebe of one acre. The chapel is a small plain building: a faculty was granted in 1750, for inclosing a chapelyard for the interment of the dead. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans. Adjoining the hamlet is a field called "Temple field," in which, according to tradition, stood a temple; of what description, or to whom dedicated, there is no record; but stones, evidently parts of pillars, and others curiously carved, have been found in the field, and in the fields adjoining, and similar ones appear also in the walls of some of the oldest houses.
Copp.—See Eccleston, Great.
Coppenhall (St. Michael)
COPPENHALL (St. Michael), a parish, in the union and hundred of Nantwich, S. division of the county of Chester; comprising 2629 acres, and containing, in 1841, 747 inhabitants, of whom 544 were in the township of Church-Coppenhall, 5 miles (N. E.) from Nantwich, and 203 in that of Monks-Coppenhall. The manor of Church-Coppenhall belonged soon after the Conquest to the family of Waschett; about the end of the thirteenth century it is supposed to have passed to the De Orrebys, and among subsequent owners have been the families of Corbet, Hulse, Shaw, and Broughton. Monks-Coppenhall appears to derive its prefix from having belonged at an early period to the monks of Combermere: of the families that have held the property since, may be named those of Crue, Burnell, Vernon, and Cholmondeley. The Liverpool and Birmingham railway extends for nearly 2½ miles in the parish, the Chester and Crewe railway for a mile and a half, and the Crewe and Manchester for nearly two miles. (See Crewe.) The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £6. 10., and in the patronage of the Bishop of Lichfield: the tithes have been commuted for £275, and the glebe comprises 10 acres. The church, built of wood and plaster, in the style which prevailed in the reign of Elizabeth, was taken down, and rebuilt of brick, in 1821. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans.
COPPENHALL, a chapelry, in the parish and union of Penkridge, E. division of the hundred of Cuttlestone, S. division of the county of Stafford, 3 miles (S. by W.) from Stafford; containing 119 inhabitants. It comprises 963a. 2r. 5p., about three-fourths of which are arable, and the rest pasture and meadow. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £85; patron and impropriator, Lord Hatherton. The chapel, dedicated to St. Lawrence, is built of timber and brickwork, of the reign of Elizabeth.
Coppingford (All Saints)
COPPINGFORD (All Saints), a parish, in the hundred of Leightonstone, union and county of Huntingdon, 7 miles (N. W. by N.) from Huntingdon; containing 45 inhabitants. It comprises by measurement 807 acres, of which 537 are arable, 200 pasture, and 70 wood. The living is a rectory, consolidated with that of Upton, and valued in the king's books at £18. 13. 1½.: the church is in ruins.
Coppin-Sike, with Ferry-Corner
COPPULL, a township, and an ecclesiastical district, in the parish of Standish, union of Chorley, hundred of Leyland, N. division of the county of Lancaster, 4 miles (S. S. W.) from Chorley; the township containing 1031 inhabitants. Richard Fitz-Thomas, lord of Coppull, before the general use of dates in charters, gave to the priory of Burscough a part of his land, and "pannage in the woods of Coppull, with common of pasture, and all the easements and liberties appertaining to the town of Coppull." In the 5th of Charles I., Edward Rigbye held the manor, which was subsequently sold to the Hodgson family. The township was originally skirted by a copse, and hence, probably, derived its name; it is of level surface, and commands fine views of the Rivington hills. There is an extensive coal-mine, also some print-works; see Birkacre. One of the stations of the North-Union railway is situated here. The ecclesiastical district includes the townships of Charnock-Richard and Welsh-Whittle: the living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £120; patron, the Rector of Standish. The church was built in 1657, rebuilt and enlarged in 1758, and repaired in 1840. The tithes of Coppull have been commuted for £261. 12. 6. A national school was built in 1847.
COPSTON MAGNA, a chapelry, in the parish of Monks-Kirby, union of Lutterworth, Kirby division of the hundred of Knightlow, N. division of the county of Warwick, about 5 miles (S. S. E.) from Hinckley; containing 113 inhabitants. This place, called Great Copston, to distinguish it from Copston Fields, or Copston Parva, a hamlet in the parish of Wolvey, owes its name to one Copst, who possessed it in the time of the Saxons. It comprises 1080 acres, whereof two-thirds are arable, and the remainder meadow and pasture. The chief proprietor is the Earl of Denbigh. The chapel is part of a larger edifice.
Corbridge (St. Andrew)
CORBRIDGE (St. Andrew), a parish, in the union of Hexham, E. division of Tindale ward, S. division of Northumberland; comprising the townships of Aydon, Aydon-Castle, Clarewood, Corbridge, Dilston, Halton, Halton-Shields, Thornborough, and Great and Little Whittington; and containing 2103 inhabitants, of whom 1356 are in the township of Corbridge, 4½ miles (E.) from Hexham. This place, which is of great antiquity, appears to have been known to the Romans, who, at a short distance to the west, had a station on the line of the Watling-street, supposed by Camden to have been the Curia Ottadinarum of Ptolemy, and by Horsley the Corstopitum of Antoninus, and which is now called Corchester. In 1138, David, King of Scotland, who made frequent incursions into the English territories, encamped his forces at this place; which was subsequently burnt by the Scots in 1296, and again in 1311. From its great importance, King John, expecting to find concealed treasure, directed a search to be made here, but without effect. This monarch, in the 6th year of his reign, bestowed the manor upon Robert de Clavering, Baron of Warkworth; and the last baron having granted his Northumberland estates to the crown in reversion, they were given by Edward III. to Henry Percy, in whose line they continue to this day. During the parliamentary war, a battle was fought here between the royalists and the Scottish forces. The place was formerly a borough and market-town, had extensive privileges, and returned members to parliament. Some vestiges of its ancient consequence are still apparent: to the south of the church is a venerable tower, once used as the town gaol; and a little to the east is an eminence called Gallow Hill, the place of execution for criminals. It early carried on a considerable trade, and that it was originally of much greater extent, is evident, from the former existence of three additional churches, severally dedicated to St. Mary, St. Helen, and the Holy Trinity, the sites of which are well known.
The parish is bounded on the south by the river Tyne, and measures nine miles and a half in length from southeast to north-west, and about six miles in average breadth; the soil near the river is a rich and deep mould, and in other parts poor and shallow, but producing favourable crops. Coal, limestone, and lead-ore are found, and also excellent fire-clay, used in the manufacture of fire-bricks and earthenware articles. The lands are intersected by the streams Dilston and Cor, which flow through the parish into the Tyne; and the Newcastle and Carlisle railroad passes by. The village is pleasantly situated to the north of the Tyne, over which is a bridge of seven arches, erected in 1674: near the centre of the former market-place is a cross, built in 1814, by the Duke of Northumberland. A fair held on the eve, day, and morrow of St. John the Baptist, has been discontinued; but there are fairs for live-stock, among the largest in the kingdom, at Stagshaw Bank, within the parish, on Whitsun-eve and July 4th, at the latter of which much linen and woollen cloth, brought from Scotland, is also exposed for sale; and a trystfair, established in 1820, is held on Nov. 24th. The living is a vicarage, valued in the king's books at £11. 11. 8.; net income, £482; patrons and appropriators, the Dean and Chapter of Carlisle. The great tithes of Corbridge and Thornborough have been commuted for £695, and the small tithes for £306. The church is a neat edifice, supposed to have been built with materials brought from the ruins of the Roman station in the neighbourhood. At Halton is a chapel of ease, in the burial-ground of which is a Roman altar. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans. Ann Radcliffe, in 1699, bequeathed £10 per annum for apprenticing children; Elizabeth Radcliffe, in 1688, gave a rent-charge of £10, and the Rev. Robert Troutbeck, in 1706, lands producing £30 per annum, to the poor.
Corby (St. John the Evangelist)
CORBY (St. John the Evangelist), a village or market-town, and a parish, in the union of Bourne, wapentake of Beltisloe, parts of Kesteven, county of Lincoln, 33 miles (S. by E.) from Lincoln, and 103 (N. by W.) from London; containing 714 inhabitants. The parish is on the road from Bourne to Colsterworth, and comprises by computation 2724 acres, of which more than 1000 are old inclosure, 305 wood, 270 pasture, and the rest arable. The village is pleasantly situated in a valley, resting on a rocky base, and the lands are richly diversified with hill and dale, interspersed with ash and oak: the soil is in some parts clayey and in others stony. The market, which has nearly fallen into disuse, is on Wednesday; the fairs are on August 6th and the Monday before October 10th, for cattle and horses. The living is a discharged vicarage, united to the rectory of Irnham, and valued in the king's books at £5. 12. 1½.: the impropriate tithes have been commuted for £100, and the vicarial for £126; the glebe contains 91 acres. The church is an ancient structure, in the early English style. A grammar school was founded in 1669, by Charles Reed, who endowed it with a rent-charge of £48. 15.
Corby (St. John The Baptist)
CORBY (St. John The Baptist), a parish, in the union of Kettering, hundred of Corby, N. division of the county of Northampton, 2½ miles (S. E.) from Rockingham; containing 791 inhabitants. It is intersected by the road from Oundle to Harborough, and comprises 2613a. 3r. 30p. Building-stone is found in great plenty; the stone is used also for the roads. The ancient family of the lords Latimer held property in the parish in early times; the manor is now vested in the Earl of Cardigan. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £13. 16. 3., and in the gift of the Earl. The church is a uniform and beautiful specimen of the decorated style, and consists of a chancel, nave, south aisle, and south porch, with a western tower and spire; it was probably erected at the commencement of the 14th century. The porch is entirely of stone, the roof being supported by two arched stone ribs. The edifice was internally in a very dilapidated state, but has been successfully restored; the piers, arches, and windows have been scraped, and relieved from many coats of whitewash, and new open seats have been put up, possessing the character of the old oak seats. In the church is a tomb, supposed to cover the remains of a lord Latimer; and in the churchyard is a monument of old date, remarkable for the beauty of its design, and its picturesque effect. The Independents have a small place of worship. There is a national school, supported by the Earl of Cardigan; also a British and Foreign school for boys and girls, endowed by Mr. Rowlatt, a former inhabitant of the village.
CORBY, GREAT, a township, in the parish of Wetheral, union of Carlisle, Eskdale ward, E. division of Cumberland, 6¼ miles (E. S. E.) from Carlisle; containing 806 inhabitants. The village is pleasantly situated on the east bank of the Eden; and contiguous to it, on the summit of a precipitous cliff, stands Corby Castle, anciently the seat of the Salkelds, who inherited it from Hubert de Vallibus, Baron of Gilsland, and from whom it passed by purchase to its present possessors, the Howards, a branch of the Norfolk family. The mansion was much modernised and improved in 1813, and the scenery and walks surrounding it abound in natural beauties. The Corby viaduct for conveying the Newcastle and Carlisle railway over Corby, or Drybeck, valley, consists of seven arches spanning 40 feet each; the height from the ground is 70 feet, the whole length 480 feet, and as a specimen of architecture it is little inferior to Wetheral bridge. A school was endowed in 1720 with 25 acres of land, yielding about £20 per annum.
CORBY, LITTLE, a township, in the parish of Warwick, union of Bampton, Eskdale ward, E. division of Cumberland, 5½ miles (E. by N.) from Carlisle; containing 283 inhabitants. The village is situated at the junction of the Eden and Irthing rivers.
Corely (St. Peter)
CORELY (St. Peter), a parish, in the union of Cleobury-Mortimer, hundred of Stottesden, S. division of Salop, 4½ miles (N. by E.) from Tenbury; containing 525 inhabitants. It is picturesquely situated at the base of the Clee hills, on the road from Ludlow to Cleobury, and comprises 2174 acres, whereof 877 are common or waste; the soil is principally clay; the cultivated land is mostly pasture. Several coal-mines are in operation. The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at £5. 5. 10., and in the patronage of W. Hall, Esq.: the tithes have been commuted. The church was rebuilt about 70 years ago, with the exception of the tower, which is ancient. There is a national school.
CORFE, a parish, in the union of Taunton, hundred of Taunton and Taunton-Dean, W. division of Somerset, 3 miles (S.) from Taunton; containing 279 inhabitants. It comprises 1127 acres of land, whereof 348 are common or waste. Stone is quarried, to be burnt into lime. The living is a perpetual curacy, with a net income of £66, and is in the gift of Lady Cooper, who owns the tithes, which have been commuted for £89. 13.