A Topographical Dictionary of England. Originally published by S Lewis, London, 1848.
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KIRBY-KNOWLE, a parish, in the union of Thirsk, wapentake of Birdforth, N. riding of York; containing, with the chapelry of Bagby with Islebeck, and the township of Balk, 553 inhabitants, of whom 147 are in the township of Kirby-Knowle, 4¾ miles (N. E. by N.) from Thirsk. The township is in a romantic valley, inclosed by an amphitheatre of hills, and comprises by computation 1559 acres, of which 788 are arable, 394 pasture and meadow, and about 360 wood and waste. The village is beautifully situated, and near it is an ancient mansion called New Building, which commands a fine view over the adjacent country. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £8. 2. 1.; net income, £415; patron, Sir R. Frankland, Bart. The tithes of the township of Kirby-Knowle have been commuted for £180, and the glebe consists of 54 acres. The church is a small structure, the chancel of which was rebuilt in 1815. There is a chapel of ease at Bagby.
Kirby-Le-Soken (St. Michael)
KIRBY-LE-SOKEN (St. Michael), a parish, in the union and hundred of Tendring, N. division of Essex, 11¼ miles (S. E.) from Manningtree; containing 924 inhabitants. The parish comprises 4757 acres, of which 847 are common and waste; it is bounded on the north by a creek of the sea, and there is a wharf for loading and unloading small craft, which occasionally sail to London with corn. Nearly opposite to this wharf, and within the limits of the parish, is Horsey Island, containing about 1400 acres, a considerable portion of which is valuable arable and marsh land. The Dean and Chapter of St. Paul's have a good estate here, constituting the endowment of the prebend of Sneating, held by the Rev. T. H. Horne, author of a valuable Introduction to the Critical Study of the Scriptures. A fair takes place on the festival of St. Ann, when the lord of the manor holds his court. The living is a discharged vicarage, with the livings of Thorpe-le-Soken and Walton-le-Soken consolidated, valued in the king's books at £10; net income, £513, subject to a deduction of the stipends of three curates, which the duties of the parishes require; patron and incumbent, the Rev. W. Burgess. The church, a very ancient structure, having become much dilapidated, was, with the exception of the tower, nearly all taken down and rebuilt in 1833, at an expense of £1200. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans.
Kirby, Monks (St. Edith)
KIRBY, MONKS (St. Edith), a parish, in the union of Lutterworth, Kirby division of the hundred of Knightlow, N. division of the county of Warwick, 6 miles (N. N. W.) from Rugby; containing in 1841, with the chapelry of Copston Magna, and the hamlets of Brockhurst, Easen-hall, Over-Cester, Newnham-Paddox, Pailton, Stretton-under-Foss with Newbold-Revel, and Walton, 1861 inhabitants. Dugdale fixes here the town of Cyrcbirig, built by Ethelfreda, Countess of Mercia; but Bishop Gibson places it at Chirbury, in Shropshire, on the frontier of the ancient kingdom of Mercia. A priory of Benedictine monks, a cell to the abbey of Angiers, in Normandy, was founded about 1077, by Gosfred de Wirchia, the possessions of which, on its suppression, were valued at £220. 3. 4. per annum, and annexed to the Carthusian priory of Axholme. The parish is situated near the borders of Leicestershire, and consists of 9533 acres of a productive soil, of clay and sand, with trees in the hedge-rows. The Oxford canal passes along the south-western portion, and the parish is intersected from west to east by the road from Coventry to Lutterworth: the Trent-Valley railway, also, passes through a portion of the parish. The living is a discharged vicarage, with that of Withybrook annexed, valued in the king's books at £22. 9. 7.; net income, £166; patrons and impropriators, the Master and Fellows of Trinity College, Cambridge. The church is a large structure. At Copston Magna is a chapel of ease. There are places of worship for dissenters; and an endowed school.
KIRBY-MUXLOE, a chapelry, in the parish of Glenfield, union of Blaby, hundred of Sparkenhoe, S. division of the county of Leicester, 4½ miles (W.) from Leicester; containing 321 inhabitants. It comprises by computation 1600 acres of rich grazing and arable land; the surface is hilly, and the lower grounds are watered by two rivulets called the Kirby Brooks, which rise within the chapelry, and, uniting their streams, constitute the Glenfield Brook. The chapel is dedicated to St. Bartholomew. Here are the ruins of a moated and castellated mansion that belonged to the family of Hastings.
Kirby-on-the-Moor (All Saints)
KIRBY-ON-THE-MOOR (All Saints), a parish, in the wapentake of Hallikeld, N. riding of York, 1 mile (N.) from Boroughbridge; comprising the townships of Kirby and Langthorpe, and part of the township of Humberton with Milby; and containing 655 inhabitants, of whom 202 are in the township of Kirby. This parish, which is separated from that of Aldborough by the river Ure, consists of about 3200 acres, whereof 1164 are in Kirby township; of the latter, 911 are arable, 233 meadow and pasture, and 20 wood and waste. The soil is fertile, producing good crops of barley and turnips; the surface is elevated, and the surrounding scenery pleasingly diversified. The village is situated on an eminence commanding a view of sixteen churches, the cathedrals of York and Ripon, Craike and Sheriff-Hutton castles, and the Hambleton hills; a fair, chiefly for sheep, is held in it on the 23rd of June. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £7. 13. 6½., and in the patronage of the Crown, with a net income of £335: the glebe comprises 100 acres, and there is a commodious glebe-house, built in 1840. The church is an ancient structure, with a square embattled tower.
Kirby-Underdale, East riding of the county of York.—See Kirkby-Underdale.
Kirby, West (St. Bridget)
KIRBY, WEST (St. Bridget), a parish, in the union, and Lower division of the hundred, of Wirrall, S. division of the county of Chester; containing, with the townships of Great Caldey, Caldey-Grange, Frankby, Hoose, Great and Little Meolse, Newton with Larton, and part of Greasby, 1641 inhabitants, of whom 330 are in the township of West Kirby, 7½ miles (N. W. by N.) from Great Neston. The manor belonged to the convent of Basingwerk, and afterwards to the earls of Derby; several freeholders are now lords of the manor in rotation. The parish is from five to six miles in length, and from three to four in breadth. It is bounded on the north by the Irish Sea, and on the west by the estuary of the Dee; and from some rising ground about a quarter of a mile from the shore, extensive views are obtained of the Irish Sea, the river Dee, and the Flintshire and Carnarvonshire hills. The quality of the soil varies materially in different parts. In the townships on the sea-shore it is very light and sandy, and, being in a great measure sheltered by hills from the easterly winds, is particularly suited for the growth of early potatoes, for which the district has long been celebrated. Some extensive commons are yet unenclosed, and much even of the best land in the parish affords scope for improvement. The township of West Kirby comprises 639 acres, of which the soil is sand, with rock. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £28. 13. 4.; net income, £703; patrons, the Dean and Chapter of Chester. The church was rebuilt in 1786. At Hoylake is a separate incumbency. The free grammar school in Caldey-Grange was founded in 1636, by William Glegg, who endowed it with land now producing £26 per annum; to which an annuity of £30 was added in 1679, by Thomas Bennett, who also left £24 per annum to buy gowns for twenty-four deserving persons. Both these latter sums are paid out of the proceeds of an estate, amounting to upwards of £200 per annum, the remainder being distributed among the poor.
Kirby-Wisk (St. John the Baptist)
KIRBY-WISK (St. John the Baptist), a parish, in the union of Thirsk, partly in the wapentake of Birdforth, and partly in that of Gilling-East, N. riding of York; containing 905 inhabitants, of whom 210 are in the township, 4¾ miles (W. by N.) from Thirsk. The parish consists of the townships of KirbyWisk, Maunby, Newby-Wisk, and Newsham with Breckenbrough; and comprises 5927 acres, of which 2686 are arable, 3035 pasture, and about 206 woodland and waste. The village is pleasantly situated on the west bank of the river Wisk, and the York and Newcastle railway runs through the township of Newsham, east of the river. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £27. 16. 5½., and in the gift of Lord Prudhoe: the tithes have been commuted for £750. 8. 5. The church is a spacious edifice with a handsome tower, and has an ancient Norman door on the north side. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans. In the parish were born Roger Ascham, the learned and accomplished tutor of Queen Elizabeth; Dr. George Hickes, author of the Thesaurus Linguarum Septentrionalium; and Dr. John Palliser, Archbishop of Tuam.
Kirdford (St. John the Baptist)
KIRDFORD (St. John the Baptist), a parish, in the union of Petworth, hundred of Rotherbridge, rape of Arundel, W. division of Sussex, 4½ miles (N. E. by N.) from Petworth; containing, with the chapelry of Plaistow, 1973 inhabitants. It comprises about 14,000 acres, of which nearly one-third is wood, and the remainder arable and pasture; the lands are in good cultivation, and the prevailing character of the scenery is pleasing. Quarries of Petworth or Sussex marble are extensively wrought. Shillinglee, the seat of the Earl of Winterton, is a handsome mansion, beautifully situated in a park of 2000 acres, richly wooded, and commanding views of the South Downs and the intervening country. The living is a vicarage, valued in the king's books at £11; net income, £221; patron, Colonel Wyndham; impropriator, the Earl of Winterton. The church is principally in the early English style, and consists of two aisles and a chancel, with a tower; on the south side is a Norman doorway, now built up. At Plaistow is a chapel of ease.
KIRK-ANDREWS, NETHER, a township, in the parish of Kirk-Andrews-upon-Esk, union of Longtown, Eskdale ward, E. division of Cumberland; containing 444 inhabitants. It lies between the rivers Sark and Esk, and comprises Solway Moss, and a portion of the once debateable lands.
Kirk-Andrews-upon-Eden (St. Andrew)
KIRK-ANDREWS-upon-Eden (St. Andrew), a parish, in the union of Carlisle, Cumberland ward, E. division of the county of Cumberland, 3¼ miles (W. N. W.) from Carlisle; containing 142 inhabitants. This parish, which forms part of the barony of Burg, comprises 898 acres by admeasurement; about 20 acres are woodland, and nearly 40 open common. Its soil is partly of a sandy nature, and partly a rich black loam; the surface is generally flat, and is intersected by the river Eden and the Carlisle canal. The living is a discharged rectory, with which that of Beaumont was united in 1692; net income, £249; patron, the Earl of Lonsdale. The church was long ago demolished, and the ruins were used in the erection of a glebe-house; the inhabitants attend divine service at Beaumont, but bury in the churchyard here. There was a still more ancient church at Kirksteads, about a mile from the site of this, but at what period it was destroyed is unknown; the cemetery, in which stones curiously carved and human bones have been found, may yet be traced. On the common is a triple intrenchment, near which several urns were discovered about sixty years ago. The Roman wall passed through the parish.
Kirk-Andrews-upon-Esk (St. Andrew)
KIRK-ANDREWS-upon-Esk (St. Andrew), a parish, in the union of Longtown, Eskdale ward, E. division of Cumberland; comprising the townships of Middle Kirk-Andrews, Nether Kirk-Andrews, Moat, and Nichol-Forest; and containing 1932 inhabitants, of whom 458 are in Middle Kirk-Andrews, 3 miles (N. by E.) from Longtown. This parish, which is separated from Scotland by the rivers Liddel, Kershope, and Sark, and by the Scots' dyke, forms a large portion of the English border, and was the scene of almost constant warfare before the union of the two crowns. On the steep bank of the Liddel is a moated area called Liddel's Strength, supposed to have been the site of the baronial castle of the ancient lords of Liddel, which was taken by William, King of Scotland, in 1174, and by David Bruce in 1346. In the reign of Henry VIII. a memorable battle, in which the Scots were defeated with great slaughter, took place on Solway Moss, in the parish; and in 1745 a strong party of the rebels were slain by the army under the Duke of Cumberland, near Esk Bridge. The parish comprises by measurement 11,636 acres, of which 9433 are arable, meadow, and old pasture, 503 woodland, and about 1700 in Solway Moss; the surface is varied, and the lower grounds are watered by the Esk, which separates the parish from Longtown. Over the Esk are two bridges, one of which, at Garristown, is of cast iron; and there are two bridges of stone across the river Sark. Freestone of good quality for building is found in abundance, and about a mile from the church is an extensive quarry. The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at £3. 11. 5.; net income, £512; patron, Sir James R. G. Graham, Bart. The church, a picturesque object standing alone on the west bank of the Esk, was erected by Sir Richard Graham, upon the site of a more ancient structure, in 1637, at which period Kirk-Andrews was made a distinct parish, having previously been only a chapelry in that of Arthuret, or Easton. At Nichol-Forest is a separate incumbency. In the parish are four schools endowed by Lady Widdrington, in 1754, with £5. 13. 4. each. Near the church is one of the old tower fortresses erected for the defence of the border. An extraordinary irruption of Solway Moss took place in 1771, when a large tract of land was inundated, which was afterwards recovered and brought again into cultivation.
Kirk-Bampton, county of Cumberland.—See Bampton, Kirk.
Kirk-Bride (St. Bridget)
KIRK-BRIDE (St. Bridget), a parish, in the union of Wigton, Cumberland ward, and E. division of the county of Cumberland, 5¾ miles (N. N. W.) from Wigton; containing 372 inhabitants. This parish, which is bounded on the north and east by the river Wampole, comprises 1605a. 3r. 37p. Its soil is partly a strong clay alternated with fine deep loam, well adapted for grain, and affording rich pasture; and partly of a heathy nature, with a considerable portion of moss. The surface is uniformly level, with the exception of an eminence towards the north, on which are situated the church and rectory-house, commanding diversified and extensive views. The village is on the south bank of the Wampole, in which the sand-banks are so often shifted by the violent meeting of the tides and freshes, that no bridge hitherto erected has been able to withstand their united force. The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at £5; net income, £230; patron, the Rev. J. Halifax: the tithes were commuted for land in 1810. The church was built before the Conquest. The Society of Friends have a meeting-house.
Kirk-Burn (St. Mary)
KIRK-BURN (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Driffield, Bainton-Beacon division of the wapentake of Harthill, E. riding of York; containing, with the townships of Eastburn, Southburn, and Tibthorpe, 508 inhabitants, of whom 149 are in the township of Kirk-Burn, 4 miles (S. W. by W.) from Driffield. The parish comprises by measurement 5926 acres. The soil in those parts at the foot of the Wolds is well adapted for wheat; while that of the township of Tibthorpe, which is of great elevation, rising into the Wolds, is of lighter quality. The village is small, and situated on an acclivity in the narrow vale of a rivulet. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £4. 10. 2½., and in the gift of the Crown; net income, £82; impropriators, Sir Tatton Sykes, Bart., and others. The church, an ancient edifice, has undergone many repairs; part of the chancel was rebuilt in 1819.
Kirk-Burton.—See Burton, Kirk.
KIRKBY, a chapelry, in the parish of Walton-on-the-Hill, union and hundred of West Derby, S. division of the county of Lancaster, 5¾ miles (N. W.) from Prescot; containing 992 inhabitants. Robert de Rokeport, Roger Gernet, and Thomas de Bethun, all allied to Warin Bussel, baron of Penwortham, held lands in "Kyrkeby." Adam de Molynes, lord of Sefton, in the reign of William II. married Annotta, heiress of Benedict, son of Roger Gernet; and this place has ever since remained in the family of Molyneux, of Sefton, Kirkby comprises 3907 acres, of which 124 are common land. The living is a perpetual curacy, net income, £120, with a house; patron, the Earl of Sefton. The tithes have been commuted for £460. The present chapel, dedicated to St. Chad, is a plain building, erected by a brief dated 5th March 1766, when £1043 were collected: the old font is massive, and sufficiently deep to allow of the immersion of the whole body; its base is decorated with two wreathed bands, and on the sides are rude figures, supposed to represent Adam and Eve, and the Twelve Apostles. There is a place of worship for dissenters. A school has been built by Lord Sefton, the master of which receives £8 per annum, the produce of an ancient bequest; and a sum left by Thomas Aspe in 1698, is applied in apprenticing children.
Kirkby (St. Andrew)
KIRKBY (St. Andrew), with Osgodby, a parish, in the union of Caistor, N. division of the wapentake of Walshcroft, parts of Lindsey, county of Lincoln, 4¾ miles (N. W.) from Market-Rasen; containing 474 inhabitants. The parish comprises by computation about 2000 acres; it is chiefly arable land, with some large fir plantations, and the scenery at the foot of the Wolds is very pleasing. The road from Caistor to Market-Rasen passes on the east. The living is a discharged vicarage, united to that of Owersby, and valued in the king's books at £8. 18. 4.: the tithes were commuted for about 140 acres of land, in 1803. The church, though much modernised, appears to have been originally of Norman architecture; in the chancel are some ancient tombs. There are two places of worship for Methodists, and a Roman Catholic chapel. Thomas Goodrich, Bishop of Ely, and lord chancellor in the reign of Edward VI., was born here.
Kirkby, East (St. Nicholas)
KIRKBY, EAST (St. Nicholas), a parish, in the union of Spilsby, W. division of the soke of Bolingbroke, parts of Lindsey, county of Lincoln, 5 miles (W. S. W.) from Spilsby; containing 436 inhabitants. It comprises by measurement 2000 acres, of which the soil is partly a rich marly loam, partly sand and gravel, and in the fens peat moor; the surface to the north is hilly, and towards the south flat, and the lands are drained by a wide catchwater, used as a canal. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £5. 12. 1.; net income, £153; patron and impropriator, C. Turnor, Esq.: the tithes were commuted for land and a money payment in 1806. The church is a neat structure. A charity school is endowed with land producing £60 per annum, bequeathed by Gregory and Margaret Croft in 1719; it is open also to the children of Miningsby parish.
Kirkby-Fleetham (St. Mary)
KIRKBY-FLEETHAM (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Bedale, wapentake of Hang-East, N. riding of York, 4 miles (S. E. by E.) from Catterick; containing 657 inhabitants. It includes the hamlets of Great and Little Fencotes, Low Fields, Low-Street, and Salutation; and comprises by measurement 2973 acres, of which 1290 are arable, 1651 pasture, and 32 woodland. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £9. 18. 2., and in the patronage of the Crown. The impropriate tithes have been commuted for £474, and the vicarial for £288; the glebe comprises 3 acres. The church is a large fabric with a lofty tower, and contains some memorials to the Stapyltons, the ancient lords of the manor. The remains of a castle and its moat are visible.
Kirkby-Green (Holy Cross)
KIRKBY-GREEN (Holy Cross), a parish, in the union of Sleaford, First division of the wapentake of Langoe, parts of Kesteven, county of Lincoln, 7¾ miles (N. by E.) from Sleaford; containing 87 inhabitants. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £11. 7. 6., and in the patronage of the Crown; net income, £180; appropriator, the Bishop of Lincoln. The vicarial tithes have been commuted for £67. 14. 6., and there are 14 acres of glebe.