A Topographical Dictionary of England. Originally published by S Lewis, London, 1848.
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COTHELSTON, a parish, in the union of Taunton, hundred of Taunton and Taunton-Dean, W. division of Somerset, 7 miles (N. W. by N.) from Taunton; containing 104 inhabitants. The parish is situated on the road to Bridgwater. Limestone strata of blue lias are found; and some indications of copper being observed, an attempt at mining was made, but soon discontinued. Cothelston Hill is 1250 feet above the level of the sea, commanding an extensive view over eleven counties; on the summit is a round tower of great antiquity. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £58; patron, the Vicar of Kingston, to which church this was once a daughter church: the tithes are appropriate to the Dean and Chapter of Bristol, and have been commuted for £68. The church contains some interesting monuments to the Stowells, formerly possessors of the manor, which are placed in an aisle now belonging to the family of Esdaile.
Cotheridge (St. Leonard)
COTHERIDGE (St. Leonard), a parish, in the union of Martley, Upper division of the hundred of Doddingtree, Worcester and W. divisions of the county of Worcester, 3¾ miles (W.) from Worcester, on the road to Bromyard; containing 228 inhabitants. This place, which was connected with the priory of Westwood, is bounded on the south by the river Team, and consists of 2129a. 2r. 11p.; wheat, beans, and some hops, are the principal produce. The small scattered village lies on the margin of the river. The Rev. John Rowland Berkeley is the owner of the whole parish, about ten acres excepted. The living is a perpetual curacy, valued in the king's books at £5. 16. 8.; patron and incumbent, the Rev. J. R. Berkeley. Sir Rowland Berkeley, in 1694, gave a rent-charge of £6 for apprenticing children.
COTHERSTON, a township, in the parish of Romald-Kirk, union of Teesdale, wapentake of Gilling-West, N. riding of York, 3¾ miles (N. W. by W.) from Barnard-Castle; containing 566 inhabitants. The township comprises 8228 acres, of which 5084 are common or waste. The village is pleasantly situated on the south bank of the Tees, and is celebrated for the making of cheese, similar in quality to "Stilton." There is a manufactory for carpets. Here are the remains of a castle that belonged to the Fitz-Hughs, lords of the manor, but was destroyed in one of the devastating inroads of the Scots. The tithes have been commuted for £108. There are places of worship for the Society of Friends, Independents, and Wesleyans; and a national school.
COTLEIGH, a parish, in the union of Honiton, hundred of Colyton, Honiton and S. divisions of Devon, 3 miles (E. N. E.) from Honiton; containing 269 inhabitants. It comprises 1216a. 18p., of which 561 acres are arable, 625 pasture, and 30 woodland. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £9; patron and incumbent, the Rev. W. Michell: the tithes have been commuted for £200, and the glebe consists of 23 acres.
COTMANHAY, an ecclesiastical parish or district, in the union of Basford, hundred of Morleston and Litchurch, S. division of the county of Derby, 1½ mile (N.) from Ilkeston; containing 2200 inhabitants. This district comprises the liberty of Shipley, in Heanor parish, and the hamlet of Cotmanhay, in the parish of Ilkeston; and is bounded on the east by the river Erewash, which is also the boundary here between the counties of Derby and Nottingham. It lies along the valley of the Erewash; and parallel to the river are the Erewash canal and the Erewash-Valley railway, which connect the coal districts of Derbyshire and Nottingham with the Trent navigation and the Midland railway, respectively. The Nutbrook canal, which joins the Erewash canal, terminates in the centre of this district; it was made for the transit of minerals from the extensive coal-fields of Shipley, Ilkeston, and West Hallam. The district abounds in coal and ironstone: the latter, in consequence of the increased trade in iron, is of more value than formerly; furnaces have been lately erected in the neighbourhood, and the population has been much increased by the influx of labourers employed in raising the stone. The manufacture of stockings is extensively carried on. The district was formed in November 1845, under the act 6th and 7th of Victoria, cap. 37: the living is in the gift of the Crown and the Bishop of Lichfield, alternately; net income, £150. The church was erected in 1847, at a cost of about £2400.—See Shipley.
COTNESS, a township, in the parish and union of Howden, wapentake of Howdenshire, E. riding of York, 5 miles (S. E.) from Howden; containing 38 inhabitants. It comprises by computation 240 acres, exclusive of about 250 acres on Walling Fen: the river Ouse passes on the south.
Coton (St. Peter)
COTON (St. Peter), a parish, in the union of Chesterton, hundred of Wetherley, county of Cambridge, 3 miles (W. by N.) from Cambridge; containing 307 inhabitants. The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at £6. 12. 11.; net income, £213; patrons, the Master and Fellows of Catherine Hall, Cambridge. The tithes were commuted for land and a money payment in 1799. Dr. Andrew Downes, Greek professor at Cambridge, and translator of the Apocrypha, died here in 1627.
COTON, a township, in the parish of Hanbury, union of Burton-upon-Trent, N. division of the hundred of Offlow and of the county of Stafford, 6¾ miles (S. E. by S.) from Uttoxeter; containing 72 inhabitants. This place is generally called Coton-underNeedwood, to distinguish from others of the same name. It lies about a mile south of the river Dove, and the like distance north-west of the village of Hanbury. Coton Hall is a neat mansion, erected in 1790. William Wollaston, author of The Religion of Nature Delineated, was born here in 1650.
Coton, with Hopton
COTON, with Hopton, a township, in the parishes of St. Mary and St. Chad, Stafford, S. division of the hundred of Pirehill, union, and N. division of the county, of Stafford, 5¾ miles (E. by S.) from Stone; containing 464 inhabitants. Upon Hopton Heath, now inclosed, a most severe battle was fought in 1643, between the king's forces under the Earl of Northampton, and the parliamentary army commanded by Sir John Gell and Sir William Brereton. The earl, notwithstanding the superiority of his adversaries, attacked them with great impetuosity, and a long and obstinate contest followed, in which, after performing prodigies of valour, the earl's horse having been shot under him, he was surrounded and slain. The royalists, however, continued the battle, and, according to their own account, gained a decided victory; but the parliamentary army, on the other hand, asserted that, though worsted at first, they were in the end successful: be this as it may, it is certain that out of 600 dead found on the field next morning, 500 were royalists. The township is a fertile district, containing a number of scattered houses extending from the hamlet of Littleworth, on the eastern side of Stafford, to the confines of Ingestre, the beautiful seat of the Earl Talbot, who is lord of the manor and owner of most of the soil. On the north bank of the river Sow, in the hamlet of St. Thomas, are some remains of a priory of Black canons, founded about 1180. The Staffordshire General Lunatic Asylum is situated in the township.
COTON-IN-THE-ELMS, a township, in the parish of Lullington, union of Burton-upon-Trent, hundred of Repton and Gresley, S. division of the county of Derby, 6¼ miles (S. by W.) from Burton; containing 351 inhabitants. The township comprises 1176a. 1r. 34p. The impropriate tithes have been commuted for a yearly rent-charge of £230.
Cottam, with Lea, Ashton, and Ingol, hundred of Amounderness, Lancaster.—See Ashton.
COTTAM, a chapelry, in the parish of South Leverton, union of East Retford, North-Clay division of the wapentake of Bassetlaw, N. division of the county of Nottingham, 8 miles (E. by S.) from East Retford; containing 89 inhabitants, and comprising 625 acres. The chapel is dedicated to the Holy Trinity.
COTTAM, a chapelry, in the parish of Langtoft, union of Driffield, wapentake of Dickering, E. riding of the county of York, 5¾ miles (N. N. W.) from Driffield; containing 41 inhabitants. The chapelry comprises 2600 acres, of which 1800 are arable, meadow, pasture, and sheep-walks, and 800 rabbit-warren. The living is a perpetual curacy, annexed to the vicarage of Langtoft: the chapel is a small and very plain edifice.
Cottenham (All Saints)
COTTENHAM (All Saints), a parish, in the union and hundred of Chesterton, locally in Northstow hundred, county of Cambridge, 6¾ miles (N.) from Cambridge; containing 1833 inhabitants. This place was the residence of the monks sent here by Geoffrey, Abbot of Crowland, and who first established a regular course of academical education at Cambridge. The village was nearly destroyed in 1676 by an accidental fire, which consumed more than two-thirds of the buildings. The parish comprises by measurement 7037 acres. The Adventurers' land, chiefly inclosed from the river Ouse and the common adjoining, was sometimes subject to inundation, but in consequence of late improvements, this has been in a great measure prevented; acts for inclosing other lands, and for draining certain fen land and low ground in the parish, were passed in 1842. The dairies, which are numerous, are famed for producing excellent cheese. A branch of the Ouse passes near the village. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £36. 15., and in the gift of the Bishop of Ely: the tithes have been commuted for £765, and the glebe comprises 133 acres. The church is a handsome structure, in the later English style. There is a place of worship for Particular Baptists. A school was founded in 1703, by Mrs. Catharine Pepys, who gave a house, and £100 to purchase land; and it has several other small endowments. This is the birthplace of Archbishop Tenison, who died in 1715. Charles Christopher Pepys, lord high chancellor, was raised to the peerage by the title of Baron Cottenham, Jan. 16th, 1836.
Cottered (St. Mary)
COTTERED (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Buntingford, hundred of Odsey, county of Hertford, 3 miles (W.) from Buntingford; containing 465 inhabitants. It comprises by measurement 1755 acres, and is intersected by a cross-road between Baldock and Buntingford. The living is a rectory, with that of Broadfield annexed, valued in the king's books at £20. 8. 6½.; net income, £348; patron, W. Brown, Esq.: the tithes were commuted for 315 acres of land, under an inclosure act, in 1806, and there are 10 acres of ancient glebe, with a glebe-house. The church consists of a nave and chancel, in the later English style, but has, by various alterations, been deprived of its general unity of design; it contains a beautiful marble font. Schools were built by Mr. Henry Soames, in 1829, and endowed with a rent-charge of £40.
Cotterstock (St. Andrew)
COTTERSTOCK (St. Andrew), a parish, in the union of Oundle, hundred of Willybrook, N. division of the county of Northampton, 2 miles (N. N. E.) from Oundle; containing 204 inhabitants. The parish is situated on the left bank of the river Nene, and consists of 675a. 2r. 6p. The living is a discharged vicarage, with that of Glapthorn united; net income, £91; patron and impropriator, the Earl of Westmoreland: the tithes were commuted for land and a money payment in 1813. The church, with its tower, is an interesting edifice, exhibiting portions in every style of English architecture, and some remains of stained glass in the fine tracery of the windows. It anciently had a college for a provost, twelve chaplains, and two clerks, founded in 1336, by John Gifford, a canon in the cathedral of York; three stone stalls still remain in the chancel. In 1658, Clement Bellamy bequeathed land, producing about £20 per annum, for two exhibitions to scholars at Cambridge, and for apprenticing children; this parish is entitled to a fourth share. In the vicinity are numerous vestiges of Roman works, and of a continued chain of fortification extending from Gloucester to Northampton, erected by Ostorius Scapula, pro-prætor of Britain in the reign of the emperor Claudius: a Roman tessellated pavement of great beauty was discovered in the parish within the last fifty years.
Cottesbach (St. Mary)
COTTESBACH (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Lutterworth, hundred of Guthlaxton, S. division of the county of Leicester, 1½ mile (S. by W.) from Lutterworth; containing 82 inhabitants. The parish is situated on the Banbury and Lutterworth road; it is bounded on the west by the Watling-street, and on the north-west by the little river Swift, and comprises by computation 1220 acres, which consist principally of rich pasture land, ornamented with oak, ash, and elm trees. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £10. 6. 8.; net income, £106; patron and incumbent, the Rev. J. P. Marriott: the glebe consists of about 25 acres, with a glebe-house. The church is in the decorated style. Several Roman antiquities were discovered in the vicinity of the Watling-street a few years ago, comprising spear-heads, urns, beads, clasps, skulls, &c. In one part of the parish, the springs have the quality of petrifying whatever falls into them. Dr. Edward Wells, author of the well-known Geography of the Old and New Testaments, and several other works, was rector of the parish for many years.
Cottesbrooke (All Saints)
COTTESBROOKE (All Saints), a parish, in the union of Brixworth, hundred of Guilsborough, S. division of the county of Northampton, 9¾ miles (N. N. W.) from Northampton; containing 252 inhabitants. It is situated between the roads leading from Northampton to Market-Harborough and to Welford, and on the north-west side adjoins Naseby Field, where the celebrated battle so disastrous to Charles I., and decisive of his fate, was fought in 1645. The parish comprises 2747a. 3r. 16p.; the surface is diversified with hill and dale, the soil is generally clayey, and chiefly in meadow and pasture: the lands are watered by two brooks which flow in a south-eastern direction. Cottesbrooke Park is the seat of Sir James Hay Langham, Bart.; the mansion, a handsome structure of stone and brick, and having two wings, was built about 1712. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £26. 0. 10., and in the gift of Sir James H. Langham: the tithes have been commuted for £646. 12., and the glebe consists of about two acres, with a glebe-house. The church, which is admired for its architecture, is in the decorated style; it has a tower containing seven bells, and in the interior are several ancient monuments, some of which were defaced and mutilated by Cromwell's soldiers after the battle of Naseby. An hospital for two widowers and six widows was founded by Alderman Langham (afterwards Sir John Langham) in 1651, and endowed with 53 acres of land. A cell of Præmonstratensian canons existed here, foundations of which have been dug up, the site appearing to have been surrounded by a moat. In the autumn of 1836, as some labourers were digging a well close to the park walls, they threw up some fossil bones, highly mineralized, in the midst of the lias clay which forms the bed of the stratum in that place; they have proved to be the vertebræ and coracoid bones of a species of plesiosaurus, and have been deposited in the Clarendon, at Oxford.
Cottesford (St. Mary)
COTTESFORD (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Bicester, hundred of Ploughley, county of Oxford, 6 miles (N.) from Bicester; containing 187 inhabitants. The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at £6. 13. 4.; net income, £344; patrons, the Provost and Fellows of Eton College.
Cottesmore (St. Nicholas)
COTTESMORE (St. Nicholas), a parish, in the union of Oakham, hundred of Alstoe, county of Rutland, 4¼ miles (N. N. E.) from Oakham; containing, with the chapelry of Barrow, 670 inhabitants. The parish is situated on the road from the great north road to Oakham, and comprises 3379a. 2r. 20p. The surface is mostly flat, except on the west side, where it forms a hill of considerable elevation; the soil is in general a light clay, and in some parts a reddish loam, resting on red sandstone, or on limestone rock. The parish is intersected by the Oakham canal. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £25. 16. 3.; net income, £893; patron, the Earl of Gainsborough. The tithes were commuted for land and a money payment in 1799; the glebe comprises 785a. 3r. 29p., with a glebe-house. At the hamlet of Barrow, a very neat chapel of ease has been built by the Rev. H. W. Nevile. Richard Westbrook Baker, Esq., of agricultural celebrity, and who was presented with a valuable service of plate in 1841, as a testimonial of respect, by eleven hundred subscribers, has his residence in the parish.
Cottingham (St. Mary Magdalene)
COTTINGHAM (St. Mary Magdalene), a parish, in the union of Kettering, hundred of Corby, N. division of the county of Northampton, 2 miles (S. W. by W.) from Rockingham; containing, with the township of Middleton, 1033 inhabitants. The parish comprises by measurement 3286 acres of arable and pasture, and about 845 of woodland: this includes a portion of Rockingham Forest (1279 acres), by the addition of which the parish was enlarged in 1833. The road from Rockingham to Market-Harborough passes through. The village stands about half a mile to the south of the Welland, which bounds the parish. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £23. 7. 3½.; net income, £426; patrons, the Principal and Fellows of Brasenose College, Oxford: there are 53 acres of glebe, and a house. The church, built in the 14th century, is a neat structure with a spire; the interior was restored, and two galleries added, in 1839. The Methodists have a place of worship; and a parochial school is endowed with £10 per annum. In an ancient record it is stated that a house for leprous persons existed here in the time of Henry III. A massive ring of pure gold was found in 1841, on the borders of Rockingham Forest, apparently of great antiquity, and in good preservation; it is inscribed in Saxon characters with legends supposed to be of talismanic character, and was probably worn as an amulet.
Cottingham (St. Mary the Virgin)
COTTINGHAM (St. Mary the Virgin), a parish, and formerly a market-town, in the union of Sculcoates, Hunsley-Beacon division of the wapentake of Harthill, E. riding of the county of York, 4½ miles (N. W.) from Hull; containing 2618 inhabitants. This place is of considerable antiquity, and was known as of some importance when Domesday book was compiled. Leland, in his Collectanea, states that William d'Estoteville or Stuteville, sheriff of Yorkshire, entertained King John here, and obtained from that monarch, in the year 1200, permission to hold a market and fair, and to embattle and fortify his residence. This noble mansion, called Baynard Castle, continued for ages a distinguished monument of feudal grandeur; it was in the possession, successively, of the Stutevilles, the Bigods, and de Wakes. It is stated on credible authority, that Henry VIII., when at Hull, learning that the lady of Lord de Wake, the then owner of the castle, was remarkable for her beauty, sent to apprise her lord of his intention to dine with him on the following day; but Lord de Wake, apprehending that the object of the king was the dishonour of his wife, directed his steward, on the night on which the intimation was received, to set fire to the castle, which was accordingly burnt to the ground, and the royal visit thus prevented. In the 15th of Edward II., Thomas, Lord de Wake, began to establish here a monastery for Augustine canons, which, about the year 1324, was removed to the extra-parochial liberty of Newton, or Howdenprice; its revenue at the Dissolution was estimated at £178. 0. 10.: there are no remains.
The parish comprises 9495a. 3r. 8p., of which 4562 acres are arable, 4536 meadow and pasture, 144 wood, and 251 garden land, a large portion of the last being appropriated to the cultivation of vegetables and other horticultural produce for the market at Hull, which place is also in a measure supplied with milk and butter from this neighbourhood. A great part of the parish is a plain, lying between the Wolds and the river Hull, which forms the eastern boundary, and separates Cottingham from the parishes of Sutton and Waghen; about 2000 acres are upon the declivity of the hills, lying immediately on limestone rock. There is much diversity of soil, from a light gravel to a strong tenacious clay. The village is large, very agreeably situated at the eastern foot of the Wolds, and contains several highly respectable houses: there are two breweries, and a carpet manufactory; and the Tweeddale PatentTile Company have lately erected extensive works for the manufacture of bricks and tiles by steam. The Hull and Bridlington railway has a station here, about midway between the stations of Hull and Beverley; and the river affords easy conveyance for agricultural produce, coal, lime, &c. The market and one of the fairs have been discontinued, but a fair is held on the festival of St. Martin.
The living is a vicarage, with the perpetual curacy of Skidby annexed, valued in the king's books at £106. 13. 4., and in the patronage of the Crown; net income, £124; appropriator, the Bishop of Chester. The great tithes of Cottingham have been commuted for £918, and the bishop's glebe consists of 442 acres. The church is a spacious and handsome edifice built in 1272, with a light and beautiful tower rising from the centre; and contains several elegant monuments, particularly of the family of Burton, and in the chancel an ancient tombstone to the memory of the founder, Nicholas de Stuteville. A small additional church was built by subscription, at Newland, in 1833. There are places of worship for Independents, Primitive Methodists, and Wesleyans. A free school is principally supported from a bequest of land, now producing about £45 per annum, by Mr. Mark Kirby, in 1712. Some remains exist of the ramparts and ditches of Baynard Castle. Adjoining the ancient road called Keldgate, are intermitting springs, which sometimes flow copiously after remaining quiescent for several years.
COTTINGWITH, EAST, a chapelry, in the parish of Aughton, union of Pocklington, Holme-Beacon division of the wapentake of Harthill, E. riding of York, 8½ miles (S. W. by W.) from Pocklington; containing 308 inhabitants. It is situated on the left bank of the river Derwent, and comprises by computation 1140 acres of land, inclosed in 1773, at which time the tithes were commuted for allotments and a yearly modus. The chapel, rebuilt about 60 years since, is a neat edifice with a tower on which is a spherical cupola. There are places of worship for Wesleyans and the Society of Friends; and the poor have 18 acres of land, let for £28 per annum.
COTTINGWITH, WEST, a township, in the parish of Thorganby, union of York, wapentake of Ouse and Derwent, E. riding of York, 9¾ miles (S. E.) from York; containing 201 inhabitants. This place is situated on the Derwent, and forms the northern portion of the long and straggling village of Thorganby. The tithes were commuted for land and a money payment, under an act of inclosure, in 1810.