A Topographical Dictionary of England. Originally published by S Lewis, London, 1848.
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Kirk-Oswald (St. Oswald)
KIRK-OSWALD (St. Oswald), a market-town and parish, in the union of Penrith, Leath ward, E. division of Cumberland; containing, with the township of Staffield, 948 inhabitants, of whom 691 are in the town, 15½ miles (S. E.) from Carlisle, and 292 (N. N. W.) from London. This place, which derived its name from St. Oswald, the canonized king of Northumbria, was in 1314 burnt by the Scottish army. A collegiate establishment was founded in the church by Rowland Threlkeld, in 1523; at the Dissolution it possessed a revenue of £78. 17. The estates were granted by Elizabeth to the Dodding family, and subsequently to the Featherstonhaughs, of Northumberland, who have been settled here since the time of James I., and whose mansion, called The College, is a venerable structure, formerly the residence of the provost and fellows of the college. It is romantically situated on a gentle eminence rising from the margin of the Raven beck, at a short distance from the town; and retains its ancient oriel window, and other interesting details of its original style. The mansion was plundered by the parliamentarian forces; and there is still preserved the copy of a petition presented to the parliament by the widow of Sir Timothy Featherstonhaugh, in which the loss is estimated at £10,000.
The town is seated on the east of the river Eden, over which a bridge of six arches was erected in 1762, and in a beautiful and fertile vale, inclosed by sloping hills, on whose acclivities the houses are neatly but irregularly built. The Raven beck, over which is a bridge of one arch, intersects the town; and the inhabitants are supplied with water from a reservoir at the market-cross. Kirk-Oswald Castle, situated on a bold eminence about a quarter of a mile to the east of the town, was demolished by the Howards, who removed the furniture and the relics of antiquity which it contained to their castle of Naworth; the ruins, consisting only of one square tower and some dark vaults, have a romantic appearance, and are surrounded on all sides, except that which overlooks the Eden, by a deep fosse. The market, granted in the 2nd year of the reign of King John, is on Thursday, and on Monday is a market for corn, established a few years since; the corn is pitched in the market-place. The fairs are on the Thursday before Whitsuntide, and August 5th, for cattle. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £8, and in the patronage of the Crown; net income, £120; impropriator, T. Featherstonhaugh, Esq. The church, situated on the slope of an eminence to the south of the town, is an ancient structure in the early English style, with later additions, which were, perhaps, introduced on its enlargement, when made collegiate, in 1523; the tower is detached from the church, and on the summit of the eminence. There are several monuments to the Featherstonhaugh family, among which is one of marble to Sir Timothy, who, for his attachment to the royal cause, was beheaded at Chester, in 1651. Some beautiful stained glass, recently put up, embellishes the windows. The west window, which is lancet-shaped, is divided into two compartments, containing, beneath a decorated canopy, figures of St. Peter and St. Paul; the eastern window is divided into six compartments, the centre representing the Crucifixion, the others the Four Evangelists, St. Oswald, and St. Cuthbert. In the side windows are depicted the arms of the nobility and gentry who are or have been resident, or who have held possessions, in the district. There are a place of worship for Wesleyans in the town, and one for Independents at Park-head, near the eastern extremity of the parish. On the side of a hill, in a field about one mile from the town, are two cairns of moderate size.
KIRKSTALL, an ecclesiastical district, in the township of Headingley cum Burley, parish of Leeds, wapentake of Skyrack, W. riding of York, 3 miles (W.) from Leeds; containing more than 3000 inhabitants. This place was long distinguished by its magnificent abbey, founded by Henry de Laci, in 1152, for Cistercian monks, and of which Alexander, prior of Fountains, was the first abbot. It continued to flourish till the Dissolution, when its revenue was returned at £512. 13. 4.; the site and remains were granted to Cranmer, Archbishop of Canterbury, but were subsequently alienated, and are now the property of the Earl of Cardigan. The remains consist of the roofless walls of the cruciform church, a part of its well-proportioned tower, the dormitory, and other portions of the monastic buildings, with the entrance gateway, now converted into a dwelling-house; the groined roofs of the refectory and chapter-house are singularly beautiful, and the area of the cloisters has been laid out as a garden. From the loftiness of their proportions, the graceful elegance of their style, and their romantic situation near the river Aire, these ruins have an impressively majestic appearance. Kirkstall Grange, the seat of William Beckett, Esq., formerly an appendage to the abbey, stands on an eminence commanding an extensive prospect, in which nine churches are distinctly visible. The village is on the banks of the Aire, about a quarter of a mile to the east of the ruins, and consists of numerous well-built houses, with a spacious hotel; in the immediate vicinity, which abounds with richly-varied scenery, are some pleasant villas.
The manufacture of fine merinos and Indianas is carried on in the St. Anne's mills, the machinery of which is propelled by steam and by water-power; the wool, from a raw state, is passed through all the requisite processes on the premises, till it is formed into the finest textures, and the works for this purpose afford employment to more than 400 persons. There are two other woollen factories, and two large corn-mills. About half a mile from the abbey, and in a pleasant valley, embosomed in thick woods, are the extensive ironworks known by the appellation of Kirkstall Forge, situated on the north bank of the river, and which are among the most ancient in the kingdom, and probably coeval with the foundation of the abbey. The vast accumulation of scoria and cinders in the adjacent woods affords proof that iron was smelted here at a remote period; and it has been authentically ascertained that mills for slitting iron into nail-rods were erected here more than 250 years since. The great improvements that have resulted from the substitution of pit-coal for charcoal, have necessarily led to many alterations in the process of the manufacture of iron; and the present works, which have been in the possession of the same firm since the year 1779, have undergone every requisite modification for the more improved and extended state of the iron-trade. The powerful stream of the Aire gives motion to seven large water-wheels, and there are also two steam-engines, working ponderous hammers, tilts, and rolling and slitting mills, for the manufacture of bar, rod, hoop, sheet, and plate iron of every description; while other machinery is adapted to the making of axle-trees and springs for carriages, screws, vices, anvils, spades, and shovels, and numerous other articles. About 5000 tons of iron are manufactured yearly, and there is a furnace for the conversion of iron into steel: in these works 400 men are constantly employed, and 15,000 tons of coal annually consumed. The manufactory of Messrs. S. and J. Whitham, established in 1790, affords occupation to 120 men, in making machinery of all kinds, mill-work, and implements of every description, both for the home and export trades. The Leeds and Liverpool canal passes through the village.
The ecclesiastical district was formed in the year 1837, and assigned to the church of St. Stephen, which is situated on an eminence, at a short distance from the village, and is in the early English style, with a tower surmounted by a lofty spire. It was erected in 1829, at a cost of £3206, by the Parliamentary Commissioners; and the spire having sustained damage by lightning in 1833, has been since rebuilt: the site of the church, and of the churchyard, which is planted with trees, and comprises an area of two acres, was given by the Earl of Cardigan. The living is in the gift of the trustees of the vicarage of Leeds, and the emolument amounts to about £200 per annum. A parsonage has lately been erected adjacent to the church, at an expense of £1200. There are two parochial schools, in which about 400 children receive instruction; and the Wesleyans have a place of worship.
KIRKSTEAD, a parish, in the union of Horncastle, S. division of the wapentake of Gartree, parts of Lindsey, county of Lincoln, 3 miles (N. W. by N.) from Tattershall; containing 180 inhabitants. The manor, with that of Tattershall, was given by William the Conqueror to Eudo, one of his Norman followers, whose son Hugh Fitz-Eudo, called the Breton, founded a Cistercian abbey in 1139, and endowed it with his possessions in this place. It was dedicated to the Virgin Mary, and, from the remains of the foundation which yet exist, must have been of great extent. At the Dissolution the revenue was valued at £338. 13. 11. per annum. The parish is situated on the east bank of the river Witham, by which it has communication with Boston and Lincoln; it comprises by measurement 1440 acres. The living is a donative, in the patronage of Thomas Moore, Esq.; net income, £40. The church, which is supposed to have been built before the abbey, is in the early English style, having lancet windows at the sides and east end, and a beautiful ox-eye window over the entrance at the west end.
Kirkton (Holy Trinity)
KIRKTON (Holy Trinity), a parish, in the union of Southwell, South-Clay division of the wapentake of Bassetlaw, N. division of the county of Nottingham, 2¾ miles (N. E. by E.) from Ollerton; containing 265 inhabitants. The parish comprises by computation 917 acres: the village is at the foot of a steep and richlywooded eminence, and has a pleasingly rural appearance. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £7. 14. 9½.; net income, £259; patron, the Duke of Newcastle. The tithes were commuted for land and a money payment in 1821; the glebe altogether comprises 180 acres. The church has a lofty tower. There is a place of worship for Baptists.
Kirmington (St. Helen)
KIRMINGTON (St. Helen), a parish, in the union of Glandford-Brigg, E. division of the wapentake of Yarborough, parts of Lindsey, county of Lincoln, 7 miles (E. N. E.) from Glandford-Brigg; containing 367 inhabitants. It is situated on the road from Boston to Hull, and comprises 1642a. 3r. 12p. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £4. 18. 4.; net income, £138; patron and impropriator, the Earl of Yarborough. The tithes were commuted for land in 1777; the glebe comprises 94 acres, and there are 26 acres purchased with Queen Anne's Bounty. The church, an ancient structure, has a neat spire, erected at the expense of the Earl of Yarborough, in 1838. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans.
Kirmond-Le-Mire (St. Martin)
KIRMOND-LE-MIRE (St. Martin), a parish, in the union of Caistor, E. division of the wapentake of Wraggoe, parts of Lindsey, county of Lincoln, 6¼ miles (E. N. E.) from Market-Rasen; containing 69 inhabitants. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £5; patron and impropriator, C. Turnor, Esq. The great tithes have been commuted for £140, and the vicarial for £120.
Kirstead (St. Margaret)
KIRSTEAD (St. Margaret), a parish, in the union of Loddon and Clavering, hundred of Loddon, E. division of Norfolk, 7½ miles (S. E. by S.) from Norwich; containing, with the merged parish of Langhale, 249 inhabitants. It is situated on the road from Bungay to Norwich, and comprises about 1000 acres of land. Kirstead Hall is an ancient mansion in the Elizabethan style. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £10, and in the patronage of Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge: the tithes have been commuted for £300, and there are 40 acres of glebe. The church is a plain structure, with a small campanile turret rising from the roof. There is a place of worship for Baptists.
Kirtling (All Saints)
KIRTLING (All Saints), a parish, in the union of Newmarket, hundred of Cheveley, county of Cambridge, 4¼ miles (S. E.) from Newmarket; containing 803 inhabitants. It comprises 3016 acres by measurement. The soil is a stiffish clay, favourable to the growth of grain; the greater portion is arable land, and there is some good pasture. The surface is generally flat, though in some parts elevated. The living is a vicarage, valued in the king's books at £10; net income, £70; patron and impropriator, the Marquess of Bath. The church is principally in the Norman style, and contains various monuments of the noble family of North, whose ancestor, Edward, Lord North, erected a sepulchral chapel adjoining the chancel. Here is the gateway of a mansion which belonged to the Norths, and in which Roger, second Lord North, entertained Queen Elizabeth.
Kirtlington (St. Mary)
KIRTLINGTON (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Bicester, hundred of Ploughley, county of Oxford, 4 miles (E. N. E.) from Woodstock; containing 846 inhabitants, and comprising by measurement 3490 acres. Here are quarries of good stone for building. The Oxford canal passes through the parish, which is also crossed by the Roman Akeman-street. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £11. 9. 4.; net income, £358; patrons and impropriators, the President and Fellows of St. John's College, Oxford. The tithes were commuted for land and a money payment in 1811. The church is an ancient and interesting structure, chiefly Norman, with later insertions; between the nave and the chancel is the lower stage of a massive Norman tower, of which the upper part has been taken down. In the east window are some fragments of stained glass, collected from the chapel of Wickham, near Banbury. The east end of the south aisle forms the sepulchral chapel of the Dashwood family, who have a mansion in the parish.
Kirton (St. Peter and St. Paul)
KIRTON (St. Peter and St. Paul), a parish, in the union of Boston, wapentake of Kirton, parts of Holland, county of Lincoln, 4¼ miles (S. S. W.) from Boston; containing, with the chapelry of Brothertoft, 2092 inhabitants. This place was formerly a town of some importance, and had a weekly market and an annual fair, both of which have been long discontinued. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £21. 10. 10.; net income, £304; patrons and impropriators, the Master and Wardens of the Mercers' Company, London. The tithes were commuted for land in 1772. The church is a noble cruciform structure, in the decorated style, with a square tower ornamented with battlements and pinnacles. There is a chapel of ease at Brothertoft. Sir Thomas Middlecott left property for the endowment of a grammar school, which has not been carried into effect, a small school only being supported by a trifling portion of the funds. Almshouses for four widows were founded by Robert Hunt, in 1668.
Kirton (St. Mary)
KIRTON (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Woodbridge, hundred of Colneis, E. division of Suffolk, 9 miles (E. S. E.) from Ipswich; containing 607 inhabitants. It is bounded on the north-east by the river Deben, and comprises 1530 acres by computation. The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at £10. 13. 4., and in the patronage of the Crown: the tithes have been commuted for £500; the glebe comprises 7 acres.
Kirton-in-Lindsey (St. Peter and St. Paul)
KIRTON-in-Lindsey (St. Peter and St. Paul), a market-town and parish, in the union of GlandfordBrigg, wapentake of Corringham, parts of Lindsey, county of Lincoln, 18 miles (N. by W.) from Lincoln, and 150 (N. by W.) from London; containing 1835 inhabitants. The town is situated on the western declivity of an eminence commanding an extensive view of the surrounding country. On Kirton Green stands the court-house, where the manorial-courts are held, and the records kept. The quarter-sessions for the parts of Lindsey are held here; also a court for the recovery of debts to the amount of £2. The house of correction is a large stone building, consisting of a centre and two wings. The market is on Saturday: fairs are held on July 18th and Dec. 11th, for cattle, woollen goods, and pedlery; and there are large cattlemarkets every fortnight during spring and autumn. The parish comprises upwards of 5000 acres by computation: the soil is rich, and the lands are principally arable; about a fifth part is excellent pasture. There are quarries of good blue limestone, which is used for building, and also burnt into lime. The living is a discharged vicarage, in the patronage of the Bishop of Lincoln, valued in the king's books at £6. 13. 4.; net income, £249. The church, which stands below the hill, is very ancient: it has a considerable portion in the early English style, and contains some circular-headed windows; also some curious oak seats, screenwork, and piscinæ. There are places of worship for Baptists, and Wesleyans both of the New and Old Connexion. The free grammar school having fallen into decay, a school was built at an expense of £200, in which about 100 children are taught on the national plan, by aid of an endowment of £77 per annum.
Kislingbury (St. Luke)
KISLINGBURY (St. Luke), a parish, in the union of Northampton, hundred of Newbottle-Grove, S. division of the county of Northampton, 3½ miles (W. by S.) from Northampton; containing 686 inhabitants. The parish is bounded on the north by the road from Northampton to Daventry, and intersected by the western branch of the river Nene, on the right bank of which the village is situated. It consists of 1768 acres. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £18. 9. 7.; net income, £547; patron and incumbent, the Rev. R. B. Hughes. The tithes were commuted for land and money payments in 1779. The church has some portions in the decorated style, an embattled tower surmounted by a spire, and a fine octagonal font. There is a place of worship for Baptists. A school is supported from an allotment of 33 acres, assigned on the inclosure in 1779, and yielding £70 annually, a portion of which is applied to parochial purposes.
Kittisford (St. Nicholas)
KITTISFORD (St. Nicholas), a parish, in the union of Wellington, hundred of Milverton, W. division of Somerset, 4¾ miles (W. by N.) from Wellington; containing 152 inhabitants. It comprises by measurement 952 acres, and is intersected by the river Tone. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £11. 10. 5., and in the patronage and incumbency of the Rev. T. Sweet Escott: the tithes have been commuted for £125, and there is a glebe of 107a. 3r., with a house. The church is an ancient structure. A farmhouse called Cothay is supposed to have been the site of a religious establishment.
KNAITH, a parish, in the union of Gainsborough, wapentake of Well, parts of Lindsey, county of Lincoln, 3½ miles (S. by E.) from Gainsborough; containing 72 inhabitants. This parish is bounded on the west by the river Trent, and situated on the road from Gainsborough to Lincoln. It was distinguished as the site of the Cistercian monastery of Heyninges, which was founded about the year 1180, and continued to flourish till the Dissolution, when its revenue was returned at £58. 13. 4. The living is a donative curacy; net income, £40; patron, W. Hutton, Esq. The church, originally belonging to the monastery, has some handsome details of the decorated English style. Thomas Sutton, founder of the Charter-house in London, was a native of this place.
KNAPTOFT, a parish, in the unions of Lutterworth and Market-Harborough, partly in the hundred of Gartree, and partly in that of Guthlaxton, S. division of the county of Leicester, 7 miles (N. E. by E.) from Lutterworth; containing, with the chapelries of Mowsley and Shearsby, and part of the hamlet of Walton, 936 inhabitants. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £32. 12. 6.; net income, £591; patron, the Duke of Rutland. The tithes were commuted for land and a money payment, under an act of inclosure, in 1778. The church is in ruins. There are chapels of ease at Mowsley and Shearsby. Various charitable bequests have been made, amounting to £19 per annum. Vestiges of an ancient encampment may be traced. Dr. Richard Watson, Bishop of Llandaff, was incumbent of the parish.
Knapton (St. Peter and St. Paul)
KNAPTON (St. Peter and St. Paul), a parish, in the union of Erpingham, hundred of North Erpingham, E. division of Norfolk, 3¼ miles (N. E. by N.) from North Walsham; containing 348 inhabitants. It comprises 1480a. 2r. 35p., of which 1325 acres are arable, and 113 meadow; the surface is undulated, and from the high grounds are fine views of the sea. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £13. 7. 1., and in the gift of Peter-House, Cambridge, and Lord Suffield, alternately: the tithes have been commuted for £475. The church is chiefly in the decorated and later styles, with a square embattled tower on the northwest: the remains of a beautifully carved screen separate the nave from the chancel; the roof of the former is of oak, elaborately carved with figures: the font is Norman.
KNAPTON, a township, partly in the parish of Holy Trinity, Micklegate, city of York, and partly in the parish of Acomb, E. division of Ainsty wapentake, W. riding of York, 3¼ miles (W. by N.) from York; containing 98 inhabitants. It comprises 860 acres: the river Ouse passes to the east of the village.
KNAPTON, a chapelry, in the parish of Wintringham, union of Malton, wapentake of Buckrose, E. riding of York, 7 miles (N. E. by E.) from Malton; containing 264 inhabitants. It comprises 2669 acres, of which 250 are woodland: the estate was purchased by the Tindall family from the Moorsoms. The village is pleasantly situated on the Scarborough road, and the navigable river Derwent runs within a short distance. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, about £55; patron, James Tindall, Esq. The Wesleyans and the Society of Friends have places of worship.
Knapwell (All Saints)
KNAPWELL (All Saints), a parish, in the union of Caxton and Arrington, hundred of Papworth, county of Cambridge, 4½ miles (N. E. by N.) from Caxton; containing 155 inhabitants, and comprising by measurement 1000 acres. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £6. 17. 11.; net income, £150; patron, the Marquess of Northampton. The tithes were commuted for land, under an act of inclosure, in 1775. The church is ancient.
Knaresborough (St. John the Baptist)
KNARESBOROUGH (St. John the Baptist), a borough, market-town, and parish, in the Lower division of the wapentake of Claro, W. riding of York; comprising the chapelries of Arkendale, and Bilton with High Harrogate, and the townships of Brearton, Knaresborough, and Scriven with Tentergate; and containing 9947 inhabitants, of whom 4678 are in the township of Knaresborough, 18 miles (W. by N.) from York, and 197 (N. N. W.) from London. This place, from the vestiges of an intrenchment, and the discovery of numerous coins, among which were some of the Emperors Claudius and Constantine, is supposed to have been a Roman station. At the time of the Domesday survey it formed part of the royal demesnes, and was given by the Conqueror to Serlo de Burgh, baron of Tonsburg, in Normandy, who had accompanied that monarch into England, and by whom its stately castle, now a ruin, was originally built, on the rocky heights north of the river Nidd. In 1371, the castle and manor were given by Edward III. to his son John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster; and since that period, the manor has continued to form an appendage to the duchy. The castle, which had become partly dilapidated, was put into substantial repair in 1590, and at the commencement of the war in the reign of Charles I., was garrisoned for the king. For a long time it opposed a formidable bulwark against the progress of the parliamentarians in this part of the country; but after the battle of Marston Moor, in 1644, General Fairfax, appearing before the town at the head of a numerous army, assaulted the castle, into which the garrison had retired, and it finally surrendered by capitulation. It soon afterwards was dismantled, and abandoned to neglect; and the only remains of this once stately fortress, which occupied a circular area 400 yards in diameter, are, a small portion of the keep, some of its dilapidated towers, and some vaulted apartments of very beautiful and elaborate workmanship, in which the murderers of Becket are said to have taken refuge. A priory for brothers of the Holy Trinity was founded by Richard Plantagenet, brother of Henry III., about the middle of the thirteenth century, and continued to flourish till the Dissolution, when its revenue was £35. 10. 11.; the remains, which are in the valley of the Nidd, half a mile below the castle, consist chiefly of scattered heaps of ruins overspread with grass.
The town is pleasantly situated on the northern bank of the river Nidd, and comprises several streets, diverging from a spacious market-place, and well paved, and lighted with gas, under an act of parliament obtained in 1823 for general improvement; the houses, many of which are handsome buildings, are chiefly of stone found in the vicinity. There is a subscription library and newsroom, well supported. The environs abound in beautiful scenery, and the town was formerly a fashionable resort on account of the efficacy of its medicinal waters; but these were long ago abandoned for those of Harrogate. The sulphureous spring at Starbeck, however, which, after the inclosure of the forest lands, had fallen into total neglect, was brought again into public estimation by a proprietary of shareholders, who, in 1822, preserved it from external injury by the erection of a fountain which discharges nearly two gallons per minute, and who provided excellent accommodations for warm and cold bathing. The linen and cotton manufactures were carried on to a very great extent; but from the inland situation of the town, and the want of an adequate supply of coal, the trade has been very much diminished, and now affords employment to a few only of the inhabitants. A railway to York, called the East and West Yorkshire Junction, was commenced in November 1846; and a railway has been formed to Harrogate, forming a branch of the Leeds and Thirsk line: the Harrogate railway is half a mile long, and crosses the river Nidd at Knaresborough by a viaduct, the first stone of which was laid in April 1847. The market, which is on Wednesday, is one of the principal cornmarkets in the county, and is very numerously attended; a general market for provisions is held on Saturday. Fairs, chiefly for horses, cattle, and sheep, are held on the first Wednesdays after the 13th of January, 12th of March, 5th May, 12th August, 11th October, and 10th of December; and a statute-fair takes place on the Wednesday before the 23rd of November.
The borough, though it has no charter of incorporation, received the elective franchise in the reign of Mary, since which it has continued to return two members to parliament: the right of election was originally vested in the proprietors of the burgage tenements, 88 in number; but by the Reform act, the limits of the borough were extended, and the right of election was vested in the resident £10 householders: the bailiff is returning officer. Petty-sessions are held every alternate week by the county magistrates; a court of record for the recovery of debts to any amount, is held every fortnight for the borough, and there is another every third week for the forest and forest liberty of Knaresborough, before the steward (who is barrister) and under-steward of the duchy of Lancaster. The gaol for the borough is situated in the centre of the town, and the prison for the forest courts in the castle-yard. Courts for the borough and forest liberties are also held under the Duke of Devonshire, as lessee of the manor, at Easter and Michaelmas, these being distinguished as the grand courts leet; and there is a court leet at Michaelmas for a small district called the manor of Beech Hill, which forms part of the borough. The powers of the county debt-court of Knaresborough, established in 1847, extend over the greater part of the registration-district of Knaresborough. The Michaelmas and Christmas quarter-sessions for the West riding, likewise, are held in the town: the court-house is a handsome building, erected in 1838, at an expense of £2000.
The parish comprises 12,382a. 3r.: the soil, though various, is generally fertile, and a large portion of the population is agricultural; the surface is boldly undulated. The living is a vicarage, valued in the king's books at £9. 9. 4½.; gross income, about £350; patron, the Bishop of Ripon: the tithes were commuted for land and money payments, under acts of inclosure, in 1772 and 1774. The church, erected at different periods, is a spacious and handsome structure chiefly in the early and later English styles, with a tower between the nave and chancel; it has a beautiful east window in the decorated style, and contains several interesting details: a gallery was lately erected. There is a chapel of ease; churches were erected, respectively, at High Harrogate in 1831, and at Brearton and Arkendale in 1837. The Independents, Wesleyans, and Roman Catholics have places of worship. A free grammar school was founded in the reign of James I., by the Rev. Dr. Robert Chaloner, who endowed it with a rent-charge of £20.
About half a mile south of the castle is an excavation in the rock, called St. Robert's Chapel, 10 feet 6 inches in length, 9 feet wide, and 7½ feet high, formed by Robert Flower (son of Took Flower, twice lord mayor of York), as a place of solitary seclusion, in which he passed the remaining years of his life; it contains a figure of the hermit in monastic attire, surrounded by his books. There are various other excavations in the rocks, among which is one called Fort Montagu, in honour of the Duchess of Buccleuch, with an arbour, greenhouse, and tea-rooms; in another, named St. Robert's Cave, was perpetrated the murder of Daniel Clarke by Eugene Aram, a schoolmaster of this place, who, after fourteen years' concealment, was detected, and executed at York. In addition to the Starbeck spa, already noticed, are, a chalybeate nearly adjoining; St. Mungo's Well, situated in Bolton Park, but long since fallen into disuse; and, near the castle, the celebrated dropping well, which rises in a deep narrow dell, about 50 yards from a rock, over a projecting ledge of which it falls in drops from a height of 10 feet. This last has been more regarded as a natural curiosity, and for its powerful petrifying properties, than for its medicinal virtues.