A Topographical Dictionary of England. Originally published by S Lewis, London, 1848.
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ROTSEA, a township, in the parish of HuttonCranswick, union of Driffield, Bainton-Beacon division of the wapentake of Harthill, E. riding of York, 6½ miles (S. E. by S.) from Driffield; containing 33 inhabitants. It is situated in the vale of the river Hull, and comprises about 710 acres of land.
Rottingdean (St. Margaret)
ROTTINGDEAN (St. Margaret), a parish, in the union of Newhaven, hundred of Younsmere, rape of Lewes, E. division of Sussex, 4 miles (E.) from Brighton; containing 983 inhabitants. In the reign of Richard II. this was the landing-place of the French, who, in revenge for their loss of the battle of Cressy, burned Rye and Hastings. The village, in ancient records termed Rottington, is pleasantly situated near the coast, on the Newhaven road; and is celebrated for its wells, which are nearly empty at high water, but rise as the tide ebbs, and which, from their salubrious qualities, are in considerable repute. Within the last few years it has been frequented by such families as prefer the privacy of a secluded village to the more open beach of Brighton; and baths have been established, and bathingmachines provided, for their accommodation. Pebbles of agate and chalcedony, of a blueish-grey colour, abound on the sea-shore; and when cut and polished, they are used as ornaments in bracelets, &c., under the name of Rottingdean pebbles. The parish comprises 3160 acres, of which 1868 are arable, 1077 meadow and pasture, and 215 common and waste. The living is a vicarage, endowed with a portion of the rectorial tithes, valued in the king's books at £9. 10.; and in the gift of the Earl of Abergavenny: the impropriate tithes have been commuted for £240. 10., and the incumbent's for £400; the glebe comprises 3 acres. The church, which is in the early English style, with a low massive tower in the centre, has lately undergone a thorough repair, and contains a handsome monument to the Rev. Dr. Hooker, the late vicar, erected by the parishioners. On Balsdean Hill are the remains of two encampments; and the parish contains various barrows and tumuli, on opening some of which a Roman dagger and numerous coins were found.
ROTTINGTON, a township, in the parish of St. Bees, union of Whitehaven, Allerdale ward above Derwent, W. division of Cumberland, 3½ miles (S. by W.) from Whitehaven; with 52 inhabitants. Here was a small nunnery, subordinate to that of St. Bees.
Roudham (St. Andrew)
ROUDHAM (St. Andrew), a parish, in the union of Wayland, hundred of Shropham, W. division of Norfolk, 2¾ miles (W.) from East Harling; containing 85 inhabitants. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £4. 16. 5½., and in the gift of Sir J. S. Sebright, Bart.: the great tithes have been commuted for £125, and the vicarial for £85; there are 7½ acres of glebe. The church is in ruins.
Rougham (St. Mary)
ROUGHAM (St. Mary), a parish and post-town, in the union of Mitford and Launditch, hundred of Launditch, W. division of Norfolk, 28 miles (N. N. W.) from Norwich, and 103 (N. E.) from London; containing 367 inhabitants. The parish comprises 2637a. 1r. 14p., of which 2296 acres are arable, 210 meadow and pasture, 56 woodland, and 53 in sheepwalks. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the kings books at £1. 8. 6½., and in the patronage of the Crown; impropriator, F. North, Esq. The vicarial tithes have been commuted for £254. 6. 8., and there is a glebe of one acre. The church is in the decorated and later English styles, with a square tower: in the chancel is a monument to the North family, anciently lords of the manor; there are several ancient brasses, and over the west entrance of the church is sculpture representing the Crucifixion. Here are places of worship for Primitive Methodists and Wesleyans.
Rougham (St. Mary)
ROUGHAM (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Thingoe, hundred of Thedwastry, W. division of Suffolk, 4¼ miles (E. S. E.) from Bury St. Edmund's; containing 969 inhabitants, and comprising 3907a. 2r. 21p. Rougham is a beautiful sylvan hamlet, lying a short distance south of the high road from Bury to Ipswich, through Woolpit. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £23. 18. 6½.; net income, £756; patron, Philip Bennet, Esq. Edward Sparke, in 1720, bequeathed land now producing about £40 a year, to be applied in support of a school; and there are several other bequests, the principal of which is that of Roger Kedington, in 1702, for apprenticing children with a premium of £30 each. The parish was the residence, for many generations, of a branch of the family of Knight, of Drury. Some tumuli were opened here in 1843.
ROUGH-LEE-BOOTH, a township, in the chapelry of Newchurch-in-Pendle, parish of Whalley, union of Burnley, Higher division of the hundred of Blackburn, N. division of the county of Lancaster, 3¼ miles (W.) from Colne; containing 782 inhabitants. The township lies on the borders of Yorkshire, and comprises 663 acres of land, forming the east end of Pendle Forest. It is related that Wesley, Whitefield, and Ingham, the founders of three religious sects, who had hitherto cooperated, finally seceded from each other here. Of this statement there is no positive confirmation; but there is the authority of George Fox himself, the founder of the Society of Friends, for the fact that he received his first "illumination" on the top of Pendle. The Wesleyans have a place of worship.
Roughton (St. Margaret)
ROUGHTON (St. Margaret), a parish, in the union and soke of Horncastle, parts of Lindsey, county of Lincoln, 4 miles (S. S. W.) from the town of Horncastle; containing 146 inhabitants. The river Bain and the Horncastle and Witham canal run through the parish. The living is a discharged rectory, with that of Haltham-upon-Bain united in 1741, valued in the king's books at £6. 15. 2.; net income, £401; patrons, the family of Dymoke.
Roughton (St. Mary)
ROUGHTON (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Erpingham, hundred of North Erpingham, E. division of Norfolk, 3¾ miles (S.) from Cromer; containing 404 inhabitants. It comprises 1345a. 5p. of land, chiefly arable; about 380 acres are heath, from which the inhabitants cut turf and furze. The surface is boldly undulated, and the views are extensive. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £6; patron and appropriator, the Bishop of Ely: the great tithes have been commuted for £197, and the vicarial for £96; the glebe comprises 20 acres. The church is an ancient structure with a circular tower. Here is a place of worship for Primitive Methodists. A free school was founded in 1694, by the Rev. Robert Brown, who bequeathed property now producing a rental of £45. 8.; and there are some other bequests, appropriated to the poor.
Roulston (St. Clement)
ROULSTON (St. Clement), a parish, in the union of Sleaford, wapentake of Flaxwell, parts of Kesteven, county of Lincoln, 7 miles (N. by E.) from Sleaford; containing 206 inhabitants. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £6. 6. 2½., and the patronage and impropriation belong to Mrs. A. Thorold and B. Thorold, Esq. The great tithes have been commuted for £252, and the small for £170; the vicar has a glebe of 11 acres.
ROUNCTON, EAST, a chapelry, in the parish of Rudby-in-Cleveland, union of Stokesley, W. division of the liberty of Langbaurgh, N. riding of York, 6½ miles (S. by W.) from Yarm; containing 93 inhabitants. The chapelry comprises about 1600 acres, in nearly equal portions of arable and pasture, with some plantations; the surface is undulated, and the scenery of a pleasing and varied character. The chapel, a neat edifice, repaired in 1820, is situated on an eminence: the living is a perpetual curacy, in the patronage of Lady Amherst.
Rouncton, West (St. James)
ROUNCTON, WEST (St. James), a parish, in the union of Northallerton, wapentake of Allertonshire, N. riding of York, 7½ miles (S. by W.) from Yarm; containing 169 inhabitants. The parish comprises 1429a. 3r. 6p. The surface is occasionally diversified with hills, and the lower grounds are watered by the river Wiske; the lands are arable and pasture in nearly equal portions. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £6, and in the patronage of the Crown; the tithes have been commuted for £272, and the glebe comprises 78 acres. The church contains some Norman details.
ROUNDHAY, a township, in the parish of Barwickin-Elmet, wapentake of Skyrack, W. riding of York, 3 miles (N. N. E.) from Leeds; containing 439 inhabitants. This place, which derived its name from being anciently a park inclosed within a circular pale, belonged to Henry de Lacy, Earl of Lincoln, from whom it passed to Henry, Duke of Lancaster. It afterwards passed to John of Gaunt, in right of his wife, Blanche; and thus became vested in the crown. Henry VII. addressed an order to the governor of Pontefract Castle to survey Roundhay Park, upon which a return was made of the number of deer killed and the quantity of timber cut down. The park was granted by Henry VIII. to Lord D'Arcy, after whose attainder it was restored by Queen Elizabeth to his son, who, dying without issue, was succeeded in his estates by a female branch that conveyed it by marriage to the family of the Duke of Norfolk. It afterwards became the property of Lord Stourton, by whom it was sold. The manor was early disposed of by the crown to the corporation of London, who gave it to Kirkstall Abbey, after the dissolution of which it was purchased by the Oglethorpe family; it passed from them to the Tempests, and was subsequently bought by Thomas Nicholson, Esq., brother of the present lord.
The township, which is situated on the road from Leeds to Wetherby, comprises 1467 acres of land, mostly the property of Stephen Nicholson, Esq.; the soil is fertile, and in full cultivation, and the substratum abounds with excellent freestone, which is extensively quarried. Roundhay Park is a spacious mansion, beautifully embosomed in woods and plantations; the grounds are tastefully laid out, and embellished with a lake of thirty-four acres, whose banks are crowned with richly picturesque scenery. The village is neatly built, and the township comprises many pleasing villas and detached houses, commanding good views. A church dedicated to St. John, was erected and endowed under the provisions of the will of the late Mr. Nicholson, who died in 1812, and to whose memory it contains a monument; it is a handsome structure in the early English style, with a square tower surmounted by a spire. The living is a perpetual curacy, in the patronage of the family; net income, £109, with a glebehouse, erected by the present patron at an expense of £2000. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans. A school, with a house for the master, who has a salary of £60 per annum, and six almshouses for widows, who receive each an allowance of £10 per annum, were also erected and endowed in pursuance of the will of Mr. Nicholson.
Rousham (St. Mary)
ROUSHAM (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Woodstock, hundred of Wooton, county of Oxford, 6¼ miles (N. E. by N.) from Woodstock; containing 123 inhabitants. It comprises about 980 acres, of which 700 are arable, 266 meadow and pasture, and 10 woodland. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £11. 9. 4½.; net income, £240; patron, Charles Cotterill Dormer, Esq. The church contains some memorials of the Martin and Dormer families.
Routh (All Saints)
ROUTH (All Saints), a parish, in the union of Beverley, N. division of the wapentake of Holderness, E. riding of York, 4¼ miles (N. E. by E.) from Beverley; containing 178 inhabitants. The parish is on the road from Beverley to Bridlington, and comprises about 3000 acres of land, the property of the Misses Ellerker, of which two-thirds are arable, and one-third meadow and pasture. The surface is a complete level, and the soil near the village is strong, inclining to clay; the land has been well drained. Carr Moss, here, abounds with antediluvian trees of immense size, principally oak, in a perfectly black state; the wood is used for gate posts, rails, paling, and other purposes. The river Hull is within a mile of the parish. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £8. 17. 1., and in the patronage of the Misses Ellerker; net income, £470. The church was greatly altered in 1835; in the chancel are a mutilated effigy of a crusader, and a fine brass of a knight and lady. The parsonage-house is a neat building, surrounded with plantations. There is a Sunday school.
Rowberrow (St. Michael)
ROWBERROW (St. Michael), a parish, in the union of Axbridge, hundred of Winterstoke, E. division of Somerset, 4 miles (N. E. by N.) from Axbridge; containing 369 inhabitants. The parish is situated in a highly romantic district, and the village is of very pleasing aspect. The substratum formerly abounded with lapis calaminaris, of which extensive mines were in operation, but the works have been discontinued. The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at £7. 10.; net income, £134; patron, the Bishop of Gloucester and Bristol. There is a place of worship for Baptists.
Rowde (St. Matthew)
ROWDE (St. Matthew), a parish, in the union of Devizes, hundred of Potterne and Cannings, Devizes and N. divisions of Wilts, 2 miles (W. by N.) from Devizes; containing 1095 inhabitants. It comprises 2666a. 2r. 17p., of which 547 acres are arable, 1857 pasture and meadow, 37 woodland, 14 in gardens, and the remainder roads and water. The Kennet and Avon canal passes through. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £6. 10.; patron, T. E. A. Starkey, Esq.; impropriator, W. Locke, Esq. The great tithes have been commuted for £24. 18., and the vicarial for £339. 5.; the glebe contains about half an acre, and there is a good house, erected by the Rev. E. Vincent. The church, with the exception of the tower and chancel, was rebuilt in 1833, in the later English style. Here is a place of worship for Wesleyan Methodists.
ROWELL, an extra-parochial hamlet, in the union of Winchcomb, Lower division of the hundred of Kiftsgate, E. division of the county of Gloucester, 4¼ miles (S. E. by E.) from Winchcomb; containing 20 inhabitants, and comprising 1640 acres of land. The Independents have a meeting-house. In Pope Nicholas' survey this place is stated to be a parish, with a church; but it is now attached to Hawling for parochial concerns.
Rowington (St. Lawrence)
ROWINGTON (St. Lawrence), a parish, in the union of Warwick, Henley division of the hundred of Barlichway, S. division of the county of Warwick, 6 miles (N. W. by W.) from Warwick; containing, with the township of Pindley, 1046 inhabitants. In the 6th of Elizabeth the lordship was granted by the crown to Ambrose Dudley, Earl of Warwick. The parish was originally called Rochingtone, from the rocky ground on which it stands. The area is 3167a. 2r. 14p., of which about two-thirds are arable, and one-third meadow and pasture: the Stratford-on-Avon and the Birmingham and Warwick canals, and the road from Warwick to Birmingham, pass through. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £7. 11. 8., and in the patronage of the Crown; net income, £116: the glebe comprises 40 acres. The church is a cruciform structure, principally in the Norman style. A parochial school is supported from funds bequeathed to the poor, producing about £250 per annum.