A Topographical Dictionary of England. Originally published by S Lewis, London, 1848.
This free content was digitised by double rekeying. All rights reserved.
Roydon (St. Peter)
ROYDON (St. Peter), a parish, in the union of Epping, partly in the hundred of Waltham, but chiefly in that of Harlow, S. division of Essex; containing 976 inhabitants, of whom 313 are in the hamlet, 5 miles (S. E. by E.) from Ware. The parish is separated from the county of Hertford by the river Stort, and comprises 2995a. 17p., of which 1581 acres are arable, 1025 meadow and pasture, 152 woodland, 28 in gardens, and the remainder roads and waste. Near the junction of the rivers Lea and Stort here, stood the ancient manorhouse of Nether Hall, which, though converted into farm-buildings, still retains much of its original grandeur; the gateway tower, of brick, is entire. The Eastern-Counties railway passes through the parish. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £12; patron and impropriator, the Earl of Mornington: the great tithes have been commuted for £637, and the vicarial for £155; there is a vicarial glebe of 2 acres. The church, situated in the village, is a handsome structure with a square embattled tower, and consists of a nave, north aisle, and chancel. John Manning, in 1768, founded a free school, and endowed it with a house and lands.
Roydon (St. Remigius)
ROYDON (St. Remigius), a parish, in the union of Guiltcross, hundred of Diss, E. division of Norfolk, 1¼ mile (W.) from Diss; containing 586 inhabitants. This parish, which is situated on the road from Thetford to Diss, and bounded on the south by the river Waveney, comprises 1350a. 1r. 38p. of land, chiefly arable. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £9, and in the gift of the family of Frere: the tithes have been commuted for £440, and the glebe comprises 46 acres, with a house. The church is an ancient structure, chiefly in the decorated English style, with a circular tower. Mrs. Margaret Blowers, in 1820, left £1000 to the poor; and Miss Frere, in 1839, bequeathed £400 for clothing six married persons. About 20 acres of land are let in small lots to the poor.
Roydon (All Saints)
ROYDON (All Saints), a parish, in the union and hundred of Freebridge-Lynn, W. division of Norfolk, 6 miles (E. by N.) from Lynn; containing 174 inhabitants. It comprises 1166a. 2r. 23p., of which 457 acres are arable, 112 meadow and pasture, 148 common, and the remainder heath for the use of the poor. The living is a discharged rectory, consolidated with that of Castle-Rising, and valued in the king's books at £5: the tithes have been commuted for £160, and the glebe comprises 16½ acres. The church is an ancient structure, chiefly in the later English style, with a square embattled tower; the north and south porches have enriched Norman arches. The ancient manor-house was taken down many years since, and near the site a silver coin of Edward IV. was found in 1838.
Royston (St. John the Baptist)
ROYSTON (St. John the Baptist), a market-town and parish, and the head of a union, partly in the hundred of Armingford, county of Cambridge, but chiefly in the hundred of Odsey, county of Hertford, 19 miles (N. by E.) from Hertford, and 38 (N.) from London; containing 2002 inhabitants, of whom 1436 are in the Herts portion. This town derived its name from a cross erected in the highway here, in the reign of William the Conqueror, by the Lady Roysia, Countess of Norfolk: the cross was called Royse's Cross; and a monastery having been established shortly afterwards by Eustachius de Mere and others, which led to the erection of houses, the place acquired the appellation of Royse's Town, whence its present name. It had become considerable in the reign of Henry IV., when it was nearly consumed by fire; and again, in 1747, it was subject to the same calamity. A house was built here by James I., who made it his occasional residence, for the enjoyment of hunting and hawking; and it was at this town that his favourite, the Earl of Somerset, was arrested in his presence, for the murder of Sir Thomas Overbury. At the commencement of the civil war, Charles I. removed to Royston from Hampton Court, previously to setting up his standard at Nottingham; and here the unfortunate monarch passed two nights, in June, 1647, when a prisoner to the army, which had its head-quarters in the town. The survey of the palace made during the Commonwealth, describes it as in good repair: it has since been partly taken down.
Royston is situated at the intersection of the Ikeneldway and the Ermin-street, in a very bleak open country, near a chain of high hills. Though improved of late, it is very irregularly built; it consists of one long and narrow street, crossed by two shorter ones, and is lighted with gas: there is a very scanty supply of water, which the inhabitants generally are obliged to purchase. The malting business is carried on to a considerable extent, and there is a large corn trade. The market, which was granted by Richard I., is on Wednesday, for corn, sheep, and pigs, and also for straw-plat: a market-house was built in 1830, at the cost of Lord Dacre. Pleasure-fairs are held on Whit-Wednesday (attached to which is a pie-poudre court), Shrove-Wednesday, the feast of St. Thomas à Becket, and the Wednesday in Easter-week; and a fair for hiring servants on the first Wednesday after October 10th. The powers of the county debt-court of Royston, established in 1847, extend over the registration-district of Royston and Buntingford. Petty-sessions are held on alternate Wednesdays.
The living is a vicarage, valued in the king's books at £10; net income, £107; patron, Lord Dacre. The church was originally that of the priory, and dedicated to St. Thomas à Becket, but was purchased by the inhabitants at the dissolution of the monastery, and, by an act passed in the 32nd of Henry VIII., is called the parochial church of St. John the Baptist. It is a venerable structure, with a low massive tower, and contains some very ancient monuments; a gallery with an organ was erected in 1838, by subscription, aided by contributions from the Bishop of London and Lord Dacre. Henry Andrews, employed by the board of admiralty in assisting to compute the celestial observations for the Nautical Almanac, and longer and more extensively engaged in making the calculations for Moore's Almanac, died in 1820, and was buried here. There are places of worship for the Society of Friends and Independents. The poor-law union of Royston comprises 29 parishes or places, 17 of which are in the county of Cambridge, 9 in Herts, and 3 in Essex, the whole containing a population of 18,150.
The monastery, at the period of its dissolution, was valued at £89. 16. per annum, and, with the exception of the church, has been entirely demolished. Here was also an hospital dedicated to St. John and St. James, but there are no vestiges. Many relics of antiquity have been discovered in and about Royston, among which is an ancient chapel, or cave, found near the cross by some workmen in 1742, which had been dug out of the chalk rock, and had an opening from the top; it is conjectured to have been the oratory and burial-place of the Lady Roysia, but this opinion has been strongly controverted. A Roman sword was discovered at Hillington in 1830. Tumuli, or barrows, are to be seen on the summits of the adjacent hills; and the discovery of a number of bones and corroded spear-heads near the town, renders it probable that it was the scene of an engagement with the Danes. A species of crow, with a whitish head, denominated the "Royston Crow," is found on the neighbouring hills, and is peculiar to this part of the kingdom; it emigrates in the spring to Sweden, where it breeds, and returns to pass the winter here.
Roystone (St. John the Baptist)
ROYSTONE (St. John the Baptist), a parish, in the wapentake of Staincross, W. riding of York; containing, with the chapelries of Woolley and Monk-Bretton, and the townships of Carlton, Chevet, Cudworth, and Notton, 4341 inhabitants, of whom 612 are in Roystone township, 4¼ miles (N. N. E.) from Barnsley. The parish comprises by computation 12,700 acres: the soil is fertile, and generally in good cultivation; the surface is boldly varied. The village is situated on an eminence, near the Barnsley canal. The district abounds with coal, though no mines are in operation; and there are some extensive quarries of good freestone, of which large blocks are raised for railway purposes and buildings of magnitude. The Midland railway passes through the parish. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £17. 3. 4.; net income, £166; patron and appropriator, the Archbishop of York. The church is an ancient and handsome structure in the later English style, with a square embattled tower crowned by pinnacles, and, notwithstanding recent alterations, presents many interesting features within. At Woolley and Monk-Bretton are separate incumbencies. The free grammar school is endowed with an annuity of £4. 6. 11. from the revenue of the duchy of Lancaster, and also with a house and some land granted by the crown in 1605. Sir George Wood, baron of the exchequer, who died in 1824, was born in the vicarage-house.
ROYTON, a chapelry, in the parochial chapelry, parliamentary borough, and union of Oldham, parish of Prestwich, hundred of Salford, S. division of Lancashire, 2 miles (N. by W.) from Oldham, on the road to Rochdale; containing 5730 inhabitants. This is the smallest of the townships in connexion with Oldham, comprising only 700 acres. It is chiefly pasture land; the surface is undulated and hilly, the soil generally dry and sandy, and the aspect rather wild. The village is seated in a deep valley, and fifty years ago contained only a few straggling cottages, but within the last thirty years it has assumed the appearance of a town, from the erection of several regular streets, which are lighted with gas. The population is chiefly employed in the cotton, fustian, and flannel manufactures, and in the extensive coalmines and stone-quarries in the neighbourhood. The streams of the Irk and the Beal rise in the chapelry. The living is a perpetual curacy, in the patronage of the Rector of Prestwich; net income, £170, with a house. The tithes of the township have been commuted for £50. The chapel, dedicated to St. Paul, was built by subscription in 1754, and a tower, with a clock, was added, also by subscription, in 1828. There are places of worship for Independents, Wesleyans, and the Society of Friends; and a good national school, opened in 1846.
Ruan-Lanihorne (St. Ruan)
RUAN-LANIHORNE (St. Ruan), a parish, in the union of Truro, W. division of the hundred of Powder and of the county of Cornwall, 3 miles (S. W.) from Tregoney; containing 444 inhabitants. This parish is situated at the head of a wide creek or inlet from the river Fal, and comprises 1713 acres, of which 50 are common or waste land. The substratum is rich in minerals, and operations for streaming tin were formerly carried on in the adjacent moors; stone is also abundant, and is quarried for various purposes. The village is seated in a picturesque valley at the extremity of the inlet, and, with its church, and cottages scattered through the vale, has an interesting and romantic appearance. A commodious quay has been constructed for landing coal, timber, slate, and other articles for the supply of the vicinity. The petty-sessions for the division are held at Highlanes, in the parish. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £12; net income, £414; patrons, the President and Fellows of Corpus Christi College, Oxford: the glebe comprises 123 acres. The church is an ancient structure; the pillars, arches, and doorways are of granite, and have been cleared by the present rector from the accumulated coats of lime by which they were concealed. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans. The Rev. John Whitaker, the learned historian and antiquary, was for thirty years rector of the parish, and was buried in the church in 1808.
Ruan Major (St. Ruan)
RUAN MAJOR (St. Ruan), a parish, in the union of Helston, W. division of the hundred of Kerrier and of the county of Cornwall, 8 miles (S. S. E.) from Helston; containing 163 inhabitants. The parish comprises 2325 acres, of which 960 are common or waste; the soil is generally a rich marl, and the surface hilly. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £10. 10. 2½., and in the gift of P. Vyvyan Robinson, Esq.: the tithes have been commuted for £170, and the glebe comprises 95 acres.
Ruan Minor (St. Ruan)
RUAN MINOR (St. Ruan), a parish, in the union of Helston, W. division of the hundred of Kerrier and of the county of Cornwall, 10 miles (S. E. by S.) from Helston; containing 302 inhabitants. The parish is bounded on the east by the English Channel, and includes Cadgwith Cove, a great resort of fishermen. It comprises 618 acres, of which 180 are common or waste; the soil is chiefly a clay marl interspersed with rock, and the surface is elevated and hilly. The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at £4. 4. 4½., and united to the living of Grade: the tithes have been commuted for £100, and the glebe comprises 5 acres. The church is ancient. There are places of worship for Wesleyans.
Ruardean (St. John the Baptist)
RUARDEAN (St. John the Baptist), a parish, in the union of Ross, hundred of St. Briavell's, W. division of the county of Gloucester, 6¼ miles (N. W.) from Newnham; containing 929 inhabitants. It comprises about 1600 acres; the soil is various, and the substratum contains good limestone and coal. The surface is generally elevated, extending along a lofty ridge overlooking the river Wye, and the scenery in some parts is beautifully picturesque. A small brook called Bishop's Brook forms a boundary between Ruardean and the county of Hereford, and the Severn and Wye railway passes through the parish. The living is in the gift of the Precentor of Hereford Cathedral: the church is partly Norman, but principally of later date, and the west window is finely enriched with tracery. The Independents have a place of worship. There are a few remaining fragments of an ancient castle.
Ruckinge (St. Mary Magdalene)
RUCKINGE (St. Mary Magdalene), a parish, in the union of East Ashford, hundred of Newchurch, lathe of Shepway, E. division of Kent, 6½ miles (S. by E.) from Ashford; containing 432 inhabitants. This parish, in the Domesday survey called Rocinge and Rocking, comprises by measurement 3048 acres, of which 542 are arable, 1518 meadow and pasture, 930 wood, and 18 in hop-grounds. The soil of the arable land is extremely fertile, and the pastures are luxuriantly rich; the surface is hilly, and the higher parts command views of the whole of Romney Marsh, and of the sea from Hythe to Winchelsea. At Ruckinge Bridge is a commodious wharf on the Royal Military canal. A fair, chiefly for pedlery, is held on the second Friday in June. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £14. 13. 4., and in the gift of the Archbishop of Canterbury: the tithes have been commuted for £294, and the glebe comprises 40 acres. The church is principally in the Norman style, with a spire of later date, and has lately been repaired and beautified at considerable expense. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans. Dr. Porteus, Bishop of London, was rector here.
Ruckland (St. Olave)
RUCKLAND (St. Olave), a parish, in the union of Louth, Wold division of the hundred of Louth-Eske, parts of Lindsey, county of Lincoln, 6¼ miles (S. by E.) from Louth; containing 32 inhabitants. The parish is pleasantly situated; the surface is diversified with hill and dale, and in the valley is a stream abounding with trout. The living is a discharged rectory, with that of Farforth and the vicarage of Maiden-Well united in 1753, valued in the king's books at £6. 3. 9.; income, £315; patron, the Earl of Yarborough. The church is a small structure, on the brow of a hill.
RUCKLEY, a township, in the parish of ActonBurnell, union of Atcham, hundred of Condover, S. division of Salop, 7 miles (W.) from Much Wenlock; containing, with the chapelry of Langley, 83 inhabitants, and 1487 acres of land, tithe-free. The soil is productive, the surface generally level, and the surrounding scenery boldly diversified. The Hall was the birthplace of Sir Humphrey Lee, the first baronet created in the county. Divine service is performed at Langley chapel, only on the festivals of Christmas and Easter.
Rudby-in-Cleveland (All Saints)
RUDBY-in-Cleveland (All Saints), a parish, in the union of Stokesley, W. division of the liberty of Langbaurgh, N. riding of York, 3¾ miles (W. S. W.) from Stokesley; containing, with the townships of Hutton-Rudby, Middleton-upon-Leven, East Rouncton, Skutterskelpe, and Sexhow, 1256 inhabitants, of whom 72 are in the township of Rudby. This place was formerly of much greater importance than it is at present. Soon after the Conquest the manor was granted to the Meinells; it was successively held by the families of D'Arcy, Conyers, and Ingram, and is now the property of Lord Falkland. The parish is frequently designated HuttonRudby, from the township of that name, which contains the greater part of the population; it comprises an area of about 6640 acres, of which the soil is chiefly a strong clay, producing excellent crops of wheat, and in parts a deep sandy loam. The river Leven flows through the parish in a serpentine course, between banks which in some places rise abruptly to a very considerable height, assuming a strikingly imposing aspect. The village is pleasantly situated on the river, and at Hutton-Rudby a spinning-mill has been erected, which, when in full operation, affords employment to more than 200 persons. The living is a vicarage, valued in the king's books at £30; net income, £185; patron, Lord Falkland; impropriators, various landed proprietors. The church, standing on the margin of the Leven, is in the early English style, and contains, among other ancient monuments, a sarcophagus placed in a recess, supposed to be that of a former incumbent, Wyclyft, who, by his will dated 1423, bequeathed some small payments to the neighbouring churches. Chapels have been built at Middleton and East Rouncton. There are places of worship for Primitive Methodists and Wesleyans.
Ruddington (St. Peter)
RUDDINGTON (St. Peter), a parish, in the union of Basford, N. division of the wapentake of Rushcliffe, S. division of the county of Nottingham, 5 miles (S.) from Nottingham; containing 1835 inhabitants. It comprises about 2780 acres, of arable and pasture land in nearly equal portions: the soil is partly clay, and generally fertile; the surface is undulated, in some places hilly, and the lands contain numerous springs. The village is of considerable size; some of the inhabitants are engaged in frame-work knitting and the weaving of lace. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £6. 13. 4., and in the patronage of the Trustees of the Rev. Charles Simeon; net income, £135; impropriator, C. Paget, Esq. The tithes were commuted for land in 1767. The church was repaired in 1718, and, with the exception of the tower and chancel, rebuilt in 1824 at a cost of £1100, towards which the Incorporated Society granted £500. There are places of worship for Baptists and Wesleyans. A free school was founded in 1641, by James Peacock, citizen of London, who endowed it with lands now producing an income of £75; the school-house was repaired in 1828, at an expense of £420. A college for a warden and four chaplains was founded here in the reign of Henry VI., by William Babington; the income was valued in the 26th of Henry VIII. at £30.
Rudford (St. Mary)
RUDFORD (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Newent, partly in the hundred of Botloe, and partly in the Lower division of that of Dudstone and King's Barton, E. division of the county of Gloucester, 3½ miles (N. W. by W.) from Gloucester; containing, with the hamlet of High Leadon, 225 inhabitants, of whom 125 are in the hamlet of Rudford. The parish comprises by measurement 1221 acres, of which 613 are arable, 560 pasture, 19 woodland, and 5 common; the soil is generally clay, the surface level, and the meadows subject to inundation from the river Leadon. The Gloucester and Ledbury canal intersects the parish. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £10, and in the gift of the Dean and Chapter of Gloucester; the tithes have been commuted for £330, and the glebe comprises 8 acres.
RUDGE, a township, in the parish of Pattingham, union of Seisdon, hundred of Stottesden, S. division of the county of Salop, 7¾ miles (E. N. E.) from Bridgnorth; containing 101 inhabitants. It comprises 1567 acres, of which 456 are common or waste. The impropriate tithes have been commuted for £194. 12. 10., and the vicarial for £75.
Rudgwick, or Ridgewick (Holy Trinity)
RUDGWICK, or Ridgewick (Holy Trinity), a parish, in the union of Petworth, hundred of West Easwrith, rape of Arundel, W. division of Sussex, 7 miles (N. W. by W.) from Horsham; containing 1097 inhabitants. It is bounded on the north by the county of Surrey, and comprises 6324 acres, of which nearly 2000 are woodland, and 20 common or waste. The surface is hilly, and the lower grounds are watered by the small river Wanford; the soil is clay, with a substratum of sandstone, and there are quarries of stone for paving and covering buildings. The village is pleasantly situated on the road from Guildford to Worthing, by way of Crawley, and being on an eminence commands some fine views. The living is a vicarage, valued in the king's books at £7. 10.; patron, the Bishop of Chichester; impropriator, Mr. Telley. The great tithes have been commuted for £122. 11., and the vicarial for £250; the glebe comprises 5 acres. The church is a neat edifice in the early English style, with a tower. There is a place of worship for Independents.
Rudham, East (St. Mary)
RUDHAM, EAST (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Docking, hundred of Gallow, W. division of Norfolk, 5 miles (N.) from Rougham; containing, with the merged parish of Broomsthorpe and the hamlet of Coxford (which see), 1004 inhabitants. This place was anciently the property of the family of Belet. The parish comprises about 3900 acres, whereof 2920 are arable, 872 meadow and pasture, and 108 woodland and heath. The living is a discharged rectory, with the vicarage of West Rudham united, valued in the king's books at £6. 6. 8., and in the gift of the family of Townshend: the incumbent's tithes in the two parishes have been commuted for £560. The church is an ancient structure in the early and later English styles, with a square embattled tower. There are places of worship for Primitive Methodists and Wesleyans. A small earthen vessel, containing Roman coins, was found in 1719; and in 1841, several Roman urns containing human bones were discovered.
Rudham, West (St. Peter)
RUDHAM, WEST (St. Peter), a parish, in the union of Docking, hundred of Gallow, W. division of Norfolk, 5 miles (N. N. W.) from Rougham; containing 490 inhabitants. The parish comprises 3026 acres, of which 2572 are arable, 229 meadow and pasture, 25 woodland, and 200 common and heath. A small brook flows through it into the river Wensum. The living is a discharged vicarage, united to the rectory of East Rudham, and valued in the king's books at £7. 6. 8. The church is in the early English style, with a square tower. There was formerly a second church, dedicated to All Saints.
RUDHEATH, a township, partly in the parishes of Great Budworth and Sandbach, but chiefly in that of Davenham, union and hundred of Northwich, S. division of the county of Chester, 4 miles (N. E.) from Middlewich; containing 435 inhabitants. The manor anciently belonged to the family of Drakelow, and having been forfeited by the attainder of John Drakelow, was for a long period in the crown; it was eventually granted to the Duke of Portland, and was purchased of the late duke by Thomas Marshall, Esq., of Northwich. An action was fought here on 22nd Feb. 1643, between the forces of King Charles and those of the parliament under Sir William Brereton; it appears to have been a drawn battle. The township comprises 2033 acres of land, of which the soil is clay.
Rudston (All Saints)
RUDSTON (All Saints), a parish, in the union of Bridlington, wapentake of Dickering, E. riding of York, 5 miles (W.) from Bridlington; containing 541 inhabitants. The parish is on the road to Sledmere, and comprises 5060 acres of land, chiefly arable, with a moderate portion of meadow and pasture. The surface is boldly undulated; the higher grounds are embellished with thriving plantations, and the vale is intersected by a stream whose banks form luxuriant pastures. Thorpe Hall, the seat of A. W. Bosvile, Esq., is a handsome mansion beautifully situated in grounds tastefully laid out: in enlarging the fish-ponds, in 1830, some Roman relics, consisting of urns, swords, and spurs, were discovered. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £9. 13. 6½.; net income, £236; patron, the Archbishop of York; impropriator, Sir Henry Boynton, Bart. The tithes were commuted for land and a money payment in 1774. The church is an ancient structure with a square tower, situated on the brow of a hill; in the churchyard is an obelisk, about thirty feet in height, exclusively of a considerable portion buried in the ground. There are places of worship for Primitive Methodists and Wesleyans.
RUDYARD, a township, in the parish and union of Leek, S. division of the hundred of Totmonslow, N. division of the county of Stafford, 2¾ miles (N. N. W.) from Leek; containing 90 inhabitants. Here is a reservoir upwards of two miles long, and covering 400 acres of land, formed for the purpose of feeding the Leek and Caldon canal.