A Topographical Dictionary of England. Originally published by S Lewis, London, 1848.
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YADDLETHORPE, a hamlet, in the parish of Bottesford, union of Glandford-Brigg, E. division of the wapentake of Manley, parts of Lindsey, county of Lincoln, 8 miles (W.) from Glandford-Brigg; containing 133 inhabitants. It is situated on an acclivity above Bottesford beck, and comprises 733a. 3r. 6p. The common lands were inclosed in the year 1794.
YAFFORTH, a chapelry, in the parish of DanbyWisk, union of Northallerton, wapentake of Gilling-East, N. riding of York, 1½ mile (W. by N.) from Northallerton; containing 178 inhabitants. It is situated in the vale of the Wisk, and comprises by computation 1120 acres of land, divided among several proprietors, some of whom have neat houses here: the common was inclosed about 1832. The chapel is a small structure. The tithes have been commuted for £54.
Yalding (St. Peter and St. Paul)
YALDING (St. Peter and St. Paul), a parish, and formerly a market-town, in the union of Maidstone, hundred of Twyford, lathe of Aylesford, W. division of Kent, 6 miles (S. W.) from Maidstone; containing 2467 inhabitants. The parish comprises 5804 acres, of which 25 are in wood. It is intersected by different branches of the Medway, and upon two of the larger streams stands the village, approached by a long narrow stone bridge: another bridge in the parish is called Twyford bridge. The river is navigable for barges, by which a considerable traffic in timber, corn, and coal, is carried on. A fair for cattle is held on October 15th. The living is a vicarage, valued in the king's books at £20. 18. 9.; net income, £1184; patrons and impropriators, Messrs. Warde and Holmes. The church is principally in the decorated English style. William Cleave, Esq., in 1665 founded a free school, and endowed it with a farm now let for £50 a year; and a charity school, founded in 1711, for girls and young children, has been endowed by Mrs. Alchorn and Mrs. Warde, sisters.
Yanwath, with Eamont-Bridge
YANWATH, with Eamont-Bridge, a township, in the parish of Barton, West ward and union, county of Westmorland, 2 miles (S. by W.) from Penrith; containing 316 inhabitants. In this township is situated the workhouse of the West ward union. The ancient Hall, a quadrangular castellated building, is now occupied as a farmhouse: about a mile from it are vestiges of a circular camp called Castle Steads.
YANWORTH, a chapelry, in the parish of Hazleton, union of Northleach, hundred of Bradley, E. division of the county of Gloucester, 3½ miles (W. by S.) from Northleach; containing 93 inhabitants, and comprising 1087 acres. The tithes have been commuted for £254, and there is a glebe of 10 acres. The chapel, dedicated to St. Michael, is a chapel of ease. The inhabitants anciently buried their dead at Hazleton; but since the latter part of the last century this has been their usual place of sepulture.
YAPHAM, a chapelry, in the parish and union of Pocklington, Wilton-Beacon division of the wapentake of Harthill, E. riding of York, 2½ miles (N. N. W.) from Pocklington; containing 212 inhabitants, and comprising about 1020 acres. The living is a perpetual curacy, in the gift of the Dean of York. The chapel, an ancient structure, contains some interesting details, and a Norman font, but the building has been much mutilated by repairs. Twelve children are educated for an annuity of £12, paid out of the chapel lands.
YAPTON, a parish, in the union of West Hampnett, hundred of Avisford, rape of Arundel, W. division of Sussex, 4 miles (S. W.) from Arundel; containing 541 inhabitants. The parish is situated on the road from Arundel to Bognor, and intersected by the Arundel and Portsmouth canal. It comprises about 1500 acres, of which 100 are meadow and pasture, 45 woodland, and the remainder arable; the soil is a loam, producing excellent crops of grain. Here is a station of the Brighton and Portsmouth railway, ten miles from the Worthing station, and eight from that of Chichester. The living is a discharged vicarage, united to that of Walberton, and valued in the king's books at £7. 10. 11½.; impropriators, Inigo Thomas, Esq., and others. The great tithes have been commuted for £617, and the vicarial for £188. 6.; the glebe comprises 12 acres. The church is principally in the early English style, with a tower at the west end, and contains an ancient font of curious design, and several neat monuments. There was formerly a chapel at Bilsom, now converted into cottages. Stephen Roe, in 1766, bequeathed £1200 three per cent. South Sea annuities, producing £36 a year, of which £20 are applied in teaching twenty children in a national school, and the residue to other charitable purposes.
Yarborough, or Yarburgh (St. John the Baptist)
YARBOROUGH, or Yarburgh (St. John the Baptist), a parish, in the union of Louth, Marsh division of the hundred of Louth-Eske, parts of Lindsey, county of Lincoln, 5 miles (N. E. by N.) from Louth; containing 210 inhabitants. The parish consists of 1279 acres, and is crossed on the east by the Louth navigation; the surface is flat, and the soil of a clayey quality. The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at £9. 13. 6.; net income, £226; patron, Nicholas Edmund Yarburgh, Esq., of Heslington Hall, near York, who is lord of the manor, and owner of half the parish. The glebe contains 235 acres, the tithes having been commuted for land and a money payment in 1807. The church is an ancient edifice, with a tower. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans.
Yarborough, in Croxton.—See Croxton.
Yarcombe (St. John the Baptist)
YARCOMBE (St. John the Baptist), a parish, in the union of Chard, hundred of Axminster, Honiton and S. divisions of Devon. 5½ miles (W.) from Chard: containing 826 inhabitants. The parish is situated on the river Yarte, from which its name, in ancient documents written Yartecomb, is clearly derived. It comprises about 5000 acres, and is the property of Sir H. F. T. S. Drake, to whose ancestor, Sir Francis, one moiety of the manor was granted by Queen Elizabeth. There are some quarries of blue lias, which are easily wrought. The village lies in the well-wooded vale of the Axe, and the surrounding scenery is beautifully picturesque. The road from London to Exeter passes through the parish, and considerable facilities of conveyance are afforded by a canal from Taunton to Chard. A pleasure-fair is held on the second Tuesday after Trinity-Sunday. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £28, and in the patronage of the Crown; net income, £607; impropriator, Sir H. Drake. The glebe comprises 36 acres, with a house. The church is a handsome cruciform structure in the decorated English style, with a square embattled tower surmounted by a low spire. Here is a place of worship for Baptists.
Yardley (St. Lawrence)
YARDLEY (St. Lawrence), a parish, in the union of Buntingford, hundred of Odsey, county of Hertford, 4½ miles (W. S. W.) from Buntingford; containing 633 inhabitants. It comprises 2405a. 1r. 12p., of which 1650 acres are arable, 472 meadow and pasture, 190 woodland, and 92 common and waste. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £12, and in the patronage of the Dean and Chapter of St. Paul's, London; impropriator, J. Murray, Esq. The vicarial tithes have been commuted for £180, and the impropriate for £350; there are 21½ acres of impropriate glebe. The church is a handsome structure in the later English style, with a square embattled tower surmounted by a spire; the windows are embellished with stained glass, and the walls painted in fresco, which was long concealed until some late repairs. Chauncy, the historian of Hertfordshire, lies interred here.
Yardley (St. Edburgh)
YARDLEY (St. Edburgh), a parish, in the union of Solihull, Upper division of the hundred of Halfshire, Northfield and E. divisions of the county of Worcester, 4½ miles (E.) from Birmingham; containing 2825 inhabitants. The parish lies on the road from Birmingham to Coventry, and is separated from the county of Warwick by a small rivulet. It comprises 6513a. 28p., of which 1809 acres are arable, 3889 pasture and meadow, 8 woodland, and the remainder waste, roads, &c.: the surface is generally level; the soil is a stiff loam, fertile and well cultivated, with extensive beds of clay beneath. Great quantities of excellent red tiles are made, and conveyed to Birmingham, whence they are sent to various parts of the kingdom. The parish is crossed in the northern part by the Birmingham and London and the Birmingham and Derby railways, and near the centre by the Birmingham and Warwick canal. The village stands in the northern part of the parish. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £9. 19. 4½.; net income, £463; patron, J. M. Severn, Esq. The church, a substantial and venerable structure, situated in the centre of the village, exhibits various specimens of the early and later English styles; a gallery, containing 100 free sittings, was erected in 1823. At Yardley-Wood and Hall-Green are other incumbencies. The inhabitants have, from a very early period, enjoyed the benefit of certaiu lands and rent-charges granted to trustees for their use by different benefactors; the revenue amounts to £833. 19., and is appropriated to the maintenance of two schools, in paying house-rent for poor parishioners, in the repair of the church and bridges, a distribution of bread and money twice a year, and in apprenticing children. Job Marston, in 1703, bequeathed property now producing £111 per annum, which is appropriated in the distribution of clothing, bread, &c., and in apprenticing one or two children annually. Henry Greswolde Lewis, in 1829, gave £1500, directing the dividends to be expended in clothing, bread, and meat.
YARDLEY-GOBION, a hamlet, in the parish and union of Potters-Pury, hundred of Cleley, S. division of the county of Northampton, 3½ miles (N. N. W.) from Stony-Stratford; containing 689 inhabitants. The hamlet comprises 1387 acres: the road from Northampton to Stony-Stratford passes through it, and the Grand Junction canal runs upon its borders. Lace-making employs some of the inhabitants. There is a place of worship for Independents; and the workhouse of the Potters-Pury union is situated here.
Yardley-Hastings (St. Andrew)
YARDLEY-HASTINGS (St. Andrew), a parish, in the union of Hardingstone, hundred of Wymmersley, S. division of the county of Northampton, 8½ miles (E. S. E.) from Northampton; containing 1134 inhabitants. This parish, which is bounded on the south-east by a portion of the county of Buckingham, and intersected by the road from Northampton to Bedford, comprises 4037 acres, in equal portions of arable and pasture, and well wooded. The population is agricultural; the females are employed in pillow-lace making. The village was nearly all burnt down in 1813. Yardley Chase is 10 miles in circumference. A fair is held on Whit-Monday. The living is a rectory, to which a portion of the rectory of Denton is annexed, valued in the king's books at £13. 16. 0½.; net income, £355; patron, the Marquess of Northampton. The tithes were commuted for land in 1776. The church is Norman, having been built eight centuries ago; it has a square tower. There is a place of worship for Independents, with a school attached. North of the church are the ruins of an ancient mansion, once the seat of the family of Hastings, earls of Pembroke. The Rev. Edward Lye, author of the Anglo-Saxon Dictionary, who died in 1769, was rector of the parish.
Yarkhill (St. John the Baptist)
YARKHILL (St. John the Baptist), a parish, in the union of Ledbury, hundred of Radlow, county of Hereford, 7¼ miles (E. by N.) from Hereford; containing 452 inhabitants. It is situated on the right bank of the river Froome, and consists of 1644 acres. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £3. 19. 3.; patrons, the Dean and Chapter of Hereford; impropriator, the Master of Ledbury Hospital. The great tithes have been commuted for £125, and the vicarial (including hops) for £218; the vicar has a glebe of 7 acres.
YARLESIDE, a division, in the parish of Daltonin-Furness, union of Ulverston, hundred of Lonsdale north of the Sands, N. division of Lancashire, 2 miles (S.) from Dalton; containing 561 inhabitants, and comprising several small villages and hamlets.
YARLETT, a liberty, in the parish of St. Mary, Stafford, locally in that of Weston-upon-Trent, S. division of the hundred of Pirehill, union, and N. division of the county, of Stafford, 4 miles (N.) from Stafford, on the road to Stone; containing 24 inhabitants. The liberty comprises about 400 acres of land, the property of the Tunnicliff family, who reside at the Hall, a neat mansion situated on a gentle declivity.
Yarlington (St. Mary)
YARLINGTON (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Wincanton, hundred of Bruton, E. division of Somerset, 3 miles (S. by E.) from Castle-Cary; containing 297 inhabitants. The parish comprises about 1240 acres. There are some quarries of stone, for inferior buildings, and for repairing roads; and many of the poorer inhabitants are employed in making gloves. A fair is held on the 26th of August, for horses, cattle, and sheep. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £16. 1. 3., and in the gift of the Rev. Robert G. Rogers: the tithes have been commuted for £244, and the glebe comprises 38 acres. The church has an embattled tower on the south side. On the south-west declivity of Godshill, in the parish, is a double-intrenched camp, from which is an extensive prospect; and near the church are the remains of an ancient mansion that belonged to the Berkeley family.
Yarm (St. Mary Magdalene)
YARM (St. Mary Magdalene), a market-town and parish, in the union of Stockton-on-Tees, W. division of the liberty of Langbaurgh, N. riding of York, 44 miles (N. N. W.) from York, and 238 (N. by W.) from London; containing 1511 inhabitants. This place, in old documents called Yarome, Yarum, and Yareham, formed part of the crown demesnes, and at the Conquest was conferred by William, together with numerous other places, on Robert de Brus, ancestor of the Scottish kings of that name, and who had no less than 43 lordships in the East and West ridings, and 51 in the North riding of the county. The church of Yareham was granted by Robert de Brus to the monastery of Guisborough, but the lordship continued in possession of his descendants till the reign of Henry III., when, Peter de Brus dying without issue, his lands were divided among his four sisters, and the lordship was conveyed, by marriage with the second, to Marmaduke de Thweng. From the Thwengs it passed to the Hiltons, of Cleveland; and from them to the Meynells, of Whorlton Castle.
The town is situated on a peninsula formed by the river Tees, and, being surrounded on all sides by more elevated lands, has frequently suffered from inundations. On the 17th of February, 1758, after a sudden thaw, the waters from the western hills rushed down with resistless violence, destroying cattle and other property in the immediate vicinity, and rising in the streets of the town to the height of seven feet; and in November, 1771, in an inundation of the Tees, caused by an irruption of the Solway moss, the waters rose in many parts of the town to the height of twenty feet, attended with loss of life and the destruction of much valuable property. The town has since experienced other floods, but they have been less formidable in their consequences, and of late years have been very rare, on account of the great improvements in the river below Stockton, the course to the sea having been made straighter, and the distance considerably lessened. A bridge of five pointed arches was erected over the river by Bishop Skirlaw, in 1400, of which, in order to give a freer passage to the stream, the northern arch was many years since rebuilt in a circular form, and of wider span. In 1802, an act was obtained for shortening the distance and improving the road to Thirsk, under the provisions of which it was resolved to remove the ancient bridge, and erect an iron one in its place. Accordingly, an elegant cast-iron bridge of one arch, 180 feet in span, cast at the foundry of Messrs. Walker and Co., of Rotherham, was erected in 1805, at an expense of nearly £14,000; but, from some defect in the foundation of the abutments, the arch fell down on January 12th, 1806, during the night previous to the day on which it was intended to be opened to the public; and it has not been restored. Fortunately, the ancient bridge had not been taken down, and it has since been greatly improved.
The decline of the town from its former prosperity may be partly attributed to the vicinity of the rising borough of Stockton. It consists chiefly of one spacious street, in the centre of which is the town-hall, a neat square building erected in 1705, upon arches affording an entrance on each side into the area, appropriated to the butter market. The trade principally arises from the exportation of agricultural and mineral produce, and the manufacture of tobacco-pipes, bricks, and tiles, especially draining-tiles. The inhabitants also participate largely with those of Stockton in the salmonfishery of the Tees, the tide flowing up more than six miles above the bridge; and in addition to the advantages derived from the navigation of the river, which admits vessels of 60 tons' burthen to the wharfs, the town has a branch of the Stockton and Darlington railway, affording great facility for the conveyance of coal and other supplies. The market is on Thursday, and fairs are held annually on the Thursday before the 6th of April, on Ascension-day, August 2nd, and on the 18th, 19th, and 20th of October, for horses, cattle, sheep, and cheese, of which last immense quantities are sold on the 20th. The market-place is in the area around the town-hall, on one side of which are commodious shambles for the sale of butchers' meat. A court for the recovery of small debts is held twice a year, under the lord of the manor, Thomas Meynell, Esq., of Kilvington Hall; and petty-sessions are held every alternate Thursday, by the county magistrates.
The parish comprises 1135a. 1r. 35p., of which 510 acres are arable, 536 meadow and pasture, 50 woodland and plantations, and the remainder gardens, sites for building, roads, water, and waste. The surface is varied, and in many parts of pleasing character. The soil is generally a strong loam, well adapted for wheat and beans, and the meadows and pastures are luxuriantly rich; clay of good quality for bricks is abundant. The Friarage, a handsome mansion belonging to Mr. Meynell, occupies the site of a convent for Black friars, founded by Peter de Brus, who died in 1240. It is beautifully situated on the bank of the Tees, along which the grounds extend for nearly a mile, tastefully laid out, and embellished with a stately avenue of elms leading to the mansion, in which is a Roman Catholic chapel.
The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £210; patron and appropriator, the Archbishop of York, whose tithes have been commuted for £265. 10.: the glebe comprises about two acres, with a house and cottage. The church, situated by the river and on the west side of the town, was built, with the exception of the tower, which is ancient, on the site of a church destroyed by fire in 1730. It is a neat edifice, but ill according in its style with the tower, which is a beautiful specimen of Norman architecture. The interior consists of a nave, aisles, and chancel; the east window is embellished with a full length figure of Moses delivering the Law from Mount Sinai, finely executed in stained glass, and presented to the church by the late William Chaloner, Esq. There are places of worship for the Society of Friends, Independents, Warrenites, Primitive Methodists, and Wesleyans. The free grammar school was founded by letters-patent of Elizabeth, in the 30th year of her reign, and endowed with some land and a small rentcharge by Thomas Conyers, Esq., of Eaglescliffe, in the county of Durham; the endowment was subsequently augmented by Mr. Chaloner, with £400 three per cent, consols., and now produces an income of £21 per annum. Mr. Chaloner also bequeathed £100 four per cent, stock, the dividends to be paid to the minister of Yarm for four Sunday-evening lectures to be delivered annually. The school, which is situated in the churchyard, was formerly under the direction of twelve governors, by whom the master was chosen; but that body became extinct from the neglect of the survivors in not appointing their successors, and the scholars are at present nominated by the minister and churchwardens. An hospital dedicated to St. Nicholas was founded in 1185, by the family of Brus, and flourished till the Dissolution, when its revenue was £5. There are no remains of it, but the site is obscurely pointed out by the name of the southern approach to the town, which is still called "The Spittal."
Yarmouth (St. James)
YARMOUTH (St. James), a market-town and parish, and formerly a representative borough, in the liberty of West Medina, Isle of Wight division of the county of Southampton, 10 miles (W.) from Newport, and 94 (S. W.) from London, by Portsmouth, and 105 by Southampton; containing 567 inhabitants. This place, which derives its name from its situation on the river Yar, was formerly of much greater extent and importance than it is at present. It suffered severely from attacks of the French, by whom, in the reign of Richard II., it was pillaged and entirely burned, and by whom on two subsequent occasions it was nearly destroyed. The town field, laid out regularly in right angles, though now destitute of buildings, clearly appears to have been originally the site of a part of the town. Yarmouth is situated on a bank sloping to the sea, on the eastern point of land at the mouth of the Yar, and consists of several neat streets, for the most part running east and west: the houses, which are of freestone, are in general well built and of neat appearance, and public baths have been established. At its western extremity are a castle and small fort, erected by Henry VIII., the latter occupying the site of a church or ancient religious house, and consisting of a platform with eight guns, and houses for the garrison. A large house near the former, which has been converted into an inn, was erected by Sir Robert Holmes, for the reception of Charles II., a portrait of whom, during his stay here, was painted by Sir P. Lely, and is in the possession of the Holmes family.
The trade is now very limited: a considerable quantity of fine white sand, used in the manufacture of flintglass and the finer sorts of British china, is obtained for exportation from some pits on the shore of Alum bay, near the Needles; and the principal imports are, coal from Sunderland, and timber from the New Forest. A constant intercourse by boats is kept up with the opposite town of Lymington, in Hampshire, and before the general use of steam-boats, this was considered the safest and most expeditious passage to the island: a steamer plies daily between Yarmouth and Lymington. The market is on Wednesday, and a fair is held on July 25th: the market-house is a neat building, with a hall over it, in which the several courts are held, and the public business of the corporation is transacted.
The original charter of incorporation was granted by Baldwyn de Redvers, Earl of Devon, and confirmed by Edward I. and various successive monarchs. That under which the corporation now acts was bestowed in the 7th of James I., and ordains the appointment of a mayor and twelve capital burgesses, with power to choose a steward, a town-clerk, and a sergeant-at-mace, and to create freemen: this last privilege is not exercised. Borough courts are held by the mayor and steward, and the corporation is entitled to all the fines, forfeitures, and profits of the courts, with many other privileges. The town first sent members to parliament in the 23rd of Edward I., but made no other return until the 27th of Elizabeth, from which period it exercised the right without intermission until the 2nd of William IV., when it was disfranchised. The living is a discharged rectory, in the patronage of the Crown; net income, £100. The church, situated in the centre of the town, is a neat structure consisting of a nave and chancel, on the south side of which is a sepulchral chapel, containing a handsome statue of the full size, in Parian marble, of Sir Robert Holmes, formerly governor of the Isle of Wight. The edifice underwent a complete repair in 1831, when the tower was raised a considerable height, at the expense of T. Alexander, Esq., and a gallery was erected by the corporation. Here are places of worship for Baptists and Wesleyans. The sum of £30 per annum was bequeathed by Thomas, Lord Holmes, of which £10 are distributed to the poor, £10 paid towards apprenticing a boy, and the remaining £10 given to the minister. There are some vestiges of a Roman station, on the site of which a house has been built, occupied as a private residence.
Yarmouth, Great (St. Nicholas)
YARMOUTH, GREAT (St. Nicholas) a sea-port, borough, market-town, and parish, and a union of itself, having separate jurisdiction, locally in the E. division of the hundred of Flegg, E. vision of Norfolk, 19 miles (E. by S.) from Norwich, and 123 (K. E.) from London; the parish containing 24,086 inhabitants. This place, which, from its extensive and prosperous trade and many other advantages and privileges, may be considered the most flourishing town on this part of the coast, derives its name from its situation at the mouth of the river Yare, which here falls into the ocean. It occupies ground originally covered by the sea, which, on its receding, left a bank of sand whereon a few fishermen settled, the first of whom, denominated Fuller, imparted his name to the higher portion, still called Fuller's Hill. As the bank increased in extent and density, the population augmented; but the channel of the northern branch of the Yare, on which the first settlers fixed their habitations, becoming choked up with sand, they removed in 1040 to the southern branch.
The earliest authentic record of the place is in Domesday book, in which it is described as "the king's demesne, and having seventy burgesses." Its fishery at an early period attracting many residents, a charter was granted by Henry III., at the request of the inhabitants, allowing them to inclose the burgh, on the land side, with a wall and moat; the wall was 2240 yards in length, and had sixteen towers and ten gates. A castle having four watch towers, and upon which a fire beacon was placed in 1588, was also built about this time, in the centre of the town. In the last-named year, a mound called South Mount, was thrown up and crowned with heavy ordnance; and the place was then considered impregnable. The castle having been demolished in 1621, and the changes introduced into the system of warfare rendering further defences necessary, strong parapets were constructed in front of the town, and cannon planted on them, facing the sea: the circuit of the fortifications thus completed was nearly two miles and a half. The only military operation in which the inhabitants have been ever actually engaged was their gallantly repulsing Kett, when in his rebellion he attempted, at the head of 20,000 men, to take the town by assault. But though the place has been only slightly visited by the scourge of warfare, it has suffered severely from the plague, to which, in 1348, upwards of 7000 persons fell victims; in 1579, upwards of 2000; and more than 2500 in 1664.
The town occupies an extent of 153 acres, on the western bank of a peninsula formed by the river Yare and the sea; and is connected with South Town, or Little Yarmouth, on the opposite bank of the stream, by a bridge. It is of quadrangular form, about a mile long, and half a mile broad, and consists of four good streets parallel with each other, a handsome street leading to the quay, on which is a noble range of buildings, and a great number of narrow rows intersecting the principal streets at right angles. Within the last twenty or thirty years, many handsome houses and several hotels have been built on the Denes, a fine down south of Yarmouth. The town is lighted with gas, is well supplied with fresh water, and the streets are kept remarkably clean. There are several very ancient houses, one of which, built in 1596, was the residence of a granddaughter of Oliver Cromwell: in the drawing-room, which is elaborately ornamented with rich carved work, and has been restored to its pristine state, a meeting of principal officers of the parliamentarian army is said to have been held for the purpose of deciding the fate of Charles I. The theatre, a commodious edifice erected in 1778, near the market-place, is open during the summer months; and races take place in August, on the South Denes. The bathing-houses on the beach, near the jetty, possess every accommodation for visiters; and adjoining is a public-room, built in 1788, where balls and concerts are occasionally held. There are very pleasant walks on the quay and beach; and the extensive sea view, enlivened by the number of vessels in the roads, is a source of considerable gratification to those who frequent the town as a watering-place. The barracks on the South Denes, near the beach, form a magnificent quadrangular range of buildings, designed by Mr. Pilkington, and erected at a cost of £120,000: the armoury in South Town will contain, exclusively of other military and naval stores, 10,000 stand of arms. Between the barracks and the entrance to the harbour is a grand fluted column, 130 feet high, surmounted by a statue of Britannia, erected to the memory of Admiral Lord Nelson, and, as a landmark, well supplying to seamen the loss of Gorleston steeple, which was blown down in the year 1813. On the quay is the custom-house; within a short distance is a public library with a good collection, and adjoining the library are subscription reading-rooms. A handsome suspension chain-bridge, of eighty-six feet span, was constructed at the northern part of the quay, over the river Bure, under the provisions of an act passed in 1827. On May 2nd, 1845, a frightful accident occurred, by the breaking down of this bridge. A clown had announced that he would perform a certain feat on the river, and at the moment when all eyes were strained to witness his approach, the bridge gave way, and those upon it were plunged into the water below: 79 lives were lost.
Yarmouth is not a manufacturing town, but a considerable establishment for winding and throwing silk has been formed in connexion with a larger concern at Norwich, for which buildings have been erected on the site formerly occupied by the barracks, on the north of the town. There are also extensive yards for ship-building, with corresponding rope-walks, and several large breweries. A great trade is carried on coastwise in malt, corn, flour, coal, timber, and other articles. A direct intercourse is maintained with the Baltic, the Mediterranean, Portugal, and other parts of the continent; and a regular communication by steam-vessels is kept up with London and the north of England. But the principal source of trade by which the town is supported is the herring-fishery, which is usually productive to a remarkable extent. The fish, when cured, or dried, for both which processes there are very extensive establishments, are not only sent to every district in the kingdom, but exported in considerable quantities to other parts of the world, particularly to the West Indies. Many vessels from other places on the coast fish here, and some, at a defined distance, from foreign countries. The mackerel-fishery is also extensive.
The situation of Yarmouth, in a commercial point of view, affords unusual advantages. The Yare is navigable here for vessels of 250 tons' burthen; and to Norwich, a distance of thirty-two miles, for smaller vessels, without the intervention of locks. The Waveney, which falls into the Yare, is navigable by Beccles to Bungay, a distance of twenty miles; and the Bure, which also joins the Yare, by Horstead to Aylsham, thirty miles, and another branch to North Walsham, twenty-five miles hence; thus opening an extensive and valuable channel of inland communication. An act was obtained in 1842 for the formation of a railway from Yarmouth to Norwich, along the northern bank of the Yare: the line was completed in 1844. Many attempts have been made to form a safe harbour, at the enormous expense of above £240,000; the present one, which is the seventh that has been constructed, was projected and executed, at an expense of about £4200 only, by Jans Johnson, a native of Holland, and affords secure anchorage at all times. In 1835, an act was passed for improving the haven and the several rivers connected with it; also for repairing or rebuilding the bridge over the haven, and St. Olave's bridge across the Waveney. At the entrance of the Yare are two piers; that on the south, 1230 feet long, forming an agreeable promenade; and that on the north, 400 feet in length, erected on wooden piles, and secured by an iron railing. The quay, which in length, and beauty of construction, ranks the first in England, is a very great ornament to the town; its centre is formed into an agreeable walk, planted on each side with trees. A duty is levied on all coal brought to the port, and applied, under the direction of twelve commissioners, to keeping the jetties and piers in repair, and deepening and clearing the river. The number of vessels of above fifty tons, registered at the port, is 315, and their aggregate burthen 34,676 tons. The navigation of the coast is very dangerous; the Roads, in which are two floating lighthouses, are frequently resorted to by the North Sea fleet, and merchant-vessels are constantly repairing to them for shelter. The market is on Wednesday and Saturday; fairs are held on the Monday and Tuesday at Shrovetide, and on the Friday and Saturday in Easter-week. The present corn-exchange was opened in 1842, the fish-market in Oct. 1844.
Prior to the reign of King John, the town was governed by a provost appointed by the crown; but a charter of incorporation granted by that monarch in the ninth year of his reign, empowered the burgesses to choose their own magistrates, called bailiffs, who were authorized to hold a court of hustings, now called the Burgh court. The privileges were extended by succeeding sovereigns. Edward II. granted tronage to the burgesses, and exemption from serving on any assizes, juries, or inquisitions, out of the borough; and the charter of Elizabeth conferred power to hold an admiralty court weekly, with liberty to try all maritime causes, except piracy. The corporation at present consists of a mayor, high steward, recorder, twelve aldermen, and thirty-six councillors, assisted by a townclerk, water-bailiff, gaoler, three sergeants-at-mace, and other officers, appointed under the act 5th and 6th of William IV., cap. 76; the borough, formerly consisting of eight wards, is now divided into six, and the number of magistrates is twenty-six. Courts of session take place quarterly before the recorder; a court leet and court of pie-poudre are also held. The freedom is obtained by birth or servitude. The borough first sent members to parliament in the reign of Edward I.; the elective franchise was extended, in 1832, to the £10 householders of an enlarged district, which comprises 2823 acres: the mayor is returning officer. The admiralty jurisdiction was abolished by the Municipal Corporations' act; the last court of admiralty was held on the 7th of Sept., 1835. The jurisdiction of the corporation, by charter of the 20th of Charles II., extends to South Town, or Little Yarmouth, in the county of Suffolk, and, as regards the Yare, Waveney, and Bure, for ten miles upon each of those rivers. The inhabitants are not liable to serve on juries for the county, nor to the payment of county rates, as the corporation supports the gaol, and maintains the prisoners; and writs, unless accompanied with a non omittas, can only be executed under the warrant of the mayor, and by one of his officers. The powers of the county debtcourt of Yarmouth, established in 1847, extend over the two registration-districts of Yarmouth, and East and West Flegg, and part of the district of Mutford and Lothingland. The town-hall, near the centre of the quay, is an elegant building of the Tuscan order, with a portico in front, and is also the mansion-house: the council-chamber, in which public meetings and assemblies are held, is a splendid room, ornamented with a fine portrait of George I., in his robes; the card-room is spacious, and contains paintings, by Butcher, of the quay, the Roads, and the market-place, and a portrait of Sir Robert Walpole, who was high steward.
The living is a perpetual curacy 3 net income, £430; patrons, the Dean and Chapter of Norwich. In Domesday book mention is made of a church dedicated to St. Benedict, probably erected by the barons of the cinqueports, and of which the foundations are still visible, about a mile from the entrauce of the town. The present edifice, situated in the north-east part of the town, was founded by Herbert de Lozinga, Bishop of Norwich, about 1101, and appropriated to the prior and monks of the Holy Trinity at Norwich, who had a cell here: he built only the cross, which constitutes the present nave and transepts; the aisles were added in 1250, and in the following year the church was dedicated to St. Nicholas. It is a handsome cruciform structure in the early, decorated, and later English styles, with a central tower and spire, four turrets at the west end surmounted by pinnacles, and an elegant south porch. Seventeen oratories, each with an image, altar, lights, &c., and supported by a guild, were instituted in it. The organ, built in 1733, is a splendid instrument. On the tower was a wooden spire, which appeared crooked from whatever side viewed; it was replaced by the present one in 1804. St. George's chapel, a handsome edifice built in 1716, is supported by a duty of one shilling per chaldron on all coal consumed in the parish: patron, the Rev. Mark Waters; net income, £200. An additional church, dedicated to St. Peter, and in the later English style, with a lofty square tower, was erected near the White Lion Gates, on the north side of the road to the jetty, in 1833, at an expense of £7596, which was defrayed by subscription, aided by a grant from the Commissioners for Building and Enlarging Churches. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £160; patron, the Incumbent of St. Nicholas'. There are places of worship for Baptists, the Society of Friends, Independents, Primitive Methodists, Wesleyans, Lady Huntingdon's Connexion, Unitarians, and Roman Catholics.
The free grammar school, in the market-place, commonly called the children's hospital school, was founded by the corporation, in 1651, and was part of St. Mary's hospital. It is now a free school for reading, writing, and arithmetic only; thirty of the boys and twenty of the girls are maintained and apprenticed. The revenue of the charity, independently of fines upon the renewal of leases, is £856. 19., of which £100 per annum, with a septennial fine of £100, are derived from an estate in Ireland, now worth £6000 per annum, but of which a lease for 1000 years at the above rental was granted in 1714. The Rev. Edward Warnes, in 1694, bequeathed an estate now let for £375 per annum, which is distributed at Easter and Christmas among orphans and widows, those of clergymen having the preference. The Fishermen's hospital, of a quadrangular form, comprising twenty houses of two rooms each, for the accommodation of that number of fishermen and their wives, has an annual income of £160, paid by the treasury, originally as a reduction of the duty then levied upon all beer carried to sea; also an income of £56. 10. derived from various private benefactions. Seventy-eight houses in different parts of the town are occupied rent-free by paupers; and an annual sum of £62. 10. is distributed by trustees in money, bread, and coal, among the inmates. Besides the cell belonging to the Holy Trinity at Norwich, and the hospital of St. Mary, there were a cell of Augustine friars belonging to the priory of Gorleston, two lazar-houses, and houses of Black, Grey, and White friars, many fragments of which remain, as well as of the ancient town walls. Yarmouth gives the title of Earl to the Marquess of Hertford.
Yarnscombe (St. Andrew)
YARNSCOMBE (St. Andrew), a parish, in the union of Torrington, hundred of Hartland, Great Torrington and N. divisions of Devon, 6 miles (N. E. by E.) from Torrington; containing 512 inhabitants. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £7. 11. 11., and in the gift of the Crown; impropriators, the Rolle family. The great tithes have been commuted for £150, and the vicarial for £135; the glebe comprises 24 acres. The church has a very old monument of granite; the inscription is illegible.
Yarnton, or Yarington
YARNTON, or Yarington, a parish, in the union of Woodstock, hundred of Wootton, county of Oxford, 4¼ miles (N. W. by N.) from Oxford; containing 302 inhabitants. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £8. 5. 5., and in the patronage of Sir George Dashwood, Bart., for three turns, and of All Souls' College, Oxford, for one; net income, £217; impropriators, the Rector and Fellows of Exeter College, Oxford. The church is ancient, with a tower built in 1612, by Sir Thomas Spencer. He also erected the aisle in which he is interred, as a sepulchral chapel for his family, who resided in the old manor-house near the church, the remains of which are now occupied as a farmhouse. In a recess in the aisle is an altar-tomb, with recumbent effigies of Sir William Spencer and his lady; and the churchyard contains a cross embellished with figures in full length, now much mutilated.
Yarpole (St. Leonard)
YARPOLE (St. Leonard), a parish, in the union of Leominster, hundred of Wolphy, county of Hereford, 5 miles (N. N. W.) from Leominster; containing, with the township of Bircher, 606 inhabitants, of whom 349 are in the township of Yarpole. The parish consists of 2523 acres, of which 399 are common or waste land. The road from Leominster to Ludlow passes about a mile eastward of the village. The living is a vicarage, annexed to the rectory of Croft; impropriators, the Trustees of Lucton school. The great tithes have been commuted for £273, and those of the vicar for £27; there are 23 acres of glebe.
Yarwell (St. Mary Magdalene)
YARWELL (St. Mary Magdalene), a parish, in the union of Oundle, hundred of Willybrook. N. division of the county of Northampton, 1¼ mile (S. by W.) from Wansford; containing 389 inhabitants. The parish is situated on the left bank of the river Nene, and consists of 980 acres. The living is annexed to the vicarage of Nassington. There are about 18 acres of land, producing a rental of £29. 10. per annum, half of which is distributed at Christmas among widows and others.
Yate (St. Mary)
YATE (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Chipping-Sodbury, Upper division of the hundred of Henbury, W. division of the county of Gloucester, 1 mile (W.) from Chipping-Sodbury; containing 1057 inhabitants. It comprises 4042 acres, of which 656 are common or waste inclosed under an act passed in 1842: the substratum abounds in coal, of which some mines are in operation. The Gloucester and Bristol railway has a station here, 10½ miles from the Bristol terminus. The village is a polling-place for the W. division of the county. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £30. 18. 11½., and in the gift of W. S. Goodenough, Esq.: the tithes have been commuted for £685, and the glebe comprises 154 acres.
Yate, with Pick-up-Bank
YATE, with Pick-up-Bank, a township, in the parochial chapelry of Church, parish of Whalley, union, and Higher division of the hundred, of Blackburn, N. division of the county of Lancaster, 4 miles (S. E.) from Blackburn; containing 1068 inhabitants. This is a small township, lying east of the high road from Blackburn to Bury, and chiefiy inhabited by weavers. The house called Hoddlesden Hall, a large plain venerable building, was probably the residence of the Hoddlestons of former ages.
Yatehouse, with Byley.—See Buley.
Yately (St. Peter)
YATELY (St. Peter), a parish, in the hundred of Crondall, Odiham and N. divisions of the county of Southampton, 4½ miles (N. W.) from Farnborough; containing, with the tythings of Cove and Minley, 1997 inhabitants, of whom 717 are in Yately tything. A cattle-fair is held on the 8th of November. The London and Southampton road, and the South-Western railway, pass through the parish. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £72; patron and appropriator, the Master of the Hospital of St. Cross. At Cove and Hawley are separate incumbencies. There is a place of worship for Baptists; also a national school endowed with £9. 6. a year, being one-third of the income arising from land bequeathed for charitable purposes by Mary Barker, in 1706.
Yatesbury (All Saints)
YATESBURY (All Saints), a parish, in the union and hundred of Calne, Marlborough and Ramsbury, and N. divisions of Wilts, 4½ miles (E. by N.) from Calne; containing 251 inhabitants. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £17. 3. 4., and in the gift of the Kyrle family: the tithes have been commuted for £500, and the glebe comprises 23 acres.
Yattendon (St. Peter and St. Paul)
YATTENDON (St. Peter and St. Paul), a parish, in the union of Bradfield, hundred of Faircross, county of Berks, 6½ miles (N. E.) from Newbury; containing 246 inhabitants. This parish comprises by measurement 1400 acres, of which 1134 are arable, 90 pasture and meadow, and 176 woodland. It had formerly a weekly market on Tuesday, granted in 1258, with a fair on the festival of St. Nicholas, to Peter de Etyndon, and confirmed in 1319 to John de la Beche, with another fair on the festival of St. Peter and St. Paul. These have long been disused, but a fair is held on the 10th of July. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £14. 6. 8.; patron, the Rev. J. F. Howard: the tithes have been commuted for £400, and the glebe consists of 43 acres. Carte, the historian, wrote the greater part of his History of England at this place, and, dying in 1754, was buried in the church. A castle said to have been inhabited by King Alfred, occupied the site of the present manor-house; and a large field in the parish, where Alfred gained a decisive victory over the Danes, is still called England's Field.
YATTON, a chapelry, in the parish of Much Marcle, union of Ross, hundred of Greytree, county of Hereford, 5½ miles (N. E. by N.) from Ross; containing 245 inhabitants, and comprising 1392 acres. It is intersected by the road between Ross and Ledbury. The chapel has been enlarged and improved, by subscription, aided by a grant of £100 from the Incorporated Society. The vicarial tithes have been commuted for an annual rent-charge of £287. 12. 6., and there is a glebe of 5 acres.
Yatton (St. Mary)
YATTON (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Bedminster, hundred of Winterstoke, E. division of Somerset, 12 miles (S. W.) from Bristol; containing, with the hamlets of Claverham, Cleeve, and Hewish, 1978 inhabitants. It comprises 5389a. 2r. 5p. Limestone abounds, and is quarried for building, and for burning into lime. The Bristol and Exeter railway passes through the parish. The living is a vicarage, in the patronage of the Prebendary of Yatton in Wells Cathedral, valued in the king's books at £30: the tithes have been commuted for £348 payable to the impropriators, and £445. 10. to the vicar; the impropriate glebe comprises 138 acres. The church is a stately cruciform structure in the decorated and later English styles, with a tower in the centre, formerly surmounted by a spire. The greater portion of it appears to have been rebuilt in the 15th century, by the Wyck family, to one of whom is a monument bearing his effigy, in the north transept. In a sepulchral chapel of the Newton family, built by Dame Isabel, widow of Sir John Newton, is a handsome alabaster monument to Sir Richard Caradoc Newton, lord chief justice of the common pleas in the reign of Henry VI., and another to his son Sir John. A district church, dedicated to the Holy Trinity, was erected at Cleeve, and consecrated in June, 1840; it is a handsome structure in the Norman style, and contains 300 sittings: the living is in the gift of the Vicar of Yatton. There are places of worship for the Society of Friends and Wesleyans. On Cadbury Hill, in the vicinity, are vestiges of an ancient fortification. In 1782, thirteen human bodies, some of them fresh and of unusual size, and a stone coffin, were found in a limestone-quarry, about two feet below the surface.
Yatton-Keynall (St. Margaret)
YATTON-KEYNALL (St. Margaret), a parish, in the union and hundred of Chippenham, Chippenham and Calne, and N. divisions of Wilts, 4¼ miles (N. W. by W.) from Chippenham; containing 492 inhabitants. The parish comprises about 1637 acres. Freestone of good quality abounds, and is quarried for building and paving. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £8. 7. 1., and in the gift of the Rev. E. W. Daubeny: the tithes have been commuted for £375, and the glebe comprises 94 acres. The church is a handsome structure. There is a place of worship for Baptists.
YAVERLAND, a parish, in the liberty of East Medina, Isle of Wight division of the county of Southampton, 8 miles (E. S. E.) from Newport; containing 80 inhabitants. It comprises by measurement 764 acres, of which 423 are arable, 200 meadow, 5 pasture, 84 down, 42 woodland, 6 in gardens, and 4 waste. An ancient mansion of the Russells here, subsequently of the Richards family, and now a farmhouse, is a good specimen of the Elizabethan style. The scenery is diversified. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £6. 6. 10½., and in the patronage of Mrs. Atkyns Wright: the tithes have been commuted for £240, and the glebe contains 12 acres. The church, a small edifice near the mansion, is principally in the later English style of architecture, with a Norman doorway in good preservation.
Yaxham (St. Peter)
YAXHAM (St. Peter), a parish, in the union of Mitford and Launditch, hundred of Mitford, W. division of Norfolk, 2½ miles (S. E. by S.) from East Dereham; containing 450 inhabitants. It comprises 1568a. 12p., of which 1398 acres are arable, 150 meadow and pasture, and 20 woodland. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £10. 0. 10., and in the gift of the Johnson family: the tithes have been commuted for £500, and the glebe comprises 46½ acres. The church is an ancient structure in the early aud later English styles, with a circular tower; the font is elaborately sculptured, and in the chancel is a handsome monument to the Rev. Dr. John Johnson.
Yaxley (St. Peter)
YAXLEY (St. Peter), a parish, and formerly a market-town, in the union of Peterborough, hundred of Norman-Cross, county of Huntingdon, 1½ mile (N. E.) from Stilton; containing 1211 inhabitants. The parish comprises by measurement 4077 acres, chiefly arable; the soil is various, in some parts fenny land, and in others a retentive clay. The village is irregularly, but neatly, built, extending for a considerable distance along the road from Stilton to Farcet; and is amply supplied with water. At a short distance to the east is Whittlesea mere, one of the most extensive sheets of water in the kingdom, six miles in length, and three broad, and abounding with fish. The barracks of Norman-Cross, in the parish, were used during the late war, as a place of confinement for French prisoners, but are now partly dismantled. The neighbourhood is extremely productive of sedges and reeds, the preparation of which affords employment to a considerable number of the inhabitants. A fair for cattle is held on HolyThursday. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £11, and in the patronage of the Crown; net income, £177; impropriator, the Earl of Carysfort. The church, situated on an eminence at the western extremity of the village, is a handsome structure, principally in the later English style, with some portions of earlier date; the tower is surmounted by a finely-proportioned crocketed spire, supported by flying buttresses, and conspicuous for many miles round. There is a place of worship for Independents. A workhouse and school were established under the wills of Frances and Jane Proby, who bequeathed certain property to the parishes of Yaxley, Elton, and Flitton: the share appropriated to Yaxley amounts to about £70 per annum, out of which a master, who has the free use of the school premises, receives the sum of £50 for instructing twenty boys.
Yaxley (St. Mary)
YAXLEY (St. Mary), a parish, in the union and hundred of Hartismere, W. division of Suffolk, 1½ mile (W.) from Eye; containing 507 inhabitants, and comprising by measurement 1300 acres. The living is a vicarage, valued in the king's books at £6. 6. 5½., and in the patronage of J. T. Mott, Esq.; impropriators, Sir E. Kerrison, Bart., and others. The great tithes have been commuted for £278. 17., and those of the vicar for £135. 8. There are 34 acres of glebe. The church is a handsome structure, chiefly in the later English style, with a square embattled tower; the lower nave is separated from the chancel by a richly-carved screen, and the east window is embellished with stained glass. Yaxley Hall was the seat of a family who took their name from the parish.
Yazor (St. John the Baptist)
YAZOR (St. John the Baptist), a parish, in the union of Weobley, hundred of Grimsworth, county of Hereford, 4½ miles (S.) from Weobley; containing 195 inhabitants. It comprises 2047a. 28p., of which 1000 acres are arable, 500 meadow and pasture, 526 woodland, and the remainder roads and waste. The surface is undulated, and in the hills are quarries of limestone, and of freestone for building. The living is a discharged vicarage, endowed with a portion of the rectorial tithes, annexed to the rectory of Bishopstone, and valued in the king's books at £5. 12. 6.; impropriators of the remainder of the rectorial tithes, Sir R. Price, Bart., and the Arkwright family.