A Topographical Dictionary of England. Originally published by S Lewis, London, 1848.
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COWGILL, an ecclesiastical district, in the parochial chapelry of Dent, parish and union of Sedbergh, W. division of the wapentake of Staincliffe and Ewcross, W. riding of York, 9 miles (S. E. by E.) from Sedbergh; containing about 500 inhabitants. It lies south of Rysell Fell, and partakes much of the scenery of the chapelry at large: the river Dee passes in the vicinity. Here are some small collieries, of which the veins of coal are from six to fifteen inches deep. The living is a perpetual curacy, in the patronage of five Trustees; income, £100. The church stands at the head of a picturesque vale, four miles east from Dent, and is a small neat structure with a campanile turret, built by subscription, in 1838, at a cost of £750: to the building and endowment, Professor Sedgwick contributed £100. There is a place of worship for the Society of Friends, in which Fox has preached, and attached to which is a school. A Sunday school is connected with the church.
Cowgrove, or Kinson
COWGROVE, or Kinson, a tything, in the parish of Wimborne-Minster, union of Wimborne and Cranborne, hundred of Badbury, Wimborne division of Dorset, 2 miles (W.) from Wimborne; containing 752 inhabitants.
Cow-Honeybourne, county of Gloucester.—See Honeybourne, Cow.
COWICK, a chapelry, in the parish and union of St. Thomas the Apostle, Exeter, hundred of Wonford, Wonford and S. divisions of Devon, 1 mile (S. W. by S.) from Exeter. The chapel is dedicated to St. Thomas à Becket. A Benedictine monastery, a cell to the abbey of Bec, in Normandy, was established here by William, son of Balwine, in the time of Henry II.; but there are not any remains of it.
COWICK, a township, in the parish of Snaith, union of Goole, Lower division of the wapentake of Osgoldcross, W. riding of York, half a mile (S. E. by E.) from Snaith; containing 882 inhabitants. The township comprises by computation 8970 acres, and includes East and West Cowick, and the hamlets of Newbridge and Greenland. Cowick and Snaith have a peculiar jurisdiction, which extends over several neighbouring places. The Hall, a seat belonging to Viscount Downe, is a handsome mansion, in an extensive park. At West Cowick is an Independent meeting-house.
COWLAM, a parish, in the union of Driffield, wapentake of Buckrose, E. riding of York, 2 miles (N. E.) from Sledmere; containing 44 inhabitants. This place, which appears to have been formerly a large village or town of some importance, is the property of the Rev. T. F. F. Bowes, to whose brother, General Bowes, killed at the head of his brigade in Spain, after being severely wounded at the storming of Badajos, a monument was voted by parliament, and erected in the Cathedral of St. Paul, London. The parish comprises by computation 2200 acres, of which about 300 are pasture, and 100 woodland. The surface is very irregular, and intersected with deep valleys of romantic character; the soil is chalky, with some portions containing flints, but generally producing good crops. The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at £11. 11. 3.; net income, £30; patron and incumbent, the Rev. T. F. F. Bowes. The church contains a curious ancient font.
Cowley (St. Mary)
COWLEY (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Cheltenham, hundred of Rapsgate, E. division of the county of Gloucester, 5 miles (S. by E.) from Cheltenham; containing 317 inhabitants. It comprises 1835 acres, of which about 200 are pasture, 100 woodland, 39 common or waste, and the rest arable. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £9. 1. 10½., and in the patronage of the Crown: the tithes have been commuted for £300, and the glebe consists of 73 acres, with a glebe-house.
Cowley (St. Lawrence)
COWLEY (St. Lawrence), a parish, in the union of Uxbridge, hundred of Elthorne, county of Middlesex, 1½ mile (S. by E.) from Uxbridge, near the Great Western railway; containing 392 inhabitants. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £11, and in the gift of J. Hilliard, Esq.: the tithes have been commuted for £197, and the glebe consists of 12 acres, with a glebe-house.
Cowley (St. James)
COWLEY (St. James), a parish, in the union of Headington, hundred of Bullington, county of Oxford, 2½ miles (S. E. by E.) from Oxford; containing 606 inhabitants. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £64; patrons and appropriators, the Dean and Canons of Christ-Church, Oxford. Part of the parish is called Temple-Cowley, from some lands having been given by Matilda, in the reign of Stephen, to the Knights Templars, who had a preceptory here, which was afterwards removed to Sandford. To the north of Cowley Marsh are some remains of an hospital, dedicated to St. Bartholomew, and thought by Tanner to have been founded by Henry I., when he built his palace at Beaumont; it was granted by Edward III. to Oriel College, as a retreat for the students in time of pestilence.
COWLEY, a township, in the parish of Gnosall, union of Newport, W. division of the hundred of Cuttlestone, S. division of the county of Stafford, 5 miles (E.) from Newport. This is a quarter in the parish, and contains a number of scattered houses, and the hamlets of Coton, Befcott, and Plardiwick, extending from nearly one to two miles south-west of Gnosall. At Coton is an Independent meeting-house, built in 1823.
Cowling, county of Suffolk.—See Cooling.
Cowling, with Burrell.—See Burrell.
COWLING, an ecclesiastical parish, in the parish of Kildwick, union of Skipton, E. division of the wapentake of Staincliffe and Ewcross, W. riding of York, 2½ miles (W. by S.) from Cross Hills; containing about 2500 inhabitants. This district borders westward on Lancashire. It includes a portion of the large tract of upland moor stretching across the western part of Craven, and partly slopes down towards the valley of the Aire, into which river it sends a stream of some magnitude. The area is about 5500 acres: the reclaimed land is almost entirely pasture-ground, the number of acres under tillage being very small; in parts the rocks rise abruptly to a considerable height, probably about 1000 feet, and there are several glens of great natural beauty. Good building-stone is quarried, some of which was used for the construction of the Liverpool docks. The road from Colne to Keighley passes through; and at Cross Hills is a station on the Leeds and Bradford Extension railway. The population is principally employed in hand loom weaving: there is also a small cotton-mill. Car Head, the seat of W. B. Wainman, Esq., with its woods and grounds, adds much to the attractions of the place. The parish was constituted in September 1845, under the act 6th and 7th Victoria, cap. 37: the living is in the gift of the Crown and the Bishop of Ripon, alternately; income, £150. The church is in the later English style, and consists of a nave, chancel, north and south aisles, and western tower; it is a handsome structure, on a good site, and forms a very pleasing object from several points of view: the total cost of the building, which was designed by Chantrell, was nearly £2000. There are two places of worship for Wesleyans, and two for Baptists. On the moor is a stone, called the Hitchin stone, supposed by some to have been used in Druidical rites; it is about ten feet high, in its general figure is rather cubical, and has a large hole passing through it in a sloping direction, as if drilled, and another joining the former in the centre, of sufficient size to admit a man.
Cowpen, or Coopen
COWPEN, or Coopen, a township, in the chapelry of Horton, union of Tynemouth, E. division of Castle ward, S. division of Northumberland, 8 miles (E. S. E.) from Morpeth; containing 2464 inhabitants. This township, which is called in old records Cupum, Cupin, Copun, or Couperum, comprises about 1553 acres, and extends nearly two miles along the southern bank of the Blyth, which is navigable. The canons of Brinkburn and the monks of Tynemouth had salt-mines here, the latter being also owners of much of the land, and there were formerly several other salt-works near the river; but they have all long since disappeared. That portion of the Bedlington iron-works in which engines are constructed, is in this township, adjoining the river, and employs numerous hands: there are also four cornmills, two of which are worked by steam; a large colliery; and at Cowpen quay a ship-building yard. The village lies about a mile west of the port of Blyth, on the highway between that place and Newcastle, and about a quarter of a mile from the Blyth river; it contains several good houses, all of modern date except the Hall, at present in the occupation of a farmer. The impropriate tithes have been commuted for £295, payable in moieties to the Duke of Northumberland and M. J. F. Sidney, Esq., and the vicarial for £36, payable to the vicar of Woodhorn. There are places of worship in the township for congregations of Burghers, Methodists of the New Connexion, Primitive Methodists, and Roman Catholics.
COWPEN-BEWLEY, a township, in the parish of Billingham, union of Stockton-Upon-Tees, N. E. division of Stockton ward, S. division of the county of Durham, 4½ miles (N. E. by N.) from Stockton; containing 196 inhabitants. It lies to the north-east of Billingham, towards the marshes, and comprises 2640 acres, including the large farm of Saltholme; 530 acres are common or waste. The lands are the property of the Dean and Chapter of Durham. In Cowpen-marsh, a pasture of from 400 to 500 acres, are several large earthen mounds, now covered with herbage, the remains of the old salt-works that were carried on in this angle of the county: the abbot of Guisborough had his saltworks on the opposite coast. The tithes have been commuted for £173. 3., of which £30 are payable to the vicar of the parish.
COWSBY, a parish, in the union of Thirsk, wapentake of Birdforth, N. riding of York, 6¼ miles (N. N. E.) from Thirsk; containing 108 inhabitants. The parish comprises 1167a. 1r. 30p., of which about 510 acres are arable, 429 meadow and pasture, and 134 moor; the surface is beautifully diversified with hill and dale, and richly clothed in many parts with wood. Cowsby Hall, an excellent mansion, is the seat of the Lloyd family, who are lords of the manor, and proprietors of the lands. The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at £5. 11. 0½., and in the patronage of Mrs. Lloyd: the tithes have been commuted for £125, and the glebe comprises 19 acres. The church was taken down and rebuilt, and consecrated in April, 1846: it is in the Norman style, with a tower and spire, and of exceedingly chaste design: the cost was defrayed by the Lloyd family. Here is an hospital for four parishioners, endowed with £10 per annum, and supposed to have been founded by Lord Crewe.
COWTHORN, a township, in the parish of Middleton, Pickering lythe and union, N. riding of York, 5 miles (N. N. W.) from Pickering; containing 20 inhabitants. The soil is light and sandy, and the substratum in some parts limestone; the scenery is bold, with extensive views from the higher grounds. Good stone is quarried for building purposes. There are some Roman antiquities.
Cowthorp (St. Michael)
COWTHORP (St. Michael), a parish, in the Upper division of the wapentake of Claro, W. riding of York, 3¾ miles (N. E. by N.) from Wetherby; containing 115 inhabitants. It is situated on the river Nidd, about a mile from the road between Boroughbridge and Wetherby. The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at £4. 15. 10.; net income, £130; patron, R. F. Wilson, Esq. The church is an ancient structure, consisting of a nave and chancel, in the latter of which is a monumental brass with the effigies of a man and woman, bearing between them a model of a church, and supposed to be Brian Rowcliff, a baron of the exchequer, and his lady, the founders of the building. Near the manor-house stands a gigantic oak-tree, one of the largest in England; it measures 60 feet in girth, and when entire, its branches are said to have overspread an acre of ground: twenty-four persons have sat down within its hollow trunk.
Cowton, East (St. Mary)
COWTON, EAST (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Northallerton, wapentake of Gilling-East, N. riding of York, 7 miles (N. E. by E.) from Catterick, and 8 (N. W. by N.) from Northallerton, the post-town; containing 454 inhabitants. It comprises 3144a. 3r., of which 1743 acres are arable, and the remainder meadow and pasture: the surface is low, but undulated, with many commanding prospects: the soil is clay, partially gravelly, with beds of sand. A station on the York and Newcastle railway has been established at the place. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £4. 6. 10½.: the patronage is attached conditionally to the Mastership of Kirkby-Ravensworth Hospital; otherwise it belongs to the Wardens and Hospitallers. The impropriate tithes have been commuted for £270, and the vicarial for £213. 6. 8.; the glebe consists of half an acre. The church is a small edifice. There is a place of worship for Primitive Methodists. A free school, founded by the Dakyn family in 1556, has an annuity of about £24, arising from the estates bequeathed to the above-mentioned hospital.
COWTON, NORTH, a township, in the chapelry of South Cowton, parish of Gilling, union of Richmond, wapentake of Gilling-East, N. riding of York, 6¼ miles (N. E.) from Catterick; containing 273 inhabitants. It is on the road from Richmond to Stockton, and comprises by computation 1290 acres of fertile land. The impropriate tithes have been commuted for £84, and the vicarial for £10. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans.
COWTON, SOUTH, a township and chapelry, in the parish of Gilling, union of Northallerton, wapentake of Gilling-East, N. riding of York, 5¼ miles (N. E. by E.) from Catterick; containing 425 inhabitants, of which 152 are in the township. On "Cuton Moor," situated between this place and East Cowton, was fought the famous battle of the Standard, in which the English defeated the Scots, with the loss of 10,000 men: the spot is still called Standard Hill. The township comprises 2118a. 2r. 18p., of rather poor but wellcultivated land, and is intersected by the road from Richmond to Darlington, near which is the hamlet; the York and Newcastle railway passes on the east at a distance of about two miles. There is a beautiful view from Astley hill of the Hambleton range, extending all the way to the sea. Pepper Hall, the seat of the Hon. Richard Pepper Arden, is a handsome mansion with extensive pleasure-grounds. The living is a perpetual curacy in the patronage of the Vicar of Gilling, with a net income of £39; impropriator, John Webb, Esq. The chapel is dedicated to St. Mary.
Coxall, with Buckton
COXALL, with Buckton, a township, in the parish of Bucknell, union of Knighton, hundred of Wigmore, county of Hereford, 3¾ miles (E. by N.) from Knighton; containing 116 inhabitants. It is situated on the borders of Shropshire, and comprises 1236 acres, of a moderately productive soil. Here are traces of an ancient circular camp.
COXFORD, a hamlet, in the parish of East Rudham, union of Docking, hundred of Gallow, W. division of Norfolk, 5¼ miles (W.) from Fakenham. William Chene founded a priory at Rudham in the reign of Stephen, which was subsequently removed to this place. Among other grants, the prior obtained license, in the 11th of Henry III., to hold a fair on the festival of the Translation of St. Thomas the Martyr; and in the 3rd and 15th of Edward I. a free market on Monday, and a fair on the eve and day of St. Matthew the Apostle, were bestowed. The boundary wall of the priory inclosed about 30 acres; and an arch and some other portions are still standing. The annual revenue, in 1428, amounted to £222. 12. 8.; but at the Dissolution it was only estimated at £153. 7. 1.
COXHOE, a township, in the parish of Kelloe, S. division of Easington ward, union, and N. division of the county, of Durham, 5½ miles (S. E. by S.) from Durham, on the road to Stockton-on-Tees; containing 3904 inhabitants. The soil of the township is generally a strong clay. The village has lately increased considerably in consequence of the enlarged working of its collieries, of which the five following are in operation, viz., the Clarence-Hetton, the West Hetton, the Crowtrees, the Bowburn, and Coxhoe: the coal is shipped at Stockton, to which port it is conveyed by the Clarence railway. There are two limestone-quarries, and a good seam of clay used in the manufacture of brown earthenware; a small foundry, also, employs some hands. A church has been erected; and there are places of worship for Wesleyans and Primitive Methodists.
COXLEY, a tything, in the parish of St. Cuthbert, city and union of Wells, hundred of WellsForum, E. division of Somerset; containing 272 inhabitants. Here is an incumbency, in the gift of the Vicar of Wells.