A Topographical Dictionary of England. Originally published by S Lewis, London, 1848.
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COXLODGE, a township, in the parish of Gosforth, union and W. division of Castle ward, S. division of Northumberland, 2 miles (N.) from Newcastle; containing 924 inhabitants. The township comprises 800a. 1r. 14p., of which 691 acres are arable, 106 meadow and pasture, and 2½ wood. The surface is rather level, but rising gradually from the south towards the north; the soil is a strong clay, and, though much of it requires good draining to render it more productive, grows fair crops of wheat. The views embrace in the distance the Simonside and Cheviot hills. From the openness of the country to the west and north, and the extent of town moor on the south, the air is very salubrious, and is considered the best in the neighbourhood of Newcastle. An excellent seam of coal has been in work here for fifty years past; a railway conveys the coal to the river Tyne, and the great north road passes on the east of the township. The Newcastle races are run on the adjoining moor, which, with the Leazes, contains 1600 acres. There is a windmill-pump in the township, for raising water to supply a reservoir on the moor, near Newcastle. The tithes have been commuted for £85. 9. 9. payable to the Bishop of Carlisle, a similar sum to the Dean and Chapter, and £17. 3. 2. to the vicar of Newcastle.
Coxwell, Great (St. Giles)
COXWELL, GREAT (St. Giles) a parish, in the union and hundred of Farringdon, county of Berks, 2 miles (S. W.) from Farringdon; containing 351 inhabitants. This parish comprises by admeasurement 1426 acres. The surface has a gentle acclivity, and the soil varies greatly on the north and west sides of Bradbury Hill; it is chiefly a strong clay, in some parts poor and boggy, and on the south and east a rich loam. Limestone of a soft nature, in which numerous fossils are imbedded, is plentiful; and on the hill is a yellowish sandstone, hard enough for sharpening scythes. The village is pleasantly situated on the southern acclivity of the hill. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £7. 7. 11.; patron, the Bishop of Salisbury; impropriator, the Earl of Radnor. The vicarial tithes have been commuted for £198, and the impropriate for £21: there are 4 acres of vicarial glebe. The Rev. John Pynsent, in 1705, bequeathed land producing about £20 per annum, for apprenticing children; and there is a curious bequest from the Earl of Radnor, in 1771, charging his lands with an annuity of £45, to be applied to the apprenticing of children of Coleshill and this parish, so often as the vicar of Coleshill should be absent from the parish more than 60 days in any one year, and should accept any other preferment with the cure of souls. The remains of a religious house built here by the abbots of Beaulieu, to whom the manor was granted by King John in 1205, are now a farmhouse: the barn is 148 feet long, and 40 feet wide, the roof supported on two ranges of timber pillars resting upon stone pedestals; the walls are 4 feet thick, and of excellent masonry. On Badbury Hill is a circular encampment, supposed to be Danish.
COXWELL, LITTLE, a chapelry, in the parish, union, and hundred of Farringdon, county of Berks, 1½ mile (S.) from Farringdon; containing 315 inhabitants, and comprising 842a. 3r. 13p. The chapel is dedicated to St. Mary. The tithes were commuted for land and a money payment in 1801. The remains of a camp, apparently in the form of a square, are visible here, the double ditch on the western side being nearly entire; and in an inclosed field of about fourteen acres are 273 pits, called Cole's Pits, excavated in the sand, and varying in depth, supposed to have been habitations or hiding-places of the ancient Britons.
Coxwold (St. Michael)
COXWOLD (St. Michael), a parish, partly in the union of Easingwould, and partly in that of Helmsley, wapentake of Birdforth, N. riding of York; containing 1076 inhabitants, of whom 325 are in the township of Coxwold, 6 miles (N.) from Easingwould. The parish comprises the townships of Angram-Grange, Birdforth, Byland cum Membris, Coxwold, Newbrough, Oulston, Thornton cum Baxby, Wildon-Grange, and Yearsley, and consists of 12,025a. 2p. of fertile land, whereof about 3005 acres are arable, 7919 grass land, and 1099 wood, water, common, &c.; the township of Coxwold contains 1369a. 1r. 21p. The village is pleasantly situated on an eminence, amidst beautiful scenery of hill and dale, and woodland, and about 6 miles to the east of the York and Newcastle railway: there is a large cattle and sheep fair on the 25th of August, and races are held on the Monday after Michaelmas-day. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £351; patrons and impropriators, the Master and Fellows of Trinity College, Cambridge, whose tithes in Coxwold township have been commuted for £353. The church is a small ancient structure, with an octagonal tower, and is said to have been erected so early as 700; the chancel was rebuilt in 1777, by the Earl of Fauconberg: there is some stained glass in the windows, and the building contains many handsome monuments of the Belasyse family. A chapel of ease was built at Yearsley, in 1839; and there is a separate incumbency at Birdforth. A free grammar school was founded in 1603, by Sir John Harte, alderman of London, who endowed it with £36. 13. 4. per annum; and an hospital for ten poor men was founded in 1696, by Thomas, Earl of Fauconberg, the endowment of which consists of a rent-charge of £59. There are several other charities. Sterne wrote his Tristram Shandy and some other works at Shandy Hall, in the village, where he resided about seven years.
Crab-Wall, with Blacon.—See Blacon.
CRACKENTHORPE, a township, in the parish of Bongate, or St. Michael, Appleby, East ward and union, county of Westmorland, 2½ miles (N. W.) from Appleby; containing 104 inhabitants. At a place called Chapel-hill are the ruins of a chapel dedicated to St. Giles. On the road from this place to Kirkby-Thore, and southward of the ancient Roman road, are traces of a quadrilateral camp; and further on is a small outwork, named Maiden-hold.
CRACOE, a township, in the parish of Burnsall, union of Skipton, E. division of the wapentake of Staincliffe and Ewcross, W. riding of York, 6 miles (N.) from Skipton; containing 153 inhabitants. It comprises 1876 acres of pasture and moorland, divided among various proprietors, of whom the Duke of Devonshire is lord of the manor; 523 acres are common or waste. Abundance of good limestone and freestone is obtained in the mountainous parts. The tithes have been commuted for £97. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans.
Cradley (St. James)
CRADLEY (St. James), a parish, in the union of Bromyard, hundred of Radlow, county of Hereford, 3½ miles (W. by N.) from Malvern; containing 1504 inhabitants. The parish is situated on the borders of Worcestershire, which bounds it on the north, east, and south; it is intersected by the road from Worcester to Hereford, and comprises by measurement 5966 acres, of which 1008 are woodland, about 140 hop-grounds, and 90 common or waste. A small stream, running from south to north, divides the district into two nearly equal portions, called East Cradley and West Cradley. At Ridgway Cross are quarries of old red sandstone, excellent for building; and there are also quarries of limestone and of Ludlow rock. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £18, and in the gift of the Bishop of Hereford: the tithes have been commuted for £1001, and the glebe comprises 110 acres, with an excellent glebe-house. The church is a plain edifice with a low tower. There is a place of worship for Lady Huntingdon's Connexion. A free school was founded in the reign of Charles II., and endowed with £20 per annum from the Vinesend estate, in the parish. Several interesting fossils are found among the strata, including asaphus caudatus, the orthoceratites, and the encrinites.
CRADLEY, a chapelry, in the parish of HalesOwen, union of Stourbridge, Lower division of the hundred of Halfshire, Stourbridge and E. divisions of the county of Worcester, 1 mile (N. W. by N.) from Hales-Owen; containing 2686 inhabitants. This place is situated on the river Stour, by which it is separated on the north and north-west from the county of Stafford; it consists of 781a. 1r. 20p. of well-cultivated land, and is intersected by the road between Stourbridge and Hales-Owen. The surface is hilly, and the vicinity abounds with diversified and highly picturesque scenery. The Cradley iron-works were established two centuries ago, and in 1839 works were erected for chain-cables, anchors, anvils, &c.: the manufacture of nails, traces, gun-barrels, and various other articles in iron, is carried on to a considerable extent. There are also mines of coal in the township, but of inferior quality. The Dudley canal passes at the distance of two miles. About a mile from the village is a remarkable salt-spring, and an attempt was made to introduce the manufacture of salt, but without success: the water was subsequently analyzed, and found to be strongly impregnated with sulphate of soda, magnesia, and other mineral substances; and warm and cold baths were erected on the spot, now called Cradley Spa, and, from the beauty of their situation, much frequented. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income £150; patrons and impropriators, certain Trustees. The chapel was erected about the year 1789, and is situated on the brow of a hill commanding an agreeable prospect; it is a neat brick building, and underwent a thorough repair in 1824-5. There are places of worship for Baptists, Wesleyans, and Unitarians. In a large wood, called Cradley Park, are vestiges of a moat which surrounded some ancient building.
Craike, or Crayke (St. Cuthbert)
CRAIKE, or Crayke (St. Cuthbert), a parish, in the union of Easingwould, W. division of the wapentake of Bulmer, N. riding of York, 3 miles (E. by N.) from Easingwould; containing 579 inhabitants. Egfrid, King of Northumbria, in 685 gave this place, with land extending three miles round it, to St. Cuthbert; and a monastery is mentioned by Simeon of Durham as existing here, at the time of the Danish invasion in 883, when the bones of St. Cuthbert were brought to Craike, villam vocabulo Crecam, for refuge. Etha, a hermit, who lived here at an earlier period, is noticed as a famous saint by the same authority. The parish comprises by measurement 2756 acres, about three-fifths of which are arable, and the remainder pasture, with the exception of 10 acres of plantation. Above the village, on an eminence, stand the ruins of Craike Castle, probably built by Bishop Pudsey in Stephen's reign, now converted into a farmhouse: the estate, which was in the hands of the bishops of Lindisfarne first, and of Durham after the removal of the see, from the time of St. Cuthbert to the prelacy of Bishop Van Mildert, was sold by the latter, by virtue of an act of parliament. The ruined castle is a picturesque object to the country around, and commands a view which is only bounded by the horizon of the plain of York, and extending to the Wolds of the East riding, and the hills of Craven on either side. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £10, and in the patronage of the Bishop of Ripon: the tithes have been commuted for £678, and the glebe comprises 52 acres, with a good residence. The church is a neat edifice of the fifteenth century, with a tower. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans.
CRAKEHALL, a township, in the parish and union of Bedale, wapentake of Hang-East, N. riding of York, 1¾ mile (N. W. by W.) from Bedale; containing, with Rands-Grange, 576 inhabitants. The village forms a spacious quadrangle, inclosing an extensive and pleasant green ornamented with stately trees; on which stands a district church, built by subscription in 1839, at the cost of £1000, of which sum £300 were contributed by the Church Building and Ripon Diocesan Societies. The living is in the gift of the Rector of Bedale: the district assigned includes Crakehall, Langthorne, and East Brompton. There are places of worship for Baptists and Wesleyans.
Crakehill, with Elmer.—See Elmer.
CRAKEMARSH, a township, in the parish and union of Uttoxeter, S. division of the hundred of Totmonslow, N. division of the county of Stafford, 2¼ miles (N. by E.) from Uttoxeter. This is a fertile township watered by the river Dove, and lying on the road from Uttoxeter to Rocester. Crakemarsh Hall, the seat of Sir Thomas Cotton Sheppard, Bart., is a delightfully situated mansion, near the Dove.
Crambe (St. Michael)
CRAMBE (St. Michael), a parish, in the union of Malton, wapentake of Bulmer, N. riding of York; containing, with the townships of Barton-le-Willows and Whitwell-on-the-Hill, 610 inhabitants, of whom 191 are in the township of Crambe, 1 mile (S. E.) from Whitwell. The parish is bounded by the river Derwent on the east, and situated one mile from the York and Scarborough turnpike-road. It comprises 4000 acres, of which the portions of arable, and of meadow and woodland, are nearly equal; the soil is generally rich, the surface undulated, and the scenery very pleasing. Stone is quarried for building purposes and for burning into lime. The river is crossed by a stone bridge of three arches. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £9. 1. 8.; patron and appropriator, the Archbishop of York. The great tithes of Crambe and Barton have been commuted for £343, and the small for £211; the vicar has a glebe of 39 acres. The church is an ancient structure with a tower, and containing a handsome font. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans.
CRAMLINGTON, a parochial chapelry, in the union of Tynemouth, E. division of Castle ward, S. division of Northumberland, 5 miles (N. W.) from Earsdon; containing 2657 inhabitants. It comprises by measurement 3357 acres, of which 2640 are arable, 600 pasture, and 110 woodland. The surface presents the appearance of a ridge, having a descent both to the north and south; the soil is strong, and for the most part wet, unless where drained, owing to a bed of blue clay, from 30 to 110 feet in depth, lying immediately beneath. The views are very extensive: to the south and west are seen the churches and buildings of Newcastle, and the valley of the Tyne; on the east the ports of SeatonSluice and Blyth, and the sea; and to the north the Simonside hills. The chapelry is intersected by the Newcastle and Bedlington road, and the great north road passes to the west, within one mile of the village, which is situated on a pleasant slope, and has gradually risen to its present improved state from the opening of the adjacent coal-mines. Excellent freestone, also, is in abundance. The living is a perpetual curacy, with a net income of £66, and in the gift of Sir M. W. Ridley, Bart.; the tithes have been commuted for £266. 13. payable to the Bishop of Carlisle, a similar sum to the Dean and Chapter, and £102 to Sir M. W. Ridley. The chapel is dedicated to St. Nicholas. There are places of worship for Primitive Methodists and Wesleyans. In the black shale, which usually forms the roof of each seam of coal in the mines, shells of the class unio are frequently met with; while palmæ, fernæ, and equisetæ are not uncommon: the water from the mines holds in solution carbonate of iron.
CRANAGE, a township, in the parish of Sandbach, union of Congleton, hundred of Northwich, S. division of the county of Chester, 3¾ miles (E. N. E.) from Middlewich; containing 512 inhabitants. The township comprises 1736 acres, of a light soil. In the reign of Henry VI. a bridge of stone was erected across the river Dane here, at the expense of Sir John Nedham, but a few years ago it gave place to the present structure, from a design by Mr. Harrison, of Chester. A beautiful viaduct of 23 arches, carries the Manchester and Birmingham railway over the valley of the Dane. The great tithes have been commuted for £44, and the vicarial for £111. Thomas Hall, Esq., erected two schools, one of which he endowed with £10, and the other with £4, per annum.
Cranborne (St. Bartholomew)
CRANBORNE (St. Bartholomew), a market-town and parish, in the union of Wimborne and Cranborne, chiefly in the hundred of Cranborne, but partly in that of Monckton-up-Wimborne, Wimborne division of Dorset, 30 miles (N. E. by E.) from Dorchester, and 92 (W. S. W.) from London; containing 2551 inhabitants, and comprising the tythings of Alderholt, Blagdon, Boveridge, Holwell, Monckton-up-Wimborne with Oakley, and Verwood. This place, which is of great antiquity, derives its name from the Saxon Gren, a crane, and Burn, a river; either from the tortuous windings of a stream, which, rising in the parish, falls into the Stour, or from the number of cranes that frequented its banks. In 980, Ailward de Meaw founded here a Benedictine monastery, dedicated to St. Bartholomew; but in 1102, the abbot retired with his brethren to Tewkesbury, where Robert Fitz-Hamon had founded a magnificent abbey, to which the original establishment became a cell. The old manor-house, being embattled, was called the Castle, and was the occasional residence of the king, when he came to hunt in Cranborne Chace, an extensive tract reaching almost to Salisbury: the chace courts were regularly held in it, and it contained a room, called the dungeon, for the confinement of offenders against the chace laws.
The town is pleasantly situated at the north-eastern extremity of the county, in the centre of a fine open expanse of champaign land; the houses are in general neat and well built, and the inhabitants are amply supplied with water. Ribbon-weaving formerly flourished here, but has declined, and the majority of the labouring class are now employed in agriculture. The market is on Thursday; and fairs are held on Aug. 24th and Dec. 6th, for cheese and sheep. The town is within the jurisdiction of the county magistrates, and is divided into the liberties of the tything, the priory, and the borough, for which a constable, tything-man, and bailiff, are appointed respectively. The parish is the largest in the county, and comprises 13,052a. 3p., whereof 5006 acres are arable, 2094 pasture, 1347 woodland, and 4604 common and heath; the soil is chiefly chalk, gravel, and clay, of which last a species found at Crendall is used for making earthenware.
The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £6. 13. 4.; net income, £151; patron and impropriator, the Marquess of Salisbury. The church, formerly the church of the priory, is an ancient structure, partly Norman, and partly in the early English style, with a large and handsome tower in the later style, and a highly enriched Norman arch at the northern entrance: the pulpit is of oak, richly carved, and supported on a pedestal of stone; there are some remains of stained glass in the large window of the south aisle, representing the Virgin Mary and the heads of some of the saints, and in the chancel are monuments to the Hooper and Stillingfleet families. The chapel of ease at Verwood was erected in 1829; that at Boveridge has been rebuilt. The first stone of a handsome chapel, connected with the Establishment, was laid in Sept. 1841, at Alderwood, in the parish: the building has been completed at the expense of the Marquess of Salisbury. An almshouse was founded and endowed in 1661, by Thomas Hooper, for three single persons, now increased to five. On Castle Hill, to the south of the town, is a circular fortification, consisting of two deep trenches and ramparts, and including an area of six acres, in which is a well; and in the environs are numerous barrows, some of which have been opened and found to contain urns with bones. The learned Bishop Stillingfleet was born here in 1635. Cranborne gives the title of Viscount to the Marquess of Salisbury.
Cranbrooke (St. Dunstan)
CRANBROOKE (St. Dunstan), a market-town and parish, and the head of a union, in the hundred of Cranbrooke, Lower division of the lathe of Scray, W. division of Kent, 7 miles (E.) from Lamberhurst, and 48 (S. E. by E.) from London; containing 3996 inhabitants. This place, anciently Cranebroke, derives its name from its situation on a brook called the Crane. When the manufacture of woollen-cloth was introduced into England by Edward III., it was principally carried on in the Weald of Kent; and Cranbrooke, situated in the centre of that district, became, and continued to be for centuries, a very flourishing town, and the chief seat of the clothing trade, by the removal of which into the counties of Gloucester and Somerset, within the last seventy years, its trading importance has been almost annihilated. The town consists chiefly of one wide street, extending three-quarters of a mile in length, from which a smaller street branches off at right angles; it is indifferently paved, but contains some well-built houses, is lighted with gas, and amply supplied with water. The trade is now principally in hops and corn, which are sold to a considerable extent; and there is a small manufactory for making hop-bagging, sacking, &c. The Staplehurst station of the South-Eastern railway is a few miles to the north. The market is on Wednesday, and there is also a cattle market on alternate Wednesdays. The market-house, a neat octagonal building, supported on double columns at the angles, and surmounted by a cupola, was erected by the late William Coleman, Esq., a great benefactor to the town. The fairs are on May 30th and Sept. 29th, for horses and cattle; the latter being also the great hop-fair.
The parish comprises 9862 acres, of which 2100 are in wood. The living is a vicarage, valued in the king's books at £19. 19. 4½.; patron, the Archbishop; appropriators, the Dean and Chapter of Canterbury. The great tithes have been commuted for £994, and the vicarial for £64. 16. 5.; the appropriate glebe consists of 52 acres, and there is one acre of vicarial glebe, with a house. The church is a spacious handsome structure, in the later English style, with a square embattled tower: in the year 1725, one of the columns giving way, a part of the church fell down; it was repaired at an expense of £2000. A church dedicated to the Trinity has been erected in the hamlet of Milkhouse-street, by subscription, aided by a grant from the commissioners, and endowed with more than £1000; it was consecrated in Sept. 1838, and the living is a perpetual curacy, in the patronage of Trustees. There are places of worship for Particular Baptists, Huntingtonians, Independents, Wesleyans, and Unitarians. The free grammar school was founded in 1574, by Simon Lynch, and endowed by Queen Elizabeth with land producing at present about £140 per annum, which has been augmented by benefactions to £300 per annum. The poor law union of Cranbrooke comprises 6 parishes, and contains a population of 13,163. In Milkhouse-street are the remains of an ancient chapel dedicated to the Holy Trinity. There are several mineral springs in the vicinity, similar to those of Tonbridge-Wells. Sir Richard Baker, author of the English Chronicles, was born in the parish, about the year 1568, at Sissinghurst Castle, which was used as a receptacle for French prisoners during the late war; and William Huntington, founder of the sect called Huntingtonians, who died in 1813, was born at a place in the parish named "The Four Wents."
Cranfield (St. Peter and St. Paul)
CRANFIELD (St. Peter and St. Paul), a parish, in the union of Ampthill, hundred of Redbornestoke, county of Bedford, 7 miles (W. N. W.) from Ampthill; containing 1371 inhabitants. It comprises by measurement 3933 acres, the soil of which is generally light, and in parts clayey: some persons are employed in the lace manufacture. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £33. 2. 1.; net income, £376; patrons, the family of Harter. The tithes were commuted for 692 acres of land, under an inclosure act, in 1837. The church is a handsome structure, in the early and decorated English styles. There are places of worship for Baptists and Wesleyans; and a school, endowed with £20, arising from land. A chalybeate spring rises in the parish.
Cranford (St. Dunstan)
CRANFORD (St. Dunstan), a parish, in the union of Staines, hundred of Elthorne, county of Middlesex, 2½ miles (N. W. by W.) from Hounslow; containing 370 inhabitants. The parish is situated on the river Colne, over which is a bridge at the village, which from that circumstance takes the name of CranfordBridge; it comprises by measurement 721 acres, whereof about 323 are arable. The Great Western railway passes about three-quarters of a mile to the north of the church. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £16, and in the patronage of the Earl Fitzhardinge: the tithes have been commuted for £250, and the glebe comprises 13 acres. The church was built previously to the time of Henry VIII., and contains portions of different styles.
Cranford (St. Andrew)
CRANFORD (St. Andrew), a parish, in the union of Kettering, hundred of Huxloe, N. division of the county of Northampton, 4¼ miles (E. by S.) from Kettering; containing 257 inhabitants. It is bounded on the south by Cranford St. John, and consists of 1089 acres. Lace-making is carried on by the females. Good limestone abounds. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £9. 9. 7.; net income, £150; patron and incumbent, Sir G. Robinson, Bart. This benefice was consolidated with that of Cranford St. John, by an order in council, of the 21st of Aug. 1841. The tithes have been commuted for land, under an inclosure act, and the glebe contains about 100 acres, with a glebehouse. The church has been repaired and beautified at the expense of the rector.
Cranford (St. John)
CRANFORD (St. John), a parish, in the union of Kettering, hundred of Huxloe, N. division of the county of Northampton, 4 miles (E. S. E.) from Kettering; containing 341 inhabitants. This parish is intersected by the road from Kettering to Thrapston, and the navigable river Nene runs within two miles of its eastern boundary: it comprises 1149 acres. Good limestone is abundant. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £12; net income, £198. The church has been thoroughly repaired and beautified at the expense of the rector.
Cranham (All Saints)
CRANHAM (All Saints), a parish, in the union of Romford, hundred of Chafford, S. division of Essex, 4 miles (S. E. by E.) from Romford; containing 280 inhabitants. This parish, which was formerly known by the names of Bishop's-Ockingdon and Cravenham, comprises 1875a. 22p., whereof upwards of 1000 acres are arable, 647 meadow and pasture, and 91 woodland. The surface rises towards the north; the soil is stiff and clayey in some parts, and in others of lighter quality. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £13. 13. 4., and in the patronage of St. John's College, Oxford: the tithes have been commuted for £560, and the glebe comprises 36 acres, with a glebe-house. The church is an ancient edifice, containing some monuments.
Cranham (St. James)
CRANHAM (St. James), a parish, in the union of Stroud, hundred of Rapsgate, E. division of the county of Gloucester, 2½ miles (N. E. by E.) from Painswick; containing 428 inhabitants. It comprises by measurement 1823 acres. A few persons are employed in the manufacture of earthenware; and there are quarries of stone of good quality for building, and also for paving. The road from Cheltenham to Bath passes on the north-west, and that from Cheltenham to Stroud on the south, of the parish. The living is a discharged rectory, consolidated with that of Brimpsfield, and valued in the king's books at £6. 6. 8. The church is a neat ancient structure. There is a place of worship for Baptists.