A Topographical Dictionary of England. Originally published by S Lewis, London, 1848.
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Cranley (St. Nicholas)
CRANLEY (St. Nicholas), a parish, in the union of Hambledon, Second division of the hundred of Blackheath, W. division of Surrey, 8 miles (S. W.) from Guildford, on the road to Brighton; containing 1357 inhabitants. The parish comprises 7494 acres, of which 4500 are arable, upwards of 500 meadow and pasture, and the remainder in about equal portions of woodland and waste: the village extends for more than a mile over the common. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £20. 18. 1½.; patron, F. Sapte, Esq.: the tithes have been commuted for £1582, and the glebe consists of above 200 acres. The church is a large and handsome edifice in the ancient English style, having a richly ornamented chapel, inclosed with curious and elegant lattice-work, at the termination of each aisle. There is a small meeting-house. At Vatchery are foundations, encompassed by a moat, of the baronial residence of the lords of Shere; and near them is a large reservoir of water, comprising about 70 acres, for supplying the Wey and Arun Junction canal, which passes through the parish. Cranley gives the title of Viscount to the Earl of Onslow.
Cranmore, East (St. James)
CRANMORE, EAST (St. James), a parish, in the union of Shepton-Mallet, hundred of Frome, E. division of Somerset, 4¼ miles (E.) from Shepton-Mallet; containing 66 inhabitants. The district which now comprises East and West Cranmore was exempted from all suit and service to the hundred courts, and raised into a liberty by Henry I. The living is annexed to the vicarage of Doulting; impropriator, J. M. Paget, Esq.; the vicarial tithes have been commuted for £71. 4. The church was taken down in April, 1845, and a new edifice consecrated in August, 1846; it is built of freestone, and is of graceful design. The inhabitants bury at West Cranmore.
Cranmore, West (St. Bartholomew)
CRANMORE, WEST (St. Bartholomew), a parish, in the union of Shepton-Mallet, hundred of Wellsforum, E. division of Somerset, 3½ miles (E.) from Shepton-Mallet; containing 319 inhabitants. It is situated on the road from Wells to Frome, and comprises 1867a. 11p.: there are quarries of good freestone. The living is annexed to the vicarage of Doulting; impropriator, R. C. Strode, Esq. The vicarial tithes have been commuted for £145, and the glebe comprises nearly 53 acres: a rent-charge of £1. 5. is paid to the impropriator. The church is a handsome structure in the later English style.
Cranoe (St. Michael)
CRANOE (St. Michael), a parish, in the union of Market-Harborough, hundred of Gartree, S. division of the county of Leicester, 6 miles (N. N. E.) from Harborough; containing 137 inhabitants. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £8. 16. 8.; net income, £181; patron, the Earl of Cardigan. The tithes were commuted for land and a money payment, in 1825. The church was rebuilt in 1847.
Cransford (St. Peter)
CRANSFORD (St. Peter), a parish, in the union and hundred of Plomesgate, E. division of Suffolk, 3 miles (E. N. E.) from Framlingham; containing 303 inhabitants, and comprising by computation 1000 acres. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £6. 13. 4.; and in the patronage of the Pooley family: the tithes have been commuted for £330, and the glebe consists of 44 acres.
Cransley (St. Andrew)
CRANSLEY (St. Andrew), a parish, in the union of Kettering, hundred of Orlingbury, N. division of the county of Northampton, 3 miles (W. S. W.) from Kettering; containing, with the hamlet of Little Cransley, 319 inhabitants, and consisting of 2046a. 1r. 24p. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £8. 5.; net income, £98; patron and impropriator, William S. Rose, Esq. The glebe contains about 40 acres, with a glebe-house. The church is a handsome structure, beautifully situated in the midst of rich wooodland scenery; the tower has crocketed pinnacles, and is surmounted with a spire: there are monuments and tablets to the Rose family, and also to the family of Sir J. Robinson, lords of the manor. A school was founded in 1824, by the Rev. G. Anderson, vicar, who erected an appropriate building, and endowed it with a rent-charge of £25.
Crantock (St. Cadock)
CRANTOCK (St. Cadock), a parish, in the union of St. Columb Major, hundred of Pyder, W. division of Cornwall, 1 mile (S. W.) from New Quay; containing 450 inhabitants. This parish comprises by measurement 2465 acres, of which 150 are common or waste, and is bounded on the north by the Bristol Channel. It has a small harbour at the mouth of the river Gannel, which runs through the parish, where a number of vessels discharge their cargoes of coal; and sand, coal, slates, and various articles of merchandize, are carried in barges about three miles up the river. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £78; patron and impropriator, Sir J. B. Y. Buller, Bart.: the tithes have been commuted for £380, and the glebe consists of 33 acres. The church is very ancient, and has a chancel unusually large in proportion to the nave; the arches, and the principal parts of the tower, are built of sandstone: the font bears the date of 1474. In the time of Edward the Confessor, the church was made collegiate for secular canons, who continued till the Dissolution, when the revenue of £89. 15. 8. was divided amongst the dean, nine prebendaries, and four vicars-choral. In the churchyard, which covers an area of three acres, is a stone coffin: whenever the ground in the vicinity is dug up for foundations, or any excavation made, human skeletons are found. There are two places of worship for Wesleyans.
Cranwell (St. Andrew)
CRANWELL (St. Andrew), a parish, in the union of Sleaford, hundred of Flaxwell, parts of Kesteven, county of Lincoln, 4 miles (N. W.) from Sleaford; containing 230 inhabitants. It is situated about half a mile west of the great north road, and comprises by computation 2506a. 3r. 30p., nearly all arable. The wide extent of flat ground to the west and north, formerly covered with heath, and the open level of rich land to the east, before sprinkled with fen, are now well cultivated. The surface in some parts towards the south is undulated, and the soil in general throughout the parish is a stiff clay. There are several quarries of stone of the oolite formation, with which most of the houses in the neighbourhood are built. The living is a discharged vicarage; net income, £199; patron, the Bishop of Lincoln; impropriator, Sir J. E. Thorold, Bart. The glebe, which is chiefly in the parish of North Ranceby, contains about 230 acres. The church is a small structure, with heavy Norman pillars and arches.
Cranwich (St. Mary)
CRANWICH (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Thetford, hundred of Grimshoe, W. division of Norfolk, 6 miles (N.) from Brandon; containing 108 inhabitants. It comprises 1800 acres, of which 1000 are arable, 400 meadow and pasture, 100 woodland, and 200 heath. The living is a discharged rectory, with the vicarage of Methwold annexed, valued in the king's books at £8. 9. 7.; net income, £450; patron, Lord Berners. The tithes have been commuted for £180, and there is a glebe-house, with 19½ acres of land. The original church was a very ancient structure, supposed to have been erected by Harold, one of whose freemen held a moiety of this place in the time of Edward the Confessor; the present structure is chiefly in the early English style, with a circular tower, and contains, in the chancel, a piscina, and some monuments to the Partridge family.
Cranworth (St. Mary)
CRANWORTH (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Mitford and Launditch, hundred of Mitford, W. division of Norfolk, 2 miles (S. S. E.) from Shipdham; containing 340 inhabitants. The parish is bounded on the south by a tributary to the river Yare, and comprises 1127 acres, of which 809 are arable, 279 pasture, and 5 woodland. The living is a rectory, with that of Letton consolidated, valued in the king's books at £5. 18. 6½., and in the gift of T. T. Gurdon, Esq.: the tithes have been commuted for £214. 8., and the glebe comprises 28 acres, with a handsome rectory-house. The church is in the early and later English styles, with a tower surmounted by a neat spire; there are several monuments to the Gurdon family. About 11 acres of land are let to the poor by the rector, in small allotments.
CRASSWALL, a chapelry, in the parish of Clodock, union of Dore, hundred of Ewyaslacy, county of Hereford, 5 miles (S. E.) from Hay; containing 374 inhabitants. This chapelry comprises by measurement 5116 acres, of which 4007 are inclosed land, consisting of good arable and pasture, with a small portion of wood, and the remaining parts are mountain and common, affording pasturage for sheep and cattle. It is situated on the borders of Brecknockshire, among the Black mountains, and near the source of the Munnow river. There is a quarry of fine stone in the neighbourhood. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £47; patron, the Vicar of Clodock. The chapel is dedicated to St. Mary. About the close of the reign of King John, a monastery was founded here, probably by Walton de Lacy, for a prior and ten religious of the order of Grandmont, in Normandy: it was valued at 40s. per annum, and granted, in the 2nd of Edward IV., to God's House, now Christ's College, Cambridge.
CRASTER, a township, in the parish of Embleton, union of Alnwick, S. division of Bambrough ward, N. division of Northumberland, 6¼ miles (N. E.) from Alnwick; containing 247 inhabitants. In 1272 the manor was held by William de Craucestr', by the service of half a knight's fee, and it has continued in his family to the present time; his descendants in the 14th century altered their name to Craster. Craster Tower, the seat of Thomas Wood Craster, Esq., is surrounded with plantations, and commands fine land and sea views. The village, which is called Craster Sea-Houses, is situated on the coast.
Cratfield (St. Mary)
CRATFIELD (St. Mary), a parish, in the union and hundred of Blything, E. division of Suffolk, 7 miles (W. S. W.) from Halesworth; containing 720 inhabitants, and comprising 2085 acres, of which 103 are common or waste. The living is a discharged vicarage, with that of Laxfield annexed, valued in the king's books at £5. 7. 11., and in the gift of the Rev. E. Hollond: the impropriate tithes, belonging to the Hudson family, have been commuted for £403, and the vicarial for £115; there is a glebe-house, with about 6 acres of land. The church, which is chiefly in the later English style, consists of a nave, chancel, and aisles, with an embattled tower; the font has some curious sculptures, representing scriptural subjects. There is a place of worship for Independents. A national school was endowed with £9. 6. 8. per annum, under the will of Mrs. Mary Leman, dated 1805; and there are town lands, which let for about £200 per annum, applied to the repairs of the church, and to general purposes.
Crathorne (All Saints)
CRATHORNE (All Saints), a parish, in the union of Stokesley, W. division of the liberty of Langbaurgh, N. riding of the county of York, 4 miles (S. S. E.) from Yarm; containing 304 inhabitants. This place, which is in the district called Cleveland, and situated on the western side of the vale of the river Leven, anciently belonged to the Crathorne family, who were settled here for many generations, and of whom Sir William Crathorne, Knt., died in the early part of the 14th century. The parish comprises about 2450 acres, of which 1722 are arable and in good cultivation, 500 meadow and pasture, and 200 woodland and plantations. The surface is generally level, the scenery enriched with wood, and in many situations very pleasing; the soil near the village, and on the banks of the Leven, which here abounds in trout, is a gravelly loam, but in most other parts a poor clay. Good white freestone, used for building purposes, is obtained from the bed of the river. The village is situated on the road to Thirsk: many of the inhabitants were formerly employed in the linen manufacture, which was carried on to a considerable extent, and there was also a spacious bleach-ground in the parish. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £10. 11. 10½., and in the patronage of Mrs. Tasburgh, with a net income of £205. The church is a small ancient structure, in the chancel of which is the recumbent effigy of a knight, supposed to be Sir William Crathorne. There is a Roman Catholic chapel, originally founded by the Crathorne family, and rebuilt about 1825. Near the village is a chalybeate spring.
CRAWCROOK, a township, in the parish of Ryton, union of Gateshead, W. division of Chester ward, N. division of the county of Durham, 7 miles (W.) from Newcastle-on-Tyne; containing 290 inhabitants. The township is intersected by the railway from Newcastle to Carlisle, and bounded on the north by the river Tyne, from which the land gradually rises, commanding pleasing views, and being for the most part undulated; the soil is of good quality, producing turnips and excellent barley, for which latter the district is celebrated. Crawcrook townfields, consisting of 700 acres, were divided by act of parliament in 1794. The tithes have been commuted for £236. The Wesleyans and Presbyterians have places of worship here; and there are schools for boys and girls, the master of which has £30, and the mistress £20 per annum, each with a house and garden, Mr. Simpson having left the interest of £1000 to the institution.
Crawford, Tarrant (St. Mary)
CRAWFORD, TARRANT (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Blandford, hundred of Badbury, Wimborne division of Dorset, 4 miles (S. E. by E.) from Blandford; containing, with the tything of Preston, 67 inhabitants, and comprising about 1000 acres. The living is a donative; net income, £50; patron and impropriator, J. S. W. S. E. Drax, Esq. Richard Poor, successively Bishop of Chichester, Salisbury, and Durham, founded an abbey of Cistercian nuns, in honour of the blessed Virgin and All Saints, about 1230; at the Dissolution its revenue was estimated at £239. 11. 10.
CRAWLEY, a township, in the parish of Eglingham, union of Alnwick, N. division of Coquetdale ward and of Northumberland, 9¼ miles (W. N. W.) from Alnwick; containing 20 inhabitants. It was anciently called Crawlawe, from Caer-law, a fortified hill. Crawley Tower, a Roman structure, stands on an eminence near an old and strong intrenchment, which is thought to be the Alauna Amnis of Richard of Cirencester, though some place this station at Alnwick, and others at Glanton: it commands a fine view of the vale of Whittingham, with the river Breamish from its source to Horton Castle; and there are the remains of not less than seven British and Saxon fortifications within four miles round the spot. The impropriate tithes have been commuted for £6. 10., and the vicarial for 6s. 6d.
CRAWLEY, a hamlet, in the parish and union of Witney, hundred of Bampton, county of Oxford, 1¾ mile (N. W. by N.) from Witney; containing 252 inhabitants, a few of whom are employed in the manufacture of blankets. It comprises 1116 acres, of which 504 are arable, 75 pasture, 410 woodland, and the remainder waste. The tithes have been commuted for £205.
Crawley (St. Mary)
CRAWLEY (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Winchester, hundred of Buddlesgate, Winchester and N. divisions of the county of Southampton, 4 miles (E.) from Stockbridge; containing 483 inhabitants, of whom 372 are in that portion of the parish exclusively of the chapelry of Hunton. It comprises about 3490 acres, of which 2803 are arable, 420 meadow and down, and 257 wood. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £35. 13. 4., and in the gift of the Bishop of Winchester: the tithes have been commuted for £657. 10., and the glebe comprises 10 acres. The church has been repaired at an expense of £270, towards which the Bishop contributed £50, the rector £200, and the parishioners £20.
Crawley (St. John the Baptist)
CRAWLEY (St. John the Baptist), a parish, in the union of East Grinstead, hundred of Buttinghill, rape of Lewes, E. division of Sussex, 9½ miles (N. by W.) from Cuckfield; containing 449 inhabitants. The parish comprises 769a. 2r., of which 185 acres are arable, 119 pasture, 129 plantation, and 318 waste. Crawley is a post-town, consisting of one wide street, in which stands a remarkably fine old elm-tree of immense girth: the houses on the west side of the village are in the parish of Ifield. The London and Brighton road passes through; and not far distant is the ThreeBridges station of the London and Brighton railway, where the Horsham line branches off. Fairs for hornedcattle are held on May 8th and September 29th. The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at £6. 15., and in the gift of the family of Clitherow: the tithes have been commuted for £86. 14., and the glebe contains nearly 29 acres, and a glebe-house. The church is partly in the decorated and partly in the later English style; a gallery was erected in 1827.
Crawley, Husborn, county of Bedford.—See Husborn-Crawley.
Crawley, North (St. Firmin)
CRAWLEY, NORTH (St. Firmin), a parish, in the union of Newport-Pagnell, hundred of Newport, county of Buckingham, 3½ miles (E. by N.) from Newport-Pagnell; containing 865 inhabitants. The manor is the property of the Lowndes family, to whom it was conveyed about the year 1710, and the advowson in 1723. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £27. 10., and in the patronage of William Selby Lowndes, Esq.: the tithes were commuted for land in 1780. The church has been enlarged by the addition of 106 free sittings. A monastery dedicated to St. Firmin is mentioned in Domesday book as having been founded here before the time of Edward the Confessor, and was in existence after the Conquest.
Crawshaw-Booth.—See Higher Booths.
Cray (St. Mary)
CRAY (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Bromley, hundred of Ruxley, lathe of Sutton-at-Hone, W. division of Kent, 2 miles (S. by W.) from Foot'sCray; containing 997 inhabitants. The district of the Crays, so called from the river Cray, which runs through it, is reckoned one of the most beautiful tracts in Kent, and produces a vast quantity of birch: it comprehends four parishes, distinguished by their prefixes. St. Mary's had the privilege of a market in the reign of Edward I.; but the market-house having been destroyed by a tempest in 1703, the market has not since been held. The parish consists of 2010 acres, whereof 532 are in wood. The living is annexed to the vicarage of Orpington: the church contains several ancient brasses and some memorials of the Mannings.
Cray, Foot's (All Saints)
CRAY, FOOT'S (All Saints), a parish, in the union of Bromley, hundred of Ruxley, lathe of Sutton-atHone, W. division of Kent, 12½ miles (S. E.) from London; containing 358 inhabitants. This place probably derived its prefix from Fot or Vot, its proprietor in the time of Edward the Confessor, and has its name from the river Cray, which runs by the eastern end of the village, turns an extensive paper-mill, and then directs its course towards North Cray. The parish comprises by measurement 798 acres, of which about 380 are arable, 300 meadow and pasture, and 66 woodland. The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at £8. 3. 4., and in the patronage of the Crown: the tithes have been commuted for £264, and the glebe comprises 2 acres, with a glebe-house. The church is a small plain building, supposed to be of high antiquity. At Sidcup is a separate incumbency.
Cray, North (St. James)
CRAY, NORTH (St. James), a parish, in the union of Bromley, hundred of Ruxley, lathe of Sutton-atHone, W. division of Kent, 1 mile (N. by E.) from Foot's-Cray; containing 517 inhabitants. The parish is situated on the road from London to Maidstone, and comprises 1444 acres, of which 339 are woodland; it is pleasingly diversified with villas and well cultivated domains, of which North Cray Place and Mount Mascall are the principal. In 1723, a subterraneous fire broke out, and the inhabitants for several days employed themselves with waggons in conveying water from Bexley, to quench the flames. A small fair is held on the 29th May. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £13. 9. 9½., and in the gift of Lord Bexley; the tithes have been commuted for a rent-charge of £392, and the glebe comprises 48 acres, with a glebe house. The church, a small building, is said to have been the chapel of a monastery which stood on the site of the present North Cray Place.
Cray, St. Paul's (St. Paulinus)
CRAY, ST. PAUL'S (St. Paulinus), a parish, in the union of Bromley, hundred of Ruxley, lathe of Sutton-at-hone, W. division of Kent, 1 mile (S.) from Foot's-Cray; containing 564 inhabitants. It is situated on the small stream of the Cray, which here turns a paper-mill employing about 30 men and 40 women. The parish comprises 1651 acres, of which 191 are woodland. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £12. 13. 4., and in the gift of Viscount Sidney: the tithes have been commuted for £486, and the glebe contains upwards of 12 acres, wlth a glebe-house. The church has some interesting specimens of architecture; it is supposed to have been built about the middle of the 13th century, and its vestry, part of the walls of which are of Roman brick, to have been originally a chapel. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans. In a wood near Paul's-Cray Common is a strong chalybeate spring, formerly of some repute in the neighbourhood, but now almost entirely disused; its waters resemble those of Tonbridge-Wells. Lord Wynford resides at the seat called Leesons, in the parish, which is delightfully situated on the border of the common, commanding extensive views over the country towards Essex.
Crayford (St. Paulinus)
CRAYFORD (St. Paulinus), a parish, and formerly a market-town, in the union of Dartford, hundred of Lessness, lathe of Sutton-at-Hone, W. division of Kent, 13 miles (E. by S.) from London; containing, with the hamlets of Northend and Slade-Green, 2408 inhabitants. This place is so called from Creccanford, an ancient ford on the river Creccan, now Cray. In the immediate vicinity some antiquaries have placed the Roman station Noviomagus, near which a great battle was fought in 457, between Hengist the Saxon and the British king Vortimer, which ended in the secure establishment of the kingdom of Kent under the rule of the former. The parish comprises by measurement 2458 acres, of which 136 are in woodland: the surface is varied with hill and dale; the soil in general is gravel, resting in some parts on strata of loam, beneath which is chalk. The river Cray flows through the parish in two separate branches, and the meadows in its vicinity are occasionally subject to inundation: upon its banks are several extensive establishments for printing calico, silk, and chalis; and a very large flour-mill. The village consists of an irregularly formed street, branching off from the London and Dartford road. One of the archbishops of Canterbury, who formerly had possessions here, procured a weekly market on Tuesday, and a fair on Our Lady's Nativity; the market has long been disused, but a fair is still held on the 8th of September. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £35. 13. 4., and in the gift of Thomas Austin, Esq.: the tithes have been commuted for £850, and the glebe comprises nearly 57 acres, with a house. The church, which stands on an eminence at the upper end of the village, is a plain structure, adorned with an elegant altar-piece. There is a place of worship for Particular Baptists. In the parish are many ancient caves, some of which are from fifteen to twenty fathoms deep, increasing in circumference from the mouth downwards, and containing several large apartments, supported by pillars of chalk: it is conjectured that they were used as places of security for the families and moveable goods of the Saxons, during their wars with the Britons. The manor-house, which was built by Sir Cloudesley Shovel, is now tenanted by a farmer.