A Topographical Dictionary of England. Originally published by S Lewis, London, 1848.
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RUTCHESTER, a township, in the parish of Ovingham, union of Castle ward, E. division of Tindale ward, S. division of Northumberland, 8½ miles (W. by N.) from Newcastle; containing 51 inhabitants. This was the site of the Roman station Vindobala, which was garrisoned by the Cohors Prima Frixagorum. A broken statue of Hercules, some coins of the Lower Empire, silver fibulæ, and numerous other relics, have been found; and in 1766, an urn full of gold and silver coins, among which was an almost complete series of those of the Higher Empire, was discovered at Castlestead, in the neighbourhood. Adrian's wall passed from the east and west ramparts of the station, which, towards the enemy's frontier, were defended by strong towers. In the reign of Edward I., Rutchester tower was occupied by a family of the same name. The township comprises 644 acres of land.
Ruthall, with Ashfield.—See Ashfield.
RUTLANDSHIRE, an inland county, bounded on the north-west and south-west by Leicestershire, on the south and south-east by Northamptonshire, and on the east and north-east by Lincolnshire. It extends from 51° 31' 28" to 51° 45' 34" (N. Lat.), and from 25' to 48' (W. Lon.) Rutland is the smallest county in England, containing, according to Parkinson's Survey, drawn up for the consideration of the board of agriculture, only 91,020a. 29p., or about 142 square miles. Within its limits are 4294 houses inhabited, 121 uninhabited, and 31 in course of erection; and the population amounts to 21,302, of which number 10,721 are males.
This district, at the period of the Roman invasion, formed part of the territory of the Coritani, and, under the Roman dominion, was included in the division called Flavia Cæsariensis: on the complete establishment of the Saxon heptarchy, it was comprised in the kingdom of Mercia. For the name, in Saxon written Roteland, no probable derivation has been assigned. In Domesday book, Rutland is spoken of as comprising the two wapentakes of Alstoe and Martinsley, which, according to the same record, belonged to the sheriffdom of Nottingham, so far as the king's tax was concerned; the rest of the present county was at that period included in Northamptonshire. Rutland is first mentioned as a distinct county in the 5th of King John, at the coronation of whose queen, Isabel, it was, amongst other lands, assigned in parliament for her dower. The shire lies within the diocese of Peterborough, and in the province of Canterbury; it forms a deanery, in the archdeaconry of Northampton, and contains fifty parishes. For civil purposes it is divided into the four hundreds of Alstoe, East, Martinsley, and Wrandike, and the soke of Oakham: it contains the market-towns of Oakham and Uppingham. Two knights are returned to parliament for the shire. It is included in the Midland circuit; and the assizes and quarter-sessions are held at Oakham, where is the county gaol.
The appearance of the county is interesting, more especially where it has abundance of timber, being diversified by gently rising hills running in the direction of east and west, between which are valleys about half a mile in width. The soils are mostly fertile, but in their nature vary greatly, and sometimes abruptly; the subsoil of the major part is a very strong blue clay. The thin stapled soils are well adapted for the production of turnips, barley, wheat, clover, and all other green crops, though they make but poor meadow land; abundant crops of grass are produced upon the red keal. Upwards of 42,500 acres are under tillage, and the crops commonly grown are wheat, barley, oats, peas, beans, turnips, cabbages, tares, and lentils; the quantity of grass-land rather exceeds that under tillage, being 45,000 acres. Much of what is called Stilton cheese is made in the district of Leafield or Lyfield Forest, and in the Vale of Catmose. There are nearly 3000 acres of native wood and of plantations, but containing very little oak timber. The woodlands were formerly much more extensive, the forest of Leafield having once occupied the greater part of the soke of Oakham; and Beaumont Chase, forming a portion of the same forest, having extended over much of Martinsley hundred. Several townships in the vicinity of the forest, as well as those within its limits, still claim certain forest rights; and the whole tract is now a particularly rich and beautiful scene of woodland and high cultivation. Limestone of two kinds, soft and hard, is obtained in many parts of the county; and at Ketton, an excellent stone for building is procured. The river Welland forms the south-eastern boundary of Rutland, separating it from Northamptonshire; and the small river Eye, which rises in the county of Leicester, and takes a south-eastern course to the Welland, is its south-western boundary for some miles in the latter part of its course. The two principal streams that run through the county are the Guash or Wash, and the Chater, both which have their sources beyond its western border, in Leicestershire, and take an eastern course to the Welland. The Melton-Mowbray canal, from the river Soar to Melton-Mowbray, was extended to Oakham, in the centre of the county, by virtue of an act of parliament obtained in the year 1793. The Syston and Peterborough railway enters the county at its northwestern extremity, and proceeding southward, passes by the town of Oakham; then makes a great curve; and quits Rutland on its east side, near Stamford in Lincolnshire.
At Great Casterton was a Roman station, but antiquaries disagree concerning its name. The castle, church, county-hall, and hospital of Oakham, present some interesting relics of antiquity. There were four or five religious houses and hospitals in the county. Among the seats of the nobility and gentry, Burley, that of the Earl of Winchilsea and Nottingham, is the most distinguished. Chalybeate springs are to be met with in almost every part; the strongest of them, which has long been noted, and some years since was much resorted to, is situated between Teign and Market-Overton. Numerous marine exuviæ are found in the limestone. Rutland gives the titles of Duke and Earl to the family of Manners.
Ruyton-in-the-Eleven-Towns (St. John the Baptist)
RUYTON-in-the-Eleven-Towns (St. John the Baptist), a parish, in the hundred of Oswestry, N. division of Salop, 8 miles (N. W.) from Shrewsbury; containing 1083 inhabitants. The parish comprises by survey 4500 acres, of which 1616 are in the township of Ruyton; of these latter, 43 are common or waste. Copper-ore is found, and mines have been opened at Eardiston, in the parish; there are also quarries of good building-stone. The village is spacious and well built, and had anciently a charter for a market and fair, granted by Edmund, Earl of Arundel, in the 17th year of the reign of Richard II., and dated at the castle of Ruyton, which was included in the marches of Wales. A fair for sheep is held on the 5th of July. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £5. 18., and in the patronage of the Crown; impropriators, R. Hunt, Esq., and others; net income, £304. The great tithes of Ruyton township have been commuted for £105, and the small for £94; the glebe comprises 40 acres. The church is a handsome structure in the early English style, with a square embattled tower. There is a place of worship for Independents.
RYALL, a chapelry, in the parish of Stamfordham, union of Castle ward, N. E. division of Tindale ward, S. division of Northumberland, 9½ miles (N. E.) from Hexham; containing 87 inhabitants. This was the lordship of John, Lord Beaumont, who died seised of Ryall about the year 1396, leaving it, with many other estates in this county and elsewhere, to his son and heir, Henry, then sixteen years of age, who was knighted at the coronation of Henry IV. The chapelry comprises about 2236 acres, and contains extensive grazing pastures. The village, which is small and indifferently built, is 4½ miles west-by-north of Stamfordham. The chapel is an old edifice which has undergone many repairs.
Ryarsh (St. Martin)
RYARSH (St. Martin), a parish, in the union of Malling, hundred of Larkfield, Upper S. division of the lathe of Aylesford, W. division of Kent, 6¾ miles (N. W. by W.) from Maidstone; containing 431 inhabitants. It comprises 1551 acres, of which 176 are in wood. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £8. 10.; present net income, £294 per annum; patron and impropriator, the Hon. J. W. Stratford.
Ryburgh, Great (St. Andrew)
RYBURGH, GREAT (St. Andrew), a parish, in the union of Walsingham, hundred of Gallow, W. division of Norfolk, 4 miles (S. E. by E.) from Fakenham; containing 521 inhabitants. It comprises 1712a. 2r. 24p., of which 1170 acres are arable, 401 meadow and pasture, and 142 woodland. The living is a discharged rectory, with the living of Little Ryburgh united, valued in the king's books at £14. 16. 10½.; net income, £569; patron, E. Wodehouse, Esq., whose handsome seat here, Sennow Lodge, is situated on an eminence overlooking the river Wensum. The tithes were commuted for 270 acres of land in 1808. The church is a cruciform edifice, with a tower circular in the lower part and octagonal above, and contains an altar-tomb to Sir Roger Bacon and his lady; the east window is enriched with stained glass. The Wesleyan Methodists have a place of worship.
Ryburgh, Little (All Saints)
RYBURGH, LITTLE (All Saints), a parish, in the union of Walsingham, hundred of Gallow, W. division of Norfolk, 3¾ miles (E. S. E.) from Fakenham; containing 176 inhabitants. It is bounded on the west by the river Wensum, and comprises 872a. 2r. 7p., of which 709 acres are arable, 138 meadow and pasture, and 24 woodland. The living is a discharged vicarage, united to the living of Great Ryburgh, and valued in the king's books at £7. 13. 4.: the tithes of the parish were commuted for 66 acres of land in 1808. The church is in ruins.
RYCOTE, a chapelry, in the parish of Great Haseley, union of Thame, hundred of Ewelme, county of Oxford, 2½ miles (W. by S.) from the town of Thame; containing 28 inhabitants. The chapel is dedicated to St. Michael and All Angels.
Rydal, with Loughrigg
RYDAL, with Loughrigg, a township, in the parish of Grasmere, union and ward of Kendal, county of Westmorland, 1½ mile (N. W.) from Ambleside; containing 343 inhabitants. The township comprises 5201 acres, of which 2500 are common or waste. Rydal Water, which winds through the valley for nearly a mile, is surrounded by romantic scenery of wood and mountain, and the lake which it forms here is remarkable for the beauty of its small circular islands. Loughrigg lies between the rivers Braythay and Rothay, from which it rises boldly into a lofty fell. Rydal Hall, the seat of the Le Flemings, was plundered in the great civil war by Sir Wilfrid Lawson, one of Cromwell's partisans; it is a handsome structure, and the grounds embrace much fine scenery. The living of Rydal is a perpetual curacy, with a net income of £100, in the patronage of Lady Le Fleming, who, at the expense of £1500, erected the chapel, a small edifice with an octagonal spire, consecrated in 1825, and dedicated to the Virgin Mary. A rent-charge of £18. 10. has been awarded as a commutation for the tithes of the township. William Wordsworth, the gifted poet-laureate, has long resided here, in a delightful cottage upon a mount; the grounds around it have been laid out under his own tasteful direction, and command lovely prospects of the lake and other objects of interest in this attractive district.
RYDE, a market-town and chapelry, in the parish of Newchurch, liberty of East Medina, Isle of Wight division of the county of Southampton, 7 miles (E. N. E.) from Newport, 5 (S.) from Portsmouth across the Solent, and 77 (S. W.) from London; containing 5840 inhabitants. This place, anciently denominated La Rye, was a post for the sentinels who guarded this part of the island, and in the reign of Richard II. was burnt and laid waste by the French. It is situated on the shore of the Solent Water, opposite to Stokes bay and Portsmouth harbour, and commands a fine view of Spithead and the Motherbank, with a more distant prospect of Haslar hospital, and the town of Portsmouth. From an insignificant fishing-hamlet, it has within the last century assumed the appearance of a handsome and populous town. The original distinction of Upper and Lower Ryde is still preserved, the former comprising the more ancient houses of the old town, and the latter that part situated nearer the sea-shore; but the two districts are now united by buildings of recent date. The town is laid out with regularity, upon the slope of a hill rising from the sea, and its principal streets, of which the footways are well paved, are spacious, especially that called Union-street, which contains some very handsome shops. The private houses consist chiefly of large modern cottages, constructed of stone from quarries in the immediate neighbourhood; the smaller cottages are stuccoed, and roofed with slate: the greater number are let furnished during the season. The aspect of the town as approached from the water is remarkably picturesque, the different lines of dwellings, relieved with trees and shrubs, rising in tiers one above another. The facility and accommodation for bathing, the number of excellent hotels and boarding-houses, and the delightful walks and rides in its vicinity, render the town an extremely agreeable place of resort during the summer; and the assembly-rooms, an annual regatta, the libraries, and a small theatre, erected by the late Mr. Thornton, add to its attractions. The constant communication, by means of steam-boats, with Portsmouth and Southampton, and thence by railway with London, has of late years much favoured its growth and prosperity.
A pier was constructed in the year 1814, in accordance with the provisions of an act of parliament, at the expense of £12,000, raised in shares of £50 each; it was originally only 1740 feet in length, but in 1833 was extended to 2226 feet, and now forms an excellent promenade, having seats sheltered from the weather at intervals on both sides. Under the powers of an act passed in 1829, the town has been paved, lighted with gas from works erected by a company in 1839, and otherwise improved; and reservoirs for the supply of the town and of shipping with pure spring water, were formed by the Pier Company in 1840. Soles and lobsters are caught; and the herring-fishery affords employment to many of the poorer inhabitants. A handsome market-house and town-hall, situated in Lindstreet, and having a frontage to the south of 200 feet, was completed in 1831: the market, which is held on Tuesday and Friday, and is supplied with fish, fruit, vegetables, poultry, &c., is not, however, much resorted to, the shops in the town being numerous and respectable. The town-hall, an elegant room where the commissioners for improving the town hold their meetings, is over the corn-market, which occupies the centre of the building. The Royal Victoria Yacht Club-House was commenced in the early part of 1846, the first stone being laid by Prince Albert: the estimated cost of the building was £5000. A fair for pedlery takes place on July 6th.
The parochial church of Newchurch being inconveniently situated seven miles distant from the town of Ryde, Thomas Player, Esq., in the year 1719 erected a chapel here, and endowed it with a yearly stipend of £10, payable to the vicar of the parish for performing the duty. The population having greatly increased, George Player, Esq., built the present more commodious structure on the foundation of the old chapel, in 1827. It is dedicated to St. Thomas, and is a neat edifice in the early English style, with a well-proportioned tower rising to a considerable height and terminated by a light spire. A little to the west is St. James's episcopal chapel, formerly belonging to the Rev. R. Waldo Sibthorp, from whom it was purchased in 1841 by the Rev. Mr. Hewett. It was erected in the year 1827, by William Hughes Hughes, Esq., and is a handsome structure in the later English style, with a campanile turret over the western entrance; its internal decorations are elaborate, and at the east end is a fine window of stained glass. A district church dedicated to the Trinity has been erected, for the accommodation of the greatly increased and still increasing population: it was consecrated in Oct. 1845, cost £5000, and is in the early English style; the chancel windows are of rich painted glass, and the font is very handsome. The living is in the gift of the Vicar. There are places of worship for Independents and Wesleyans.
Rye (St. Mary)
RYE (St. Mary), a cinque-port, borough, market-town, and parish, having separate jurisdiction, and the head of a union, locally in the hundred of Gostrow, rape of Hastings, E. division of Sussex, 63 miles (S. E. by E.) from London; containing 4031 inhabitants. This place, which belonged originally to the monastery of Feschamp, in Normandy, was at an early date, together with Winchelsea, annexed to the cinque-ports of England, in the charters granted to which these two towns are invariably styled "ancient towns." In the reign of Edward III., Rye was surrounded by a strong wall with several gates, of which that called the Land Gate, the only one remaining, now forms a beautiful entrance to the town from the London and Dovor roads. It was also defended by a tower on the south, erected in the twelfth century by William of Ypres, a quadrangular structure with circular towers at the angles, and which is still tolerably perfect. An inundation of the sea having formed a natural harbour, which was subsequently much improved by a similar occurrence, the town began to flourish, and soon became so considerable a port, that it furnished nine ships of war towards the invasion of France in the reign of Edward III., and was the place where that monarch landed on his return from the continent. In the following reign it was burnt and plundered by the French, from which calamity and from others that it subsequently experienced, it suffered so much that King Henry VI., to indemnify the corporation for their losses, annexed it to Tenterden, which he separated from the county of Kent. Rye began from this time to revive, and was of considerable importance in the reign of Elizabeth, who, on a visit to the place, was entertained by the corporation with every demonstration of loyalty and affection, and who invested the inhabitants with several additional privileges, and a confirmation of all preceding charters.
The town is built upon a hill, the south and southwest sides of which are rocky and precipitous; and is sheltered on the north and west by hills of no great elevation, but which command a pleasing view. The river Rother skirts the town on the east, and flows into the sea about a mile and a half to the south; on the south-west is a channel that receives the streams of the Brede and Tillingham, and unites with the Rother. There are several regular and well-formed streets: the houses are in general indifferently built and of antique appearance; they command fine views of the Channel and the surrounding country, which abounds with interesting scenery. The town is well paved, lighted with gas, and supplied with water by pipes from a reservoir under Playden heights. An embankment has been constructed along the sides of the harbour; the marshes in the neighbourhood, formerly covered by the tide, have been drained, and a road formed to the sea-side. A literary and scientific institution was established in 1839, and assemblies are occasionally held in a handsome room at the George hotel.
The imports consist principally of Dutch cheese; timber from Norway and America; oil-cake, rapeseed, and rags for manure, from Hamburgh; and eggs, poultry, rape, and linseed-cake, from France. Rye is also a bonding-port for wine, which is imported from Boulogne. Several sloops are employed in bringing chalk from Beachy Head, for the purpose of being burnt into lime. Large quantities of wool are exported to France and Ostend; and hops, corn, timber, and bark, in large quantities, are shipped coastwise. Vessels not exceeding 200 tons' burthen can approach the quay. In a recent year, sixty-five vessels of the aggregate burthen of 2392 tons entered inwards, and twenty-six of 705 tons' aggregate burthen cleared outwards, in the foreign trade: the number of vessels in the coasting-trade that entered inwards was 291, aggregate burthen 16,933 tons; and the number that cleared outwards, 200, aggregate tonnage 10,555. Ship-building, for which there are three yards, is carried on to a great extent, the neighbourhood abounding with excellent oak; there are also three large breweries. An act was passed in 1845 for a railway from Hastings, by Rye, to Ashford; and in 1846 an act for a railway from the town to the mouth of the harbour; this branch to be a mile and three-quarters long. The market-days are Wednesday and Saturday, the former for corn, of which there is a good supply, and the latter for provisions of all kinds; a cattle-market is held every alternate Wednesday.
The borough has received various charters, of which the earliest that can be traced is that of Richard I., reciting and confirming some previous privileges; the last is that of Charles II. The corporation is now guided by the provisions of the Municipal Corporations' act, and consists of a mayor, recorder, four aldermen, and twelve councillors; the number of magistrates is four. The borough has exercised the elective franchise from the earliest period, and till 1832 regularly returned two barons to parliament, who assisted in supporting the royal canopy at coronations; it now sends one member, chosen by the £10 householders of a wide district, and the mayor is returning officer. The recorder holds courts of session and general gaol delivery for all offences not capital; petty-sessions occur under the borough justices every Monday and Thursday, and under the county magistrates every alternate Wednesday. The town-hall is a convenient building on pillars, in the centre of the town, and the sessions for the borough are held in it; the area is appropriated to the market. Ypres tower, to which a tower has been added, is now the borough gaol.
The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £42. 13. 4.; patron, T. C. Langford, Esq.; appropriator, the Bishop of Winchester: the great tithes have been commuted for £315, and the vicarial for £410. The church is a spacious cruciform structure, partly Norman and partly in the early English style, with a central tower, in which is a clock of peculiar mechanical construction, said to have been taken from the Spanish Armada, and given to the town by Queen Elizabeth. The east window is in the later English style, of large dimensions and of elegant design, and has been embellished with some stained glass at the expense of J. H. Lardner, Esq. There are places of worship for Baptists, Independents, and Wesleyans. A school was founded in 1644, by Thomas Peacock, who endowed it with a rent-charge of £36, the interest of £50, and a house; and in 1702, another school was established by James Saunders, who assigned to it estates now producing £100. 10. per annum. The poor-law union comprises 12 parishes or places, containing a population of 9804. A monastery of friars of the order of St. Augustine was founded a short time before the Dissolution; the principal remains have been converted into a storehouse. Samuel Jeakes, an eminent antiquary, and the author of the Charters of the Cinque Ports, was a native of Rye.
Rye-Hill, with Great Tosson
RYE-HILL, with Great Tosson, a township, in the parish and union of Rothbury, W. division of Coquetdale ward, N. division of Northumberland, 3 miles (W.) from Rothbury; containing 178 inhabitants. It is seated on an eminence overlooking the fertile haughs of the Coquet, and is situated one mile south of that river.
Ryehall (St. John the Evangelist)
RYEHALL (St. John the Evangelist), a parish, in the union of Stamford, hundred of East, county of Rutland, 2½ miles (N. by E.) from Stamford; containing, with the chapelry of Essendine, and the hamlet of Belmisthorpe, 830 inhabitants. The parish comprises about 2580 acres. The soil is various; the surface is partly hilly, and the lower grounds are watered by a rivulet which sometimes overflows. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £13. 17.; net income, £295; patron and impropriator, the Marquess of Exeter: the glebe comprises 164 acres. The church is chiefly in the later English style, with a tower and spire of earlier date; in the chancel are two sedilia of stone. There is a chapel of ease at Essendine.
RYHILL, a hamlet, in the parish and union of Epping, hundred of Waltham, though locally in the hundred of Harlow, S. division of the county of Essex, 2¾ miles (N. by W.) from the town of Epping; containing 116 inhabitants.
Ryhill, with Camerton
RYHILL, with Camerton, a township, in the parish of Burstwick, union of Patrington, S. division of the wapentake of Holderness, E. riding of York, 3 miles (S. E. by E.) from Hedon, on the road to Patrington; containing 286 inhabitants, of whom 247 are in Ryhill. The township comprises by computation 1500 acres. The tithes were commuted for land and a money payment, under an act of inclosure, in 1805. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans.
RYHILL, a township, in the parish of Wragby, wapentake of Staincross, W. riding of York, 7 miles (S. E.) from Wakefield; containing 170 inhabitants. The township is situated on rising ground, comprises about 600 acres, and contains a reservoir for the supply of the Barnsley canal which covers 75 acres. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans.
RYHOPE, a chapelry, in the parish of BishopWearmouth, union of Sunderland, N. division of Easington ward and of the county of Durham, 3 miles (S.) from Sunderland; containing 868 inhabitants, of whom 423 are in the township of Ryhope. The chapelry comprises the townships of Ryhope, Burdon, Silksworth, and Tunstal; the first contains 1570 acres of good arable and meadow land. The soil is generally of a light sandy nature, and very favourable for the production of rye, potatoes, and barley. The village, which is one of the pleasantest in the county, is situated on the verge of a fine tract of country, bordered by the ocean, and in the summer season is much frequented for the purpose of bathing. The road from Sunderland to Stockton passes through it, and the railway to Durham and Hartlepool skirts it on the south and east. The chapel was erected in 1826, chiefly through the exertions of the late Bishop Gray, then rector of Bishop-Wearmouth, and Captain Dale; it is a neat structure in the early English style, and cost nearly £700. The living is a perpetual curacy, in the patronage of the Rector, and endowed with the sum of £100 by Captain Dale, to which the Hon. and Rev. Dr. Wellesley, the present rector, has added £100 per annum. In 1834, a commodious house for the incumbent was erected by subscription, at a cost of about £600. The tithes of the township have been commuted for £210. 17. payable to the rector, £141. 2. to the impropriators, and £36. 16. to the head master of Kepier grammar school.
RYLE, GREAT, a township, in the parish of Whittingham, union of Rothbury, N. division of Coquetdale ward and of Northumberland, 9 miles (N. N. W.) from Rothbury; containing 67 inhabitants. It is situated about a mile north of the road from Whittingham to Alnham, and comprises 2021 acres, of which 1000 are common or waste land. The Aln, here a small stream, passes on the south of the hamlet.
RYLE, LITTLE, a township, in the parish of Whittingham, union of Rothbury, N. division of Coquetdale ward and of Northumberland, 8½ miles (W. by S.) from Alnwick; containing 42 inhabitants. This was the seat of the fourth son of Sir Daniel Collingwood, of Brandon, the descendant of Sir Cuthbert Collingwood, of Eslington, whose family were celebrated for their feats of border chivalry, and held considerable possessions in these parts. Alexander Collingwood, who resided at Little Ryle, was high sheriff of the county in 1725. The old Hall, which stood in a fine sheltered situation, has long been in ruins.
Ryme-Intrinsica (St. Hyppolite)
RYME-INTRINSICA (St. Hyppolite), a parish and liberty, in the union of Sherborne, Sherborne division of Dorset, 6¼ miles (S. W.) from Sherborne; containing 193 inhabitants. The parish comprises by measurement 1006 acres of land, principally in dairy-farms; the low grounds are watered by a rivulet named Ryme Brook. A market and a fair were granted in the 26th of Edward I., but both have been long disused. Within the liberty were anciently a royal mansion and park; the site of the former, which was standing in the reign of James I., is still called Court Hill, and commands a fine view. The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at £6. 5. 8., and in the patronage of the Crown, in right of the duchy of Cornwall: the tithes have been commuted for £170, and the glebe comprises 19 acres.
Ryston (St. Michael)
RYSTON (St. Michael), a parish, in the union of Downham, hundred of Clackclose, W. division of Norfolk, 1¾ mile (S. S. E.) from Downham; containing 40 inhabitants. It comprises 1199a. 38p., of which 666 acres are arable, 418 meadow and pasture, and 94 woodland. The living is a perpetual curacy, with that of Roxham annexed; net income, £80; patrons and appropriators, the Dean and Chapter of Norwich. The appropriate tithes of the two parishes have been commuted for £277, and the appropriate glebe comprises 22 acres. The church is chiefly in the decorated English style, and contains numerous monuments to the Pratt family, including one to Lady Pratt, whose figure, in a reclining posture, is beautifully sculptured in white marble; the tower is in ruins, and, covered with ivy, forms a romantic feature in the scenery of the grounds of Ryston Hall. Within the park is a remarkably fine oak-tree, under which Coniers, chaplain of the rebels led by Ket, is said to have preached, and where Dr. Parker, Archbishop of Canterbury, likewise preached to the rebel forces, at the imminent hazard of his life, exhorting them to lay down their arms and to return to their duty. It is called the Oak of Reformation.
Ryther (All Saints)
RYTHER (All Saints), a parish, partly in the Upper, but chiefly in the Lower, division of the wapentake of Barkstone-Ash, W. riding of York, 6½ miles (N. W. by N.) from Selby; containing, with the township of Lead-Hall, 354 inhabitants, of whom 300 are in the township of Ryther. The parish is bounded on the north by the river Wharfe, and comprises by measurement 2654 acres, of which 2082 are arable, 420 pasture, and 152 woodland. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £6. 11. 10½., and in the patronage of the Crown: the tithes have been commuted for £613. 14., and the glebe comprises 12 acres. The church is a neat structure, and contains several ancient monuments. There is a chapel of ease at Lead-Hall, about six miles distant; and in the village of Ryther is a place of worship for Wesleyans.
Ryton (Holy Cross)
RYTON (Holy Cross), a parish, in the union of Gateshead, E. division of Chester ward, N. division of the county of Durham; containing 2570 inhabitants, of whom 677 are in the township of Ryton, 6 miles (W.) from Gateshead. This place frequently suffered from the incursions of the Scots, particularly in 1297, when the village was reduced to ashes by Wallace, who at that time occupied Hexham. The parish comprises the townships of Ryton, Ryton-Woodside, Stella, and Crawcrook, and the village of Greenside, sometimes called Long Row, and formerly Cadger's Row; it contains 6530 acres, two-thirds arable, and the remainder pasture, with 10 acres of woodland. At Ryton-Woodside and Stella are coal-mines, the produce of which is chiefly shipped to London and to foreign markets; there are also quarries of limestone in the parish. The Newcastle and Carlisle railway runs between the Tyne and the village of Ryton. The village is highly picturesque, and contains several handsome mansions; the scenery around it embraces an extensive view of the vale of the Tyne to the east and west. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £42. 10. 10., and in the patronage of the Bishop of Durham, with a net income of £956, and a rectory-house. The tithes of Ryton township have been commuted for £246, and the glebe consists of 53 acres. The church is a structure of much interest, in the early English style, with a tower surmounted by a lofty octangular spire of curiously-constructed wood-work cased with lead. The interior is remarkable for its elegant arrangement and its decorations. A light and beautiful screen separates the nave and chancel; some ancient stalls remain, and over the communion-table are embellishments of richlycarved oak. Within the chancel is a recumbent figure of a mitred abbot; likewise some brasses to the memory of the Thorp family. It has been lately beautified with three lancet windows of stained glass, the gift of the present incumbent, the Venerable Archdeacon Thorp, warden of Durham University, to whom the parish is in many respects indebted. The churchyard is ornamented by a row of noble elms; and the church, from its commanding position and the height of its spire, forms a conspicuous object for a considerable distance. Ryton savings' bank was the first established in England.
RYTON, a parish, in the union of Shiffnall, Shiffnall division of the hundred of Brimstree, S. division of Salop, 4 miles (S. by E.) from Shiffnall; containing 195 inhabitants. The parish comprises 1398a. 14p., and is situated upon a tributary of the Severn. It had anciently a market, and an annual fair for four days, both of which have long been discontinued. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £5. 12. 1., and in the gift of the incumbent, the Rev. R. W. Eyton: the tithes have been commuted for £430, and the glebe comprises 48 acres. The church is a comparatively modern structure, with a tower in the later English style.
RYTON, a township, in the parish of Kirkby-Misperton, union of Malton, Pickering lythe, N. riding of York, 3 miles (N. by E.) from the town of Malton; containing 219 inhabitants. It is situated in the lower part of the vale of the Rye, and contains about 1600 acres of land, of a rich loamy kind. A small chapel of ease was built in 1839.
Ryton-upon-Dunsmoor (St. Leonard)
RYTON-upon-Dunsmoor (St. Leonard), a parish, in the union of Rugby, Rugby division of the hundred of Knightlow, N. division of the county of Warwick, 4½ miles (S. E.) from Coventry; containing 534 inhabitants. The parish is situated on the south side of the river Avon, and intersected by the road from Coventry to Daventry. It comprises 2057 acres. The living is a perpetual curacy, valued in the king's books at £11. 6. 8.; net income, £113; patron, the Prebendary of Ryton in the Cathedral of Lichfield. The tithes were commuted for an allotment of land, under an act of inclosure, in the year 1761. The church is partly in the early English style of architecture.
RYTON-WOODSIDE, a township, in the parish of Ryton, union of Gateshead, W. division of Chester ward, N. division of the county of Durham, 8¼ miles (W.) from Gateshead; containing 1059 inhabitants. This place was anciently the property of the Hedworths, since whose possession it has been held by the families of Jenison, Lambton, and Surtees. It is situated about a mile and a half to the south of the village of Ryton, the road from Hexham to Gateshead passing between the two places; and the Winlaton burn flows on the south. The tithes have been commuted for £322. 8. 9., and there is a glebe of about 110 acres. On May 30th, 1826, thirty-seven persons perished here in the Stargate coal-mine, by the explosion of fire-damp.